1: Fertil Steril. 2004 May;81(5):1441-1446. Endometriosis and infertility. The Practice Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Birmingham, Alabama, USA. Women with endometriosis typically present with pelvic pain, infertility or an adnexal mass. Surgery for persistent adnexal masses may be indicated to remove an endometrioma or other pelvic pathology. Surgical or medical ...
Bull Exp Biol Med. 2011 Nov;152(1):93-7. English, Russian.
Psychoimmune interactions in women of reproductive age with endometriosis.[Article in English, Russian]
Psychoimmune interactions were studied in women of reproductive age with endometriosis. Pronounced immunological shifts manifested in a shift of the T-cellular immunity, resulting in imbalanced production of pro- (IL-1β, IL-2, IFN-γ) and anti-inflammatory (IL-4) cytokines. Significant correlations between the severity of mental shifts and immunopathogenetic factors in the studied patient population demonstrated the psychoneuroimmune nature of endometriosis.
Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao. 2012 Jul;10(7):800-6. Chinese.
Effects of Chinese herbal medicine Neiyi Recipe-medicated serum on angiopoiesis of endometriosis in the chick chorioallantoic membrane model.
To compare angiopoiesis ability of eutopic and ectopic endometrial tissue isolated from women with endometriosis and endometrium isolated from women without endometriosis (control), and to explore the inhibitory effects of medicated serum of Neiyi Recipe, a compound traditional Chinese herbal medicine.
Chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model of endometriosis was established by transplanting endometrium onto CAM. The CAMs were then hatched with blank serum or medicated serum of danazol or Neiyi Recipe, which were prepared in rats by orally administering. The sizes of the transplanted tissue and new vessels around the transplanted tissue were measured. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was detected by immunohistochemical method.
There was no difference in the sizes of transplanted tissue among CAM models of ectopic and eutopic endometrial tissue isolated from women with endometriosis or control (P>0.05), and more new vessels were found around the ectopic and eutopic endometrial tissue than the endometrial tissue of control (P<0.05). Compared with the controls, the size of the transplanted tissue and positive area of new vessels were significantly inhibited by Neiyi Recipe-medicated serum (P<0.01, P<0.05), and similar changes happened in the danazol groups, except for the size of transplanted tissue from ectopic endometrial tissue (P>0.05). Expression of VEGF was significantly higher in eutopic and ectopic endometrial tissue than in the control (P<0.01); the level of VEGF obviously reduced in the Neiyi Recipe and danazol groups (P<0.01), but no significant difference was detected between them.
Endometrium from women with endometriosis stimulates the formation of new vessels by increase the expression of VEGF. Neiyi Recipe-medicated serum significantly decreases the expression of VEGF in eutopic and ectopic endometrial tissues and thus restrains the formation of new vessels, reduces the blood supply and inhibits growth of ectopic endometrial tissue, which are similar to danazol, but has greater efficacy in suppressing the expression of VEGF.
Int J Gen Med. 2012;5:569-71. doi: 10.2147/IJGM.S32904. Epub 2012 Jun 29.
Abdominal wall endometrioma mimicking an incarcerated hernia: a case report.
The case of a tender, isolated abdominal wall tumor within a Pfannenstiel incision due to a seeding deposit of endometrial tissue secondary to a previous obstetric operation (caesarean section) in a 39-year-old female without previously reported pelvic endometriosis is presented. The lesion clinically mimicked the appearance of an incarcerated incisional hernia at the outer corner of the healed Pfannenstiel incision. The preoperative differential diagnosis also included that of a locally forming post-operative tender granuloma and the remote possibility of an incisional endometrioma (although no link to menstruation could be made). Local malignancy was not taken as a serious possibility. Definitive diagnosis of the excised lesion was made at histology. The pre-operative diagnostic dilemma is presented, along with a short review of the literature.
Oncol Lett. 2012 Jul;4(1):3-9. Epub 2012 Apr 23.
Identification of multiple pathways involved in the malignant transformation of endometriosis (Review).
The association between endometriosis and malignant transformation has often been described in the medical literature. A search was conducted between 1966 and 2010 through the English language literature (online Medline PubMed database) using the keywords endometriosis combined with malignant transformation. The search revealed an increase in reports describing endometriosis and malignancy. Approximately 1.0% of women with endometriosis have lesions that undergo malignant transformation. The malignant processes that are associated with endometriosis may be classified into three groups: i) epithelial ovarian cancers (endometrioid adenocarcinoma and clear cell carcinoma), ii) other Müllerian-type tumors, including Müllerian-type mucinous borderline tumor and serous borderline tumor and iii) sarcomas such as adenosarcoma and endometrial stromal sarcoma in the female pelvic cavity. Persistent oxidative stress induced by endometriosis-dependent hemorrhage may be associated with carcinogenesis. In conclusion, the malignant transformation of endometriosis has multiple pathways of development and may share a common pathogenic mechanism; iron-induced oxidative stress derived from repeated hemorrhage.
Bull Exp Biol Med. 2012 May;153(1):109-13.
Pathomorphological analysis of internal endometriosis.
We performed clinical and morphological examination of 59 women with internal endometriosis(adenomyosis). Women were found to develop adenomyosis more frequently in the perimenopausal period (in their 40s) after repeated abortions and diagnostic surgical procedures. In 90% patients, adenomyosis was associated with the formation of multiple leyomyomatous nodules; glandular hyperplasia of the endometrium and fibrocystic transformation or fibrous degeneration of the ovaries were found in 60 and 100% cases. Two morphological variants of adenomyosis were identified: invasion of cytogenic stroma into the underlying myometrium with the formation of endometrial glands and invasion of cytogenic stroma via connective tissue interlayers without formation of endometrial glands and with pronounced neoangiogenesis. Foci of active adenomyosis in the uterus with predominance of cytogenic stroma were most prevalent in the late reproductive period. Endometrioid heterotopias were accompanied by considerable structural and functional reorganization of the myometrium with the formation of multiple leyomyomatous nodules. The presence of active and inactive adenomyosis foci and leyomyomatous nodules in uterus specimens reflects their metachronous development.
Am J Emerg Med. 2013 Jan;31(1):272.e1-3. doi: 10.1016/j.ajem.2012.05.008. Epub 2012 Jul 16.
Endometriosis presenting with hemorrhagic ascites, severe anemia, and shock.
Hemorrhagic ascites due to endometriosis is an exceedingly uncommon diagnosis rarely reported in the medical literature. We present a case of a 27-year-old woman who presented to the emergency department for flank and neck pain and was found to be hypotensive with massive hemorrhagic ascites and severe anemia. After emergency department resuscitation and hospitalization, her condition was found to be due to complications of endometriosis. A paracentesis of more than 4000 mL of bloody ascitic fluid revealed no evidence of cancer, and she was discharged on hospital day 3 with hormone therapy and no recurrence of symptoms upon outpatient follow-up. This case illustrates the clinical management, diagnostic approach, and underlying etiology of an infrequent but life-threatening complication of endometriosis.
Anaesth Intensive Care. 2012 Jul;40(4):614-21.
Anaesthesia for robotic gynaecological surgery.
Robotic surgery is gaining widespread popularity due to advantages such as reduced blood loss, reduced postoperative pain, shorter hospital stay and better visualisation of fine structures. Robots are being used in urological, cardiac, thoracic, orthopaedic, gynaecological and general surgery. Robotic surgery received US Food and Drug Administration approval for use in gynaecological surgery in 2005. The various gynaecological robotic operations being performed are myomectomy, total and supracervical hysterectomy, ovarian cystectomy, sacral colpopexy, tubal reanastomosis, lymph node dissection, surgery of retroperitoneal ectopic pregnancy, Moskowitz procedure and endometriosis surgery. The anaesthetic considerations include difficult access to the patient intraoperatively, steep Trendelenburg position, long surgical duration and the impact of pneumoperitoneum. We highlight the complications encountered in these surgeries and methods to prevent these complications. Robotic gynaecological surgery can be safely performed after considering the physiological effects of the steep Trendelenburg position and of pneumoperitoneum. The benefits of the surgical procedure should be weighed against the risks in patients with underlying cardiorespiratory problems.
Urol Int. 2012;89(3):249-58. doi: 10.1159/000339519. Epub 2012 Jul 20. Review.
Diagnosis and treatment of bladder endometriosis: state of the art.
The bladder is the most common affected site in urinary tract endometriosis, being diagnosed during gynecologic follow-up. The surgical urological treatment might lead to good results.
To define the state of the art in the diagnosis and treatment of bladder endometriosis.
We performed a literature review by searching the MEDLINE database for articles published between 1996 and 2011, limiting the searches to the words: urinary tract endometriosis, bladderendometriosis, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment.
Deep pelvic endometriosis usually involves the urinary system, with the bladder being affected in 85% of cases. The diagnosis has to be considered as a step-by-step procedure. Currently, the treatment is usually surgical, consisting of either transurethral resection or partial cystectomy, and eventually associated with hormonal therapy. The hormonal therapy alone counteracts only the stimulus of endometriotic tissue proliferation, with no effects on the scarring caused by this tissue. The overall recurrence rate is about 30% for combined therapies and about 35% for the hormonal treatment alone.
The bladder is the most common affected site in urinary tract endometriosis. Most of the time, this condition is diagnosed because of the complaint of urinary symptoms during gynecologic follow-up procedures for a deep pelvic endometriosis: a close collaboration between the gynecologist and the urologist is advisable, especially in highly specialized centers. The surgical urological treatment might lead to good results in terms of patients’ compliance and prognosis.
Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 2012 Oct;24(5):288-92. doi: 10.1097/GCO.0b013e3283577e87. Review.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW:
This review will address the recent literature regarding adolescent endometriosis.
An increasing body of literature suggests that there are symptoms of endometriosispresent in adolescents. In addition, those teens with a history of dysmenorrhea severe enough to disrupt quality of life are more likely to be diagnosed with endometriosis.
The issues of endometriosis progression and early diagnosis remain key issues for the adolescent.
PLoS One. 2012;7(7):e40668. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0040668. Epub 2012 Jul 17.
Mitochondrial genome variations in advanced stage endometriosis: a study in South Indian population.
Endometriosis is a chronic gynecological benign disease that shares several features similar to malignancy. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations have been reported in all most all types of tumors. However, it is not known as to whether mtDNA mutations are associated with endometriosis.
We sequenced the entire mitochondrial genome of analogous ectopic and eutopic endometrial tissues along with blood samples from 32 advanced stage endometriosis patients to analyze the role of somatic and germ-line mtDNA variations in pathogenesis of endometriosis. All ectopic tissues were screened for tumor-specific mtDNA deletions and microsatellite instability (MSI). We also performed mtDNA haplogrouping in 128 patients and 90 controls to identify its possible association with endometriosisrisk.
We identified 51 somatic (novel: 31; reported: 20) and 583 germ-line mtDNA variations (novel: 53; reported: 530) in endometriosis patients. The A13603G, a novel missense mutation which leads to a substitution from serine to glycine at the codon 423 of ND5 gene showed 100% incidence in ectopic tissues. Interestingly, eutopic endometrium and peripheral leukocytes of all the patients showed heteroplasmy (A/G; 40-80%) at this locus, while their ectopic endometrium showed homoplasmic mutant allele (G/G). Superimposition of native and mutant structures of ND5 generated by homology modeling revealed no structural differences. Tumor-specific deletions and MSI were not observed in any of the ectopic tissues. Haplogrouping analysis showed a significant association between haplogroup M5 and endometriosis risk (P: 0.00069) after bonferroni correction.
Our findings substantiate the rationale for exploring the mitochondrial genome as a biomarker for the diagnosis of endometriosis.
Am J Reprod Immunol. 2012 Oct;68(4):301-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0897.2012.01173.x. Epub 2012 Jul 23.
CD4(+) CD25(high) Foxp3(+) cells increased in the peritoneal fluid of patients with endometriosis.
To evaluate CD4(+) CD25(high) Foxp3(+) cells and IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, and TGF-β in the peritoneal fluid of women with endometriosis.
METHOD OF STUDY:
A total of ninety-eight patients were studied: endometriosis (n = 70) and control (n = 28). First, peritoneal fluid lymphocytes were isolated, and CD4(+) CD25(high) cells were identified using flow cytometry. Then, RT-PCR was performed to verify Foxp3 expression in these cells. Also, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, and TGF-β concentration was determined.
Of all the lymphocytes in the peritoneal fluid of women with endometriosis, 36.5% (median) were CD4(+) CD25(high) compared to only 1.15% (median) in the control group (P < 0.001). Foxp3 expression was similarly elevated in patients with the disease compared to those without (median, 50 versus 5; P < 0.001). IL-6 and TGF-β were higher in endometriosis group (IL-6: 327.5 pg/mL versus 195.5 pg/mL; TGF-β: 340 pg/mL versus 171.5 pg/mL; both P < 0.001). IL-10 and IL-17 showed no significant differences between the two groups.
The peritoneal fluid of patients with endometriosis had a higher percentage of CD4(+) CD25(high) Foxp3(+) cells and also higher levels of IL-6 and TGF-β compared to women without the disease. These findings suggest that CD4(+) CD25(high) Foxp3(+) cells may play a role in the pathogenesis of endometriosis.
Fertil Steril. 2012 Sep;98(3):511-9. doi: 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2012.06.029. Epub 2012 Jul 20. Review.
Pathogenesis and pathophysiology of endometriosis.
Originally described over three hundred years ago, endometriosis is classically defined by the presence of endometrial glands and stroma in extrauterine locations. Endometriosis is an inflammatory, estrogen-dependent condition associated with pelvic pain and infertility. This work reviews the disease process from theories regarding origin to the molecular basis for disease sequelae. A thorough understanding of the histopathogenesis and pathophysiology of endometriosis is essential to the development of novel diagnostic and treatment approaches for this debilitating condition.
Copyright © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. All rights reserved.
Fertil Steril. 2012 Oct;98(4):942-7. doi: 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2012.06.039. Epub 2012 Jul 20.
What is endosalpingiosis?
To describe the demographics and clinical presentation of endosalpingiosis. To compare endosalpingiosis with endometriosis, particularly in regards to infertility and chronic pelvic pain.
We included women with a histologic diagnosis of endosalpingiosis, a second group with a histologic diagnosis of endometriosis, and a final group who had neither endosalpingiosis nor endometriosis, with histology reports after undergoing gynecologic surgery.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S):
Infertility and chronic pelvic pain.
We found that 34.5% of endosalpingiosis cases had concurrent endometriosis; 40% of the endosalpingiosis group were postmenopausal. Endometriosis was significantly associated with infertility (odds ratio [OR] 3.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4-8.5) and chronic pelvic pain (OR 3.0, 95% CI 1.7-5.5). In contrast, there was no significant link between endosalpingiosis and infertility (OR 1.6, 95% CI 0.7-3.7) nor chronic pelvic pain (OR 0.8, 95% CI 0.5-1.5). Gynecologic malignancy occurred significantly more in premenopausal women with endosalpingiosis than in those without (OR 10.3, 95% CI 3.6-29.8).
Endosalpingiosis appears to affect postmenopausal women at a rate much higher than previously reported. Endosalpingiosis and endometriosis occur concurrently in 34% of endosalpingiosis cases; however, the two diseases have different clinical presentations. This demonstrates that endosalpingiosis is not a variant of endometriosis.
Fertil Steril. 2012 Sep;98(3):572-9. doi: 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2012.06.044. Epub 2012 Jul 21. Review.
The pathophysiology of uterine adenomyosis: an update.
The diagnosis of adenomyosis using noninvasive techniques such as vaginal ultrasounds and magnetic resonance has clear clinical applications and has renewed the interest in the pathogenesis of uterine adenomyosis. However, the research remains hampered by the lack of consensus on the classification of lesions. Magnetic resonance imaging and transvaginal ultrasound have comparable diagnostic accuracy. Minimal interventional biopsy techniques have recently been introduced. This article reviews human and animal studies and provides an update on the pathophysiology of adenomyosis. Recent views on the pathogenesis and links with endometriosis are discussed.
J Reprod Immunol. 2012 Sep;95(1-2):80-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jri.2012.06.001. Epub 2012 Jul 20.
Ovarian endometrioma but not deep infiltrating endometriosis is associated with increased serum levels of interleukin-8 and interleukin-6.
Cytokines, and specifically interleukin 6 (IL-6) and interleukin 8 (IL-8), have been associated with the pathogenesis of endometriosis. We studied serum concentrations of IL-6 and IL-8 in patients with deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE) or ovarian endometriomas (OE), but no other forms of associated endometriosis disease type. We carried out a case-control study including 19 patients with OE alone (OE group), 14 patients with DIE alone (DIE group) and 24 healthy patients without endometriosis (C group). Serum concentrations of IL-6 and IL-8 were measured in the three groups of patients. Serum levels of both IL-6 and IL-8 were significantly higher in the OE group. A high positive correlation was found between serum IL-6 and IL-8 levels in the OE group but not in the DIE and C groups. Serum IL-8 alone achieved the highest predictive value of the presence of OE (adjusted OR: 1.44; sensitivity: 78.2%; specificity: 76.2%). The combination of IL-6 and IL-8 levels did not significantly improve the discrimination between subjects with OE and those with DIE over that of IL-8. OE but not DIE are associated with increased serum levels of IL-6 and IL-8, and thus these may become useful tools for discriminating OE alone from DIE.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2012 Nov;165(1):104-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ejogrb.2012.06.034. Epub 2012 Jul 21.
Decreased expression of pigment epithelium-derived factor and increased microvascular density in ovarian endometriotic lesions in women with endometriosis.
To determine whether women with endometriosis have altered expression of pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) in ovarian endometriotic lesions as compared to women without endometriosis.
Ectopic and eutopic and normal endometrial tissues were sampled from 40 women with ovarian endometriosis and 20 control women, respectively. Endometrial PEDF expression and microvascular density (MVD) using an antibody to von Willebrand factor (vWF) and alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) were evaluated by using immunohistochemical staining.
We detected decreased PEDF expression and increased MVD using anti-vWF and -α-SMA in ovarian endometriotic lesions in women with endometriosis compared with the control group. In women with endometriosis, the MVD using anti-vWF and -α-SMA but not PEDF expression in ovarian endometriotic lesions correlated with the size of ovarian endometriotic cysts and the severity of the disease. Moreover, the MVD using anti-vWF was negatively correlated with PEDF expression in control endometrium but not in ovarian endometriotic lesions.
Our results suggest that decreased PEDF expression and increased MVD in ovarian endometriotic lesions might play an important role in the pathogenesis of ovarian endometriosis.
Int J Surg Pathol. 2013 Apr;21(2):186-9. doi: 10.1177/1066896912453852. Epub 2012 Jul 20.
Müllerian adenosarcoma arising in a subserosal adenomyoma.
Müllerian adenosarcomas most commonly arise in the uterine corpus from the eutopic endometrium. Occasionally, they arise in the cervix, vagina, broad and round ligaments, and ovaries and rarely in extragenital sites, usually in association with endometriosis. The authors report a rare case of extraendometrial, intramural adenosarcoma of low grade arising from a subserosal adenomyoma in a 46-year-old woman who presented with vaginal bleeding. No evidence of eutopic endometrial origin was identified; the adenosarcoma showed only limited myometrial invasion and no serosal involvement. Because of its subserosal location, the tumor would be overstaged as IC (deeply myoinvasive) in the new FIGO staging system. Stage IC tumors would normally be considered for adjuvant treatment, which would be inappropriate in this case. To avoid overstaging and inappropriate treatment, it is important to recognize that adenosarcoma can, rarely, arise in adenomyomas (or adenomyosis).
Contemp Clin Trials. 2012 Nov;33(6):1206-10. doi: 10.1016/j.cct.2012.07.009. Epub 2012 Jul 20.
Comparative study on the pregnancy outcomes of in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer between long-acting gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist combined with transvaginal ultrasound-guided cyst aspiration and long-acting gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist alone.
To retrospectively analyze the effects of long-acting gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH-a) combined with transvaginal ultrasound-guided cyst aspiration on the pregnancy outcomes of in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) in the infertile patients with ovarian endometriosis.
The 134 patients with ovarian endometriosis who underwent GnRH-a combined with transvaginal ultrasound-guided cyst aspiration and IVF-ET were served as experimental group. The 102 patients with ovarian endometriosis who underwent GnRH-a and IVF-ET were served as control group. After treatment, the cyst size, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol (E2), number of ovum pick-up, fertility rate, cleavage rate, high-quality embryo rate, implantation rate, clinical pregnancy rate and abortion rate were compared between the two groups.
In the 134 patients of experimental group, 138 cysts disappeared after GnRH-a combined with three times of transvaginal ultrasound-guided cyst aspiration. In the 102 patients of control group, of the 114 cysts, 34 disappeared after GnRH-a, 67 were decreased and 13 were unchanged. The abortion rate was significantly lower in experimental group than in control group. The level of serum E2 on HCG day, the number of ovarian follicles with 14 mm or more, the number of retrieved oocytes, high-quality embryo rate, implantation rate and clinical pregnancy rate were higher in experimental group than in control group (all P<0.05).
GnRH-a combined with transvaginal ultrasound-guided cyst aspiration can obtain better therapeutic effects and pregnancy outcomes in infertile patients with ovarian endometriosis who underwent IVF-ET.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 2012 Jun;32(7):995-9. Chinese.
Effect of lentiviral vector-mediated short hairpin RNA targeting survivin against endometriosis-like lesions in chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane.
To investigate the inhibitory effect of lentiviral vector-mediated short hairpin RNA targeting survivin (LV-survivin shRNA) on angiogenesis and growth of endometriosis-like lesions in chick en embryo chorioallantoic membrane.
Eutopic endometrium from women with endometriosis was transplanted onto the non-vascular region of (CAM), where LV-survivin shRNA was delivered subsequently. The angiogenesis and the growth of endometriosis-like lesions in the CAM model were evaluated.
The angiogenesis and formation of endometriosis-like lesions were significantly suppressed in the CAM model by treatment with LV-survivin shRNA in comparison with those in the untreated CAM models and models treated with empty LV or DMEM (P<0.001). LV-survivin shRNA also caused a significantly higher cell apoptotic rate in the endometriosis-like lesions than the other treatments (P<0.001) and induced necrosis in the lesions.
LV-survivin shRNA can effectively inhibit angiogenesis induced by the eutopic endometrium and markedly suppress the formation of endometriosis-like lesions in the CAM model.
Hum Reprod. 2012 Nov;27(11):3294-303. doi: 10.1093/humrep/des274. Epub 2012 Jul 20.
In women with endometriosis anti-Müllerian hormone levels are decreased only in those with previous endometrioma surgery.
Are anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels lower in women with endometriosis, notably those with endometriomas (OMAs) and deep infiltrating lesions, compared with controls without endometriosis?
Endometriosis and OMAs per se do not result in lower AMH levels. AMH levels are decreased in women with previous OMA surgery independently of the presence of current OMAs.
WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY:
The impact of endometriosis and OMAs per se on the ovarian reserve is controversial. Most previous studies have been conducted in infertile women. The strength of our study lies in the following points: (i) the selection of women undergoing surgery and not only according to the presence of infertility, (ii) the classification of women with endometriosis and controls based on strict surgical and histological criteria.
STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION:
Cross-sectional study using data prospectively collected in all non-pregnant <42-year-old patients, who were surgically explored for a benign gynaecological condition at a university tertiary referral centre between 2004 and 2008. For each patient, a structured questionnaire was completed during a face-to-face interview conducted by the surgeon during the month preceding surgery. AMH levels were measured in serum samples drawn in the month preceding surgery, without regard to menstrual phase or hormonal therapy.
PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS:
Operations were done on 1262 women between 2004 and 2008, of which 1133 signed the informed consent. Of the 566 women with a visual diagnosis of endometriosis, 411 had histologically proven endometriosis. Frozen serum samples for the AMH measurement were available in 313 of them. Out of the 554 women without visual endometriosis and without past endometriosis surgery, 413 had a frozen serum sample for the AMH measurement. Univariate analysis examined AMH levels according to baseline patient characteristics, the presence and type of endometriosis (superficial lesion, OMA, deep infiltrating lesion) and previous OMA surgery. Analysis of variance-covariance then examined the effects of co-variables on AMH levels. Finally, logistic regressions were conducted to examine the odds ratio (OR) of having AMH levels <1 ng/ml according to the same co-variables.
MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE:
The difference in AMH levels between women with endometriosis and controls did not reach significance (3.6 ± 3.1 versus 4.1 ± 3.4 ng/ml, P = 0.06). Analysis of variance-covariance demonstrated that AMH levels significantly decreased with age (P < 0.001) and in women with prior OMA surgery irrespective of whether OMAs were present or not at the time of study (P < 0.05). Logistic regression revealed that two major factors were related to AMH levels <1 ng/ml: (i) age (compared with <29 years; 30-34 years OR = 3.1, 95% CI: 1.5-6.4, P = 0.01; 35-39 years OR = 7.0, 95% CI: 3.5-14.1, P = 0.001; ≥40 years OR = 20.8, 95% CI: 9.1-47.4, P = 0.001) and (ii) prior OMA surgery (OR = 3.0, 95% CI: 1.4-6.41, P = 0.01).
LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION:
The selection of our study population was based on a surgical diagnosis. Women with an asymptomatic form of endometriosis are therefore not included in our study. We cannot exclude that infertile women with OMAs associated with a diminished ovarian reserve, as assessed during their infertility work-up, were less likely to be referred for surgery and might therefore be underrepresented.
WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS:
Our findings suggest that OMAs per se do not diminish the ovarian reserve reflected by AMH levels but that alterations seen in women with endometriosis are a deleterious consequence of OMA surgery. These findings should be taken into account in the decision to operate OMAs in women with a desire for future pregnancy.
Mol Cell Proteomics. 2012 Oct;11(10):1024-35. Epub 2012 Jul 20.
Proteomic analysis of menstrual blood.
Menstruation is the expulsion of the endometrial lining of the uterus following a nearly month long preparation for embryo implantation and pregnancy. Increasingly, the health of the endometrium is being recognized as a critical factor in female fertility, and proteomes and transcriptomes from endometrial biopsies at different stages of the menstrual cycle have been studied for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes (1 Kao, L. C., et al. 2003 Endocrinology 144, 2870-2881; Strowitzki, Tet al. 2006 Hum. Reprod. Update 12, 617-630; DeSouza, L., et al. 2005 Proteomics 5, 270-281). Disorders of the uterus ranging from benign to malignant tumors, as well as endometriosis, can cause abnormal menstrual bleeding and are frequently diagnosed through endometrial biopsy (Strowitzki, Tet al. 2006 Hum. Reprod. Update 12, 617-630; Ferenczy, A. 2003 Maturitas 45, 1-14). Yet the proteome of menstrual blood, an easily available noninvasive source of endometrial tissue, has yet to be examined for possible causes or diagnoses of infertility or endometrial pathology. This study employed five different methods to define the menstrual blood proteome. A total of 1061 proteins were identified, 361 were found by at least two methods and 678 were identified by at least two peptides. When the menstrual blood proteome was compared with those of circulating blood (1774 proteins) and vaginal fluid (823 proteins), 385 proteins were found unique to menstrual blood. Gene ontology analysis and evaluation of these specific menstrual blood proteins identified pathways consistent with the processes of the normal endometrial cycle. Several of the proteins unique to menstrual blood suggest that extramedullary uterine hematopoiesis or parenchymal hemoglobin synthesis may be occurring in late endometrial tissue. The establishment of a normal menstrual blood proteome is necessary for the evaluation of its usefulness as a diagnostic tool for infertility and uterine pathologies. Identification of unique menstrual blood proteins should aid the forensic community in distinguishing menstrual blood from circulating blood.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2012 Dec;165(2):275-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ejogrb.2012.07.002. Epub 2012 Jul 22.
Laparoscopic surgery for severe ureteric endometriosis.
To describe the outcomes of laparoscopic surgery for severe ureteric endometriosis.
Retrospective descriptive study of the clinical and surgical outcomes for patients who underwent laparoscopic surgery for severe ureterohydronephrosis due to endometriosis. The surgery consisted of laparoscopic ureterolysis, ureteric end-to-end anastomosis and ureteral stenting at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Strasbourg Hospitals, between June 2004 and June 2009. Data were collected from patients’ notes and also included telephone interview. Normally distributed data are presented as mean ± SD, and skewed data as median (range). Categoric variables are reported as absolute values and percentages. Continuous variables are compared using the paired samples t-test. Statistical significance was set at P<0.05.
Thirteen patients had severe disease. Two patients had non-functioning kidneys. Left sided lesions were more common (76.9%). All patients had associated deep infiltrative endometriosis (DIE) elsewhere in the pelvis. Laparoscopic treatment was feasible in all cases without the need to convert. Ureterolysis was performed in seven patients (53.8%) and segmental resection with end-to-end anastomosis in six (46.2%) patients. Ureteric wall endometriotic infiltration was present in four cases (30.8%). Median follow up duration was 24 months. All patients had improvement of their pain symptoms. There were no intraoperative complications. Major postoperative complications were seen in three patients (23%).
Ureteric involvement is usually asymptomatic, and therefore in patients with evidence of deep endometriosis it must be excluded by ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging. Laparoscopic treatment of ureteric endometriosis is feasible. Intrinsic ureteric endometriosis is quite frequent in severe ureterohydronephrosis. Complete excision of the disease is essential to improve pain symptomatology and to prevent recurrence of disease. Long term follow up is required to exclude any stenosis.
Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2012 Dec;286(6):1571-5. doi: 10.1007/s00404-012-2473-5. Epub 2012 Jul 24.
Endometriosis in menopause: a single institution experience.
This study aims to present the clinical characteristics of a series of postmenopausal women with endometriosis and to evaluate the preferential location, extension and histopathological features of the lesions.
We retrospectively examined the clinical records of 72 postmenopausal women with endometriosis who underwent surgery between January 1998 and December 2010.
The median age of patients at the time of surgery was 58.5 years. Eleven patients (15.3%) had previous history of endometriosis and five patients had previously undergone surgery for this reason. Only two patients included in the study were using hormone replacement therapy at the time of surgery. The most frequent location of endometriotic lesions was the ovary and among patients with endometriomas, 35% (20/57) had different grades of metaplasia, hyperplasia, atypia and endometrioid carcinoma arising in endometriosis. The proportions of epithelium, stroma and hemorrhage in endometriotic lesions were higher in patients with concomitant endometrial or ovarian cancer.
Endometriosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of postmenopausal cystic lesions of the ovary. The administration of exogenous estrogen is not a prerequisite for the presence of endometriosis in postmenopausal women, and histological signs of functionally active lesions were also observed in the absence of exogenous hormone intake.
Ginecol Obstet Mex. 2012 Jun;80(6):409-16. Review. Spanish.
Robotics in gynecology. Background, feasibility and applicability.[Article in Spanish]
Robotic surgery is a technology that emerged from the fusion and improvement of laparoscopy, robotics and telepresence. All these three technologies underwent a long experimentation process in which several applications and innovations were tested until the only system approved for use in humans was developed: the Da Vinci system by Intuitive Surgical Inc. Gynecology, being one of the pioneer branches of Medicine involved in the development of laparoscopy, is one of the fields with the greatest possibilities for robotics, which offers great diversity of applications in hysterectomies, myomectomies, endometriosis, and in the fields of urogynecology and, most importantly, oncology. There are no publications in Mexico with a proper description of the clinical experience with gynecologic robotic surgery, though a great amount of clinical experience has been accumulated in institutions that already have such equipment. A serious evaluation of the cost-benefit ratio is required because of the high cost of this technology.
Evaluate and analyze the accumulated experience on this technology of foreign institutions in order to assess the benefits, cost and effectiveness of robotic surgery.
The key to the optimal use of robotic technology is to diminish costs and speed the learning curve, and this implies the entry of other systems into the market as well as institutions with a high volume of patients and determined to invest in a highly trained and skilled surgical team. In order to recommend its implementation in our country an assessment of the efficiency and advantages of robotic technology considering institutional needs is mandatory.
J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2012 Oct;25(5):295-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jpag.2012.03.002. Epub 2012 Jul 24.
Adolescent endometriosis in China: a retrospective analysis of 63 cases.
To investigate the clinical presentations, diagnosis, treatment modalities and prognosis of endometriosis in adolescents in China.
Data were collected from records of the Peking Union Medical College Hospital from 1992-2010.
This study consisted of 63 patients ≤20 years old with surgically diagnosed endometriosis. Their clinical presentations, auxiliary examinations, surgical outcomes, and post-operative medical treatments were analyzed. The follow-up information of 35 cases was collected.
Mean age at diagnosis was 18.41 ± 1.84 years with a much earlier disease onset in adolescents with genital tract malformations. Of the 35 patients with follow-up time that ranged from 12-98 months, nine in 15 patients who didn’t proceed with medical treatment after operation had a recurence (9/15), seven in 15 patients who took oral contraceptive pills (OCP) or progestin only pills had reoccurrence recurred (7/15), and none of the five patients received gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) therapy recurred (0/5). In this study, multiple sites lesions was defined as more than one site being involved of the following four sites: the left ovary, the right ovary, the rectovaginal pouch and the uterosacral ligament. Among the 15 cases without postoperative medical therapy, all five cases with multiple sites lesions had recurrence (5/5), while only four of the other 10 cases had relapse (4/10). The difference was of statistical significance (Fisher exact test, P = 0.044).
Multiple sites lesions found in operation was a risk factor of recurrence. GnRHa was effective to prevent the recurrence.
Clin Radiol. 2013 Jan;68(1):47-54. doi: 10.1016/j.crad.2012.05.014. Epub 2012 Jul 24.
Comparison of 3D and 2D FSE T2-weighted MRI in the diagnosis of deep pelvic endometriosis: preliminary results.
To evaluate image quality and diagnostic accuracy of two- (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the evaluation of deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE).
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
One hundred and ten consecutive patients with suspicion of endometriosiswere recruited at two institutions over a 5-month period. Twenty-three women underwent surgery, 18 had DIE at histology. Two readers independently evaluated 3D and 2D MRI for image quality and diagnosis of DIE. Descriptive analysis, chi-square test for categorical or nominal variables, McNemar test for comparison between 3D and 2D T2-weighted MRI, and weighted “statistics” for intra- and interobserver agreement were used for statistical analysis.
Both readers found that 3D yielded significantly lower image quality than 2D MRI (p < 0.0001). Acquisition time for 3D was significantly shorter than 2D MRI (p < 0.01). 3D offered similar accuracy to diagnose DIE compared to 2D MRI. For all locations of endometriosis, a high or variable intra-observer agreement was observed for reader 1 and 2, respectively.
Despite a lower overall image quality, 3D provides significant time saving and similar accuracy than multiplanar 2D MRI in the diagnosis of specific DIE locations.
Neurochem Res. 2012 Oct;37(10):2190-7. doi: 10.1007/s11064-012-0842-x. Epub 2012 Jul 26.
Leuprolide acetate, a GnRH agonist, improves experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis: a possible therapy for multiple sclerosis.
Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH), a well known hypothalamic neuropeptide, has been reported to possess neurotrophic properties. Leuprolide acetate, a synthetic analogue of GnRH is considered to be a very safe and tolerable drug and it has been used for diverse clinical applications, including the treatment of prostate cancer, endometriosis, uterine fibroids, central precocious puberty and in vitro fertilization techniques. The present study was designed to determine whether Leuprolide acetate administration, exerts neurotrophic effects on clinical signs, body weight gain, neurofilaments (NFs) and myelin basic protein (MBP) expression, axonal morphometry and cell infiltration in spinal cord of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) rats. In this work, we have found that Leuprolide acetate treatment decreases the severity of clinical signs of locomotion, induces a significantly greater body weight gain, increases the MBP and NFs expression, axonal area and cell infiltration in EAE animals. These results suggest the use of this agonist as a potential therapeutic approach for multiple sclerosis.
Gynecol Endocrinol. 2013 Feb;29(2):113-5. doi: 10.3109/09513590.2012.706669. Epub 2012 Jul 26.
Increased risk of placenta previa is associated with endometriosis and tubal factor infertility in assisted reproductive technology pregnancy.
Although assisted reproductive technology (ART) is suspected to increase the risk of placenta previa, a life-threatening complication of pregnancy, the reason is poorly understood. We recruited consecutive 318 pregnancies conceived by ART in our clinic and examined relation of ten variables, i.e. maternal age, gravidity, parity, male or female fetus, previous abortion, previous cesarean delivery, endometriosis, ovulatory disorder, tubal disease, and male infertility, to placenta previa, by logistic regression analysis. As a result, we found that endometriosis (odds ratio = 15.1; 95% CI = 7.6-500.0) and tubal disease (odds ratio = 4.4; 95% CI = 1.1-26.3) were significantly associated with placenta previa. It would be preferable to take the increased risk of placenta previa into account in treating ART pregnancy with endometriosis and tubal disease.
Gynecol Endocrinol. 2013 Jan;29(1):36-41. doi: 10.3109/09513590.2012.705391. Epub 2012 Jul 27. Review.
Infertility and pregnancy loss in euthyroid women with thyroid autoimmunity.
Thyroid autoimmunity is the most prevalent autoimmune state that affects up to 5-20% of women during the age of fertility. Prevalence of thyroid autoimmunity is significantly higher among infertile women, especially when the cause of infertility is endometriosis or polycystic ovary syndrome. Presence of thyroid autoimmunity does not interfere with normal embryo implantation and have been observed comparable pregnancy rates after assisted reproduction techniques in patients with or without thyroid autoimmunity. Instead, the risk of early miscarriage is substantially raised with the presence of thyroid autoimmunity, even if there was a condition of euthyroidism before pregnancy. Furthermore the controlled ovarian hyperstimulation, used as preparation for assisted reproduction techniques, can severely impair thyroid function increasing circulating estrogen levels. Systematic screening for thyroid disorders in women with a female cause of infertility is controversial but might be important to detect thyroid autoimmunity before to use assisted reproduction techniques and to follow-up these parameters in these patients after controlled ovarian hyperstimulation and during pregnancy.
Magn Reson Imaging. 2012 Dec;30(10):1432-8. doi: 10.1016/j.mri.2012.05.006. Epub 2012 Jul 24.
Beyond laparoscopy: 3-T magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of posterior cul-de-sac obliteration.
Endometriosis is the ectopic localization of endometrial glands. Symptoms include a wide variety of chronic pelvic pain. Ovarian endometriosis represents the most frequent site of implantation followed by the Douglas pouch which is undepicted unless peritoneal fluid is present. Pelvic exams may be reported as normal in 40% of evaluations, although multiple nodularities are located in this region. Nowadays, laparoscopy represents the standard technique for endometriosis evaluation. However, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) remains the best noninvasive technique for the evaluation of pelvic lesions. According to the importance of a precise preoperative diagnosis of deep infiltrative endometriosisinvolving the Douglas pouch, we evaluated feasibility of a 3-T system in the evaluation of this particular region.
We enrolled 19 women coming with either ultrasound or anamnestic suspicion of endometriosis. Pelvic MRI examination was performed on the 3-T system. We applied a standard exam protocol including pulse sequences [single-shot fast spin echo (FSE)] and high-resolution T2W and T1W FSE sequences with and without FS.
MRI diagnosed posterior cul-de-sac obliteration in 15/19 patients. MRI findings were compared with laparoscopy, thus obtaining the following statistical values: mean sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value, respectively, of 93%, 75%, 93% and 75%. Moreover, we calculated an interobserver agreement k value of 0.72 with a substantial degree of agreement between two radiologists of a sensitivity value of 93% and specificity value of 75%.
Precise preoperative mapping of posterior cul-de-sac region is essential for a preoperative planning. In our work, the 3-T MRI was shown to be excellent in the evaluation of posterior cul-de-sac obliteration associated to an optimal evaluation of the uterosacral ligaments due to the higher contrast spatial resolution.
J Surg Res. 2012 Dec;178(2):539-44. doi: 10.1016/j.jss.2012.07.006. Epub 2012 Jul 20.
Real-time infrared thermography for ureter detection during hysterectomy.
Recognition of different anatomic structures might be difficult in the presence of diseases such as neoplasm or endometriosis that can subvert the anatomy. This can be a challenge for young surgeons approaching gynecologic surgery. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of infrared thermocamera to identify the anatomic structures in gynecologic surgery.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
From February 2010 to May 2011, consecutive patients who required abdominal hysterectomy were considered for eligibility. During a procedure for benign disease, we evaluated the temperature difference between the ureter and infundibulopelvic vessel (experiment A). In patients with gynecologic cancer, the thermal gradient was determined between the iliac vessels and the ureter (experiment B).
The data from 21 patients were recorded, 12 for experiment A and 9 for experiment B. We found a statistically significant difference between the ureter and vessels in both experiments (31.675°C ± 0.673°C for the ureter and 33.332°C ± 0.828°C for the infundibulopelvic vessel, P < 0.0001; 31.706°C ± 0.751°C for the ureter, 33.787°C ± 0.63°C for the iliac vein, and 33.784°C ± 0.639°C for the iliac artery, P < 0.0001).
Infrared imaging allowed us to identify the anatomic structures in laparotomy, providing preliminary data for its application in laparoscopy.
Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2012 Aug;207(2):114.e1-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2012.06.027. Epub 2012 Jun 19.
Four subtypes of adenomyosis assessed by magnetic resonance imaging and their specification.
The aim of the present study was to differentiate and specify the subtypes of adenomyosis.
Surgically treated adenomyosis (n = 152) was subcategorized retrospectively into 4 subtypes on the basis of magnetic resonance imaging geography. Subtype I (n = 59) consisted of adenomyosis that occurs in the uterine inner layer without affecting the outer structures. Subtype II (n = 51) consisted of adenomyosis that occurs in the uterine outer layer without affecting the inner structures. Subtype III (n = 22) consisted of adenomyosis that occurs solitarily without relationship to structural components. Adenomyosis that did not satisfy these criteria composed subtype IV (n = 20). Stepwise logistic regression analysis was used for specification of the subtypes.
Subtypes I-III were suggested as a product of direct endometrial invasion, endometriotic invasion from the outside, and de novo metaplasia, respectively. Subtype IV was a heterogeneous mixture of far advanced disease.
Adenomyosis appears to consist of 3 distinct subtypes of different causes and an additional subtype of indeterminate cause.
Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2012 Aug;207(2):e7-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2012.05.029. Epub 2012 Jun 11. Review.
Clear cell carcinoma arising in the abdominal wall: two case reports and literature review.
Clear cell carcinoma originating in the abdominal wall is rare and usually develops within endometriotic implants in the scar. We describe 2 patients: a 42 year old with a 15 cm mass on the abdominal wall treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and excision and a 51 year old with a 6 cm abdominal mass treated with excision and adjuvant radiotherapy.
J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2012 Oct;25(5):e111-2. doi: 10.1016/j.jpag.2012.05.013. Epub 2012 Jul 27.
Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome–timely diagnosis is important to preserve fertility.
Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome is an urogenital malformation with uterus didelphys and obstructed hemivagina with ipsilateral renal agenesis. Most of these patients present after the onset of menstruation. We describe two cases diagnosed too late to prevent the complications.
The first patient presented with acute abdomen one year after the onset of menstruation and had salpingectomy due to pyosalpinx. The blind hemivagina was not recognized and she had severe endometriosis. She underwent hysterectomy 8 years later. The second patient presented with foul smelling vaginal discharge when she was 21 years old. She had a simple vaginal septum resection.
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION:
In the presence of uterine cavities in a regularly menstruating girl with dysmenorrhea, the presence of both kidneys should be checked. When unilateral renal agenesis and uterus didelphys coexist the first thing that we should remember is to confirm or refute the presence of a blind vagina.
Am J Pathol. 2012 Oct;181(4):1197-205. doi: 10.1016/j.ajpath.2012.06.022. Epub 2012 Jul 27.
Soluble human IL-1 receptor type 2 inhibits ectopic endometrial tissue implantation and growth: identification of a novel potential target for endometriosis treatment.
Endometriosis is often associated with a chronic pelvic immuno-inflammatory process, which is closely related to disease pathogenesis and major symptoms. Our studies led to the detection of a marked imbalance between IL-1 and its natural inhibitor IL-1 receptor type 2 (IL1R2) in women with endometriosis. This points to a deficiency in the local control of IL-1 that, in view of the cytokine’s elevated levels and potent proinflammatory, angiogenic, and growth-promoting effects, may contribute to endometriosisdevelopment. Using an in vivo model in which human endometrial tissue was inoculated into nude mice and left to establish before any further treatment, our data showed that sIL1R2 interferes with the capability of endometrial tissue to invade, grow, disseminate, and stimulate angiogenesis into the host tissue. sIL1R2 significantly down-regulated the expression of major cell adhesion receptors (αv and β3 integrins), matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and -9), and vascular endothelial cell growth factor. Interestingly, treatment with sILR2 (5 μg/kg) led to a concomitant upregulation of matrix metalloproteinases natural inhibitors (TIMP1 and TIMP2) and down-regulation of BclII, a potent anti-apoptotic protein. This creates an imbalance between pro- and anti-proteolytic and apoptotic factors and may further contribute to IL1R2 growth-inhibitory effects. This study provides evidence that sIL1R2 alters ectopic endometrial tissue growth, remodeling, and survival in vivo and may represent an interesting potential therapeutic tool.
Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2012 Nov;286(5):1283-9. doi: 10.1007/s00404-012-2480-6. Epub 2012 Jul 28. Review.
A panoramic view to relationships between reproductive failure and immunological factors.
To examine the possible roles of various immunological factors in recurrent miscarriage and unexplained infertility.
The synthesis and review of the relevant current literature in English language.
Substantial evidence suggests that antiphospholipid antibodies, lupus anticoagulant, antisperm antibodies, antithyroid antibodies, anti-endometrial antibodies, antiovarian antibodies, anti-C trachomatis antibodies, cytokines, and immunological events in endometriosis and premature ovarian failure due to immunologic factors may contribute to reproductive failure including unexplained infertility and/or non-chromosomal recurrent miscarriage.
Elimination or suppression of the immunological factors related with reproductive failure might occupy an important place in the treatment of unexplained infertility and non-chromosomal recurrent miscarriage.
Anticancer Res. 2012 Aug;32(8):3037-44.
Down-regulation of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and peroxiredoxin II in the pathogenesis of endometriosis-associated ovarian cancer.
To evaluate the roles of oxidative stress marker 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and peroxiredoxin (PRX) antioxidants in the development of endometriosis and endometriosis-associated ovarian cancer (EAC).
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Tissue expressions of 8-OHdG, PRX II and PRX IV were determined immunohistochemically in tissue from 22 women with benign endometriosis (BE) and 33 women with EAC, among whom endometriosis and cancer tissues were analyzed separately.
When all three groups were compared simultaneously, EAC tumor cells had significantly weaker nuclear 8-OHdG and PRX II expression (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively) and significantly weaker cytoplasmic 8-OHdG expression (p<0.01) than EAC endometriosis and BE epithelial cells. This same trend was also observed when groups were compared pair-wise.
Nuclear PRX II and 8-OHdG were down-regulated in EAC tumorous tissue compared with BE and EAC endometriotic tissue, suggesting a role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of EAC.
Int J Endocrinol. 2012;2012:236217. doi: 10.1155/2012/236217. Epub 2012 Jul 16.
Psychological disturbances and quality of life in obese and infertile women and men.
Anovulatory cycles and endometriosis are the main causes of female infertility. The most frequently anovulatory cycles are related to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) commonly associated with obesity and hormonal disturbances in the course of obesity. Recently published studies revealed that infertility affects about one in six couples during their lifetime and is more frequent in obese. Obesity is also associated with male infertility related to erectile dysfunction, hormonal disturbances and lower semen quality. Any of these above mentioned disorder is the important risk factor of psychological disturbances and poor quality of life among women and men in the reproductive age. On the other hand the mood disorders may exacerbate the hormonal disturbances and worsen the effectiveness of infertility management. Infertility, its therapy with accompanying psychological disturbances may also significantly affect the partners relationships. The review summarize the results described in the current literature on the association between obesity and infertility and psychological disturbances as well as their impact on quality of life and sexual functioning in women and men. Moreover, the impact of infertility and psychological disturbances on partners relationships is discussed.
Obstet Gynecol. 2012 Aug;120(2 Pt 2):445-8. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0b013e31824da6fe. Review.
Clear-cell carcinoma of the abdominal wall after cesarean delivery.
Clear-cell carcinoma transformed from an abdominal wall scar is extremely rare; there are only 22 cases reported in literature. Here we report a case of a patient with clear-cell carcinoma of the abdominal wall after cesarean delivery and review the relevant literature.
A 49-year-old woman presented with a chief complaint of progressively growing mass of cesarean scar and periodic pain with menstruation for 25 years. Wide surgical resection with clear margins was performed. Clear-cell carcinoma was demonstrated by pathologic examination. The patient underwent six cycles of adjutant chemotherapy postoperatively. The patient remains clinically free of recurrence 8 months after treatment.
Comprehensive treatment consisting of radical surgery combined with adjuvant therapy should be considered for this uncommon condition.
J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2013 Jan;39(1):375-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1447-0756.2012.01963.x. Epub 2012 Jul 29.
Ovarian pregnancy resulting from cryopreserved blastocyst transfer.
Ovarian pregnancy very rarely occurs and its exact mechanism is unclear. Here, we report a case of ovarian pregnancy resulting from cryopreserved blastocyst transfer. The patient was a 34-year-old woman who had undergone bilateral ovarian cystectomy for endometriosis. Both fallopian tubes indicated normal findings on laparoscopic surgery, and we removed the gestational product of the right ovary. Pathological analysis confirmed the diagnosis of right ovarian pregnancy. Ectopic pregnancy is one of the major complications of in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer. Although ovarian pregnancy is an extremely rare occurrence, the possibility of developing this event after cryopreserved blastocyst transfer should be recognized.
J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2013 Jan;39(1):455-61. doi: 10.1111/j.1447-0756.2012.01964.x. Epub 2012 Jul 29
Clear cell adenocarcinoma arising from umbilical endometriosis.
Umbilical endometriosis is a very rare condition, and as far as we are aware, there have been no reported cases of its malignant transformation. Here, we report a case of clear cell adenocarcinoma arising from umbilical endometriosis in a 60-year-old woman who underwent hysterectomy for a uterine myoma at the age of 38, and who denied cyclic bleeding at the site of an umbilical cutaneous nodule correlating with menses until the age of 48. An umbilical tumor (3 cm diameter) was identified by magnetic resonance imaging and an abnormal accumulation was found only at the umbilical lesion by positron emission tomography examination. We observed endometriosis adjacent to the clear cell adenocarcinoma and transformation to carcinoma from endometriosis at the umbilical lesion histopathologically. Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the umbilicus was thought to have arisen from endometriosis; it expressed HER-2 protein and showed strong mesothelial characteristics immunohistochemically.
Australas Med J. 2012;5(5):272-4. doi: 10.4066/AMJ.2012.1198. Epub 2012 May 31.
Umbilical endometriosis mimicking as papilloma to general surgeons: A case report.
Cutaneous or umbilical endometriosis is a rare entity that is often overlooked because of chronic abdominal pain. We present a case of umbilical hernia that presented to the general surgeons due to chronic abdominal pain and nodule in the umbilicus, which was clinically diagnosed as umbilical papilloma.
A 48-year old multiparous Caucasian woman presented with painful nodule in the umbilicus for two and half years. The nodule was excised and the histopathological diagnosis was umbilicus endometriosis.
Umbilical endometriosis is a very rare disease but should be considered as a differential diagnosis in women presenting with umbilical swelling.
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2012 Jul;15(7):679-81. Chinese.
Feasibility of endoscopic full-thickness resection in the treatment of colorectal submucosal tumors.
To investigate the feasibility and safety of endoscopic full-thickness resection(EFTR) in the treatment of colorectal submucosal tumor(SMT).
From September 2009 to March 2012, 4 cases with colorectal SMT received EFTR at the Endoscopic Center in the Zhongshan Hospital of Fudan University. The operative time, complications, and follow-up data were analyzed.
There were 3 females and 1 male. The age ranged from 33 to 78 years. The tumor location included the upper rectum(n=2), the ascending colon(n=1), and the descending colon(n=1). The mean operative time was 48.0(24-80) min. The mean diameter was 1.45(0.8-2.0) cm. Postoperative pathological examination revealed schwannoma, pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis, endometriosis, and mild hyperplasia of smooth muscle in the muscularis mucosa. There was no bleeding or perforation intraoperatively and postoperatively. Two patients developed abdominal pain and fever, one of whom had regional peritonitis and was managed by fasting and intravenous antibiotics. No surgical intervention was required. Postoperative follow up ranged from 1 to 30 months and no residual cancer or recurrence was found.
EFTR is a safe and effective method for colorectal SMT.
Arch Med Sci. 2012 Jul 4;8(3):504-8. doi: 10.5114/aoms.2012.29407.
CA-125 concentration in serum and peritoneal fluid in patients with endometriosis – preliminary results.
Cancer antigen 125 (CA-125), known as a biomarker for women genital tract malignancies, could be also useful in detecting and monitoring endometriosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate CA-125 in serum and peritoneal fluid (PF) as an indicator of endometriosis.
MATERIAL AND METHODS:
Fifty-six patients admitted to the First Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology for diagnostic or therapeutic laparoscopy conducted for infertility, pelvic pain, suspected endometriosis or ovarian cysts entered the study. Those with laparoscopically confirmed endometriosiswere assigned to group A, those without this condition to group B. Blood for CA-125 was taken prior to surgery, centrifuged and assayed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions (VIDAS CA-125 II). Peritoneal fluid and an endometrial biopsy were taken during laparoscopy. Statistical comparisons were performed using Statistica 7.1.
Group A consisted of 44 women with laparoscopically confirmed diagnosis; 15 patients served as a control group. The mean value of CA-125 concentration in the endometriosis group was 33.98 U/ml, vs. 9.3 U/ml in the control group. The mean value of CA-125 in peritoneal fluid was 1241.88 U/ml in the non-endometriosis group versus 2640.23 U/ml in the study group; both results were statistically significant (p < 0.05). There was a significant correlation between the stage of endometriosis and CA-125 plasma concentration (R = 0.5993, p < 0.001). Cancer antigen 125 concentration in serum was a moderate predictor to distinguish between patients with and without endometriosis (AUC 0.794; 95% CI 0.668-0.921; p = 0.001).
Cancer antigen 125 is a well-known biomarker for endometriosis and helpful in daily clinical practice when endometriosis is suspected. The cut-off value in serum suggesting endometriosis with 68% sensitivity is 11 U/ml. This value is normal range for Ca-125 concentration.
Clin Radiol. 2013 Jan;68(1):85-93. doi: 10.1016/j.crad.2012.05.016. Epub 2012 Jul 30.
Ultrasound of the abdominal wall: what lies beneath?
Clinically equivocal abdominal wall lesions often pose diagnostic dilemmas for clinicians. It can be equally challenging to appreciate the nature of abdominal wall lesions found incidentally on abdominal ultrasound examinations. Ultrasound is a non-ionizing, cheap, and easily accessible investigation for such lesions. It is widely used and has the added advantage of being a dynamic investigation. However, imaging with ultrasound is operator-dependent and relies on technical skills. It is important to understand the imaging of normal anatomy and to be familiar with the imaging appearance of lesions. We present a review of various lesions seen during ultrasound examinations of the abdominal wall or as incidental findings on abdominal ultrasound.