Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2015 Feb;291(2):439-45.

Decreased expression of mucin-1 in endometriosis endometrium correlated with progesterone receptor B involved in infertility.

Shen F1Yan CLiu MFeng YChen Y.

 

Abstract

PURPOSE:

Mucin-1(MUC1), a type of glucoprotein, has various expression statuses on the endometrium at different menstrual phases. Normal expression of MCU1 is closely related to successful blastocyst implantation. MUC1 was synthesized and secreted by the glandular epithelium of the endometrium, which acts as a barrier to foreign bodies. The endometrium was able to recognize and accept the blastocyst implantation. Endometriosishas lower rates of successful implantation with in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer, which may involve the altered expression of MUC1 on eutopic endometrium. In vitro studies demonstrated that progesterone and its receptors affected MUC1 expression under different physiopathology conditions. Our study was designed to explore whether progesterone receptors alteration contributed to MUC1 varied expression on endometriosisendometrium.

METHODS:

A total of 54 patients with different infertility reason were selected retrospectively from the First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University and Kowloon Hospital, Suzhou, China. Endometrium samples were collected under operative procedures. The samples were assigned to two groups: endometriosis (n = 28) and oviduct block (control group, n = 26), on which we examined the expression of progesterone receptor B (PR-B) and MUC1, respectively, using immunohistochemistry and Western blotting.

RESULTS:

Compared with the control group, the expression of MUC1 was significantly decreased in the mid-secretory phase of the menstrual cycle in endometriosis. There was relatively lower expression of MUC1 in different phases of the cycle in comparison with the control group. The varied expression of MUC1 was significantly related to PR-B variation in endometriosis endometrium (r = 0.763, P < 0.01).

CONCLUSION:

Decreased expression of MUC1 may attribute to PR-B variation in the mid-secretory phase of endometriosis endometrium. It might be one of the factors resulted in infertility in endometriosis patients.

 

 

 

 

Gynecol Oncol. 2014 Nov;135(2):297-304

Pre-diagnostic serum levels of inflammation markers and risk of ovarian cancer in the prostate, lung, colorectal and ovarian cancer (PLCO) screening trial.

Trabert B1Pinto L2Hartge P3Kemp T4Black A3Sherman ME5Brinton LA3Pfeiffer RM3Shiels MS3Chaturvedi AK3Hildesheim A3Wentzensen N3.

 

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Pro-inflammatory mechanisms may explain the increased ovarian cancer risk linked to more lifetime ovulations, endometriosis, and exposure to talc and asbestos, as well as decreased risk with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Limited data are available to estimate ovarian cancer risk associated with levels of circulating inflammatory markers.

METHODS:

We conducted a nested case-control study within the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. Pre-diagnostic serum levels of 46 inflammation-related biomarkers (11 with a priori hypotheses; 35 agnostic) were measured in 149 incident ovarian cancer cases and 149 matched controls. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using conditional logistic regression and adjusted for identified covariates.

RESULTS:

Increased ovarian cancer risk was associated with elevated levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) [tertile (T)3 vs. T1: OR (95% CI) 2.04 (1.06-3.93), p-trend=0.03], interleukin (IL)-1α [detectable vs. undetectable: 2.23 (1.14-4.34)] and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) [T3 vs. T1: 2.21 (1.06-4.63), p-trend=0.04]. Elevated IL-8 was non-significantly associated with risk [T3 vs. T1: 1.86 (0.96-3.61), p-trend=0.05]. In analyses restricted to serous ovarian cancer (n=83), the associations with CRP and IL-8 remained or strengthened [CRP T3 vs. T1: 3.96 (1.14-11.14), p-trend=0.008; IL-8 T3 vs. T1: 3.05 (1.09-8.51), p-trend=0.03]. Elevated levels of CRP and TNF-α remained positively associated with ovarian cancer risk in analysis restricted to specimens collected at least 5years before diagnosis (n=56).

CONCLUSION:

These results suggest that CRP, IL-1α, IL-8, and TNF-α are associated with increased risk of subsequently developing ovarian cancer.

 

 

 

 

 

J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2014 Sep;40(9):2015-22.

Endometrial stem/progenitor cells.

Maruyama T1.

 

Abstract

Human endometrium regenerates and regresses with each menstrual cycle under hormonal control throughout a woman’s reproductive life. The cyclical regeneration and remodeling potentials allude to the existence of stem/progenitor cells in the endometrium. There is increasing evidence that human endometrium contains small numbers of stem-like cells capable of self-renewal, multiple differentiation and tissue reconstitution. Although the precise identity of endometrial stem/progenitor cells remains elusive, these cells are thought to play pivotal role(s) in the physiological remodeling and regeneration of the human endometrium and also in the pathogenesis of endometrium-associated diseases, such as endometriosis.

 

 

J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2015 Jan;41(1):149-52.

Ultrasound-guided excision of rectus abdominis muscle endometriosis.

Coccia ME1Rizzello FNannini SCozzolino MCapezzuoli TCastiglione F.

 

Abstract

We report a rare case of rectus abdominis muscle endometriosis excised under ultrasound guidance. A 36-year-old woman came to our observation presenting an abdominal nodule located in the right side of the umbilical area. Ultrasound of the abdominal wall showed two hypoechogenic nodules in the context of the right rectus abdominis muscle and a fine-needle aspiration, performed under ultrasound guidance, confirmed the diagnosis of endometriosis. The patient underwent surgical excision of the lesions. Intraoperative localization was performed through ultrasonography. In our case, the diagnosis was essentially based on ultrasound scan. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were not performed. A high-resolution ultrasound is a simple, inexpensive and safe method and is sufficient for indicating surgery. Furthermore, the use of intraoperative ultrasound allowed adequate margins of excision.

 

 

 

 

 

Case Rep Obstet Gynecol. 2014;2014

Deep endometriosis induced spontaneous colon rectal perforation in pregnancy: laparoscopy is advanced tool to confirm diagnosis.

Costa A1Sartini A2Garibaldi S2Cencini M2.

 

Abstract

Endometriosis causes rare complications in pregnancy, such as obstetrical bleeding, preterm birth, spontaneous haemoperitoneum, and intestinal perforation. The prevalence of spontaneous perforation due to intestinal endometriosis is unknown in pregnancy. A recent review of the literature indicated 15 bowel complications caused by endometriosis during pregnancy or at the immediate postpartum period. The diagnosis of a bowel perforation can be difficult and in all of the cases reported necessitates an exploratory laparotomy. Anyway, in the majority of cases bowel perforation is not diagnosed during this laparotomy, and a repeat laparotomy is needed. Laparoscopy is being used increasingly in the diagnosis and operative management of acute abdomen. Laparoscopy can be a useful means of diagnosis and in addition a therapeutic tool in selected pregnant patients with abdominal pain. We report the first case of a pregnant woman with spontaneous double sigmoid and rectal perforation from decidualized endometriosis diagnosed by laparoscopy.

 

 

Gynecol Endocrinol. 2014;30(12):861-7

Correlation of changes of (non)exfoliated endometrial organelles and expressions of Musashi-1 and β-catenin with endometriosis in menstrual period.

Yu CX1Song JH1Liang L1.

 

Abstract

This study aims to investigate the correlation of structural changes of endometrial organelles and expressions of Musashi-1 (Msi-1) and β-catenin with the endometriosis (EMs) in the menstrual period. The structural changes of exfoliated and nonexfoliated endometrial organelles in the experimental group and the control group were observed by the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) on the first and fifth day of menstruation. (1) TEM: compared with the control group, the exfoliated endometrial organelles in the experimental group on the first day were rich, with irregular nucleus, the bi-nucleolus could be seen, with rich chromatin; while the shapes of epithelial secretory cells in the nonexfoliated endometrial gland were irregular, with abundant organelles, the basal film varied in width, with abnormal curvature, and a lot of intercellular collagen fibers could be seen. (2) The expressions of Msi-1 and β-catenin in the exfoliated and nonexfoliated endometrium of the experimental group were higher than those of the control group and exhibited positively correlation, while no correlation could be found within the control group. (1) The organelles’ structural changes might cause the changes of endometrial cellular functions. (2) Msi-1 might participate in the formation of EMs through activating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

 

 

Biomed Res Int. 2014;2014:191967.

Medical treatments for endometriosis-associated pelvic pain.

Zito G1Luppi S2Giolo E2Martinelli M2Venturin I1Di Lorenzo G1Ricci G3.

 

Abstract

The main sequelae of endometriosis are represented by infertility and chronic pelvic pain. Chronic pelvic pain causes disability and distress with a very high economic impact. In the last decades, an impressive amount of pharmacological agents have been tested for the treatment of endometriosis-associated pelvic pain. However, only a few of these have been introduced into clinical practice. Following the results of the controlled studies available, to date, the first-line treatment for endometriosis associated pain is still represented by oral contraceptives used continuously. Progestins represent an acceptable alternative. In women with rectovaginal lesions or colorectal endometriosis, norethisterone acetate at low dosage should be preferred. GnRH analogues may be used as second-line treatment, but significant side effects should be taken into account. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are widely used, but there is inconclusive evidence for their efficacy in relieving endometriosis-associated pelvic pain. Other agents such as GnRH antagonist, aromatase inhibitors, immunomodulators, selective progesterone receptor modulators, and histone deacetylase inhibitors seem to be very promising, but there is not enough evidence to support their introduction into routine clinical practice. Some other agents, such as peroxisome proliferator activated receptors-γ ligands, antiangiogenic agents, and melatonin have been proven to be efficacious in animal studies, but they have not yet been tested in clinical studies.

 

 

Cir Cir. 2014 Jul-Aug;82(4):460-71

Müllerian anomalies. Obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal anomaly syndrome (OHVIRA).

Afrashtehfar CD1Piña-García A2Afrashtehfar KI3.

 

Abstract

Müllerian duct anomalies are a group of uncommon and underdiagnosed entities, which cause specific symptoms in adolescent females and may be associated with infertility as well as adverse pregnancy outcomes. These malformations occur as a result of an arrest or abnormal development of the Müllerian ducts in different stages of the female reproductive tract during gestation. Obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal anomaly syndrome (OHVIRA), formerly known as the Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome, is a rare entity characterized by the presence of a uterus didelphys with an obstructed hemivagina cause by a vaginal septum and the association of a renal anomaly (most commonly renal agenesis) ipsilateral to the obstruction. This syndrome may remain undiagnosed during childhood and usually becomes symptomatic after menarche, causing obstructive symptoms. Occasionally it may be identified after the evaluation of a patient with infertility or recurrent pregnancy loss. The clinical diagnosis is very challenging and requires imaging studies in which ultrasound and MRI play an essential role in the diagnosis, classification and treatment plan. Opportune diagnosis and treatment achieve complete improvement of symptoms, adequate reproductive prognosis and avoid major complications such as endometriosis, pelvic adhesions and infertility. The purpose of this review is to demonstrate the pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, diagnostic methods and treatment of the obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal anomaly syndrome.

 

 

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014;15(16):6749-54.

Is target oriented surgery sufficient with borderline ovarian tumors? – Role of accompanying pathologies.

Gungor T1Cetinkaya NYalcin HOzdal BOzgu EBaser EYilmaz NCaglar MZergeroglu SErkaya S.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

There are limited data in the literature related to concomitant genital or extra-genital organ pathologies in patients with borderline ovarian tumors (BOTs). The aim of this study was to evaluate our experience with 183 patients to draw attention to the accompanying organ pathologies with BOTs.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

One hundred eighty-three patients with BOTs, diagnosed and/or treated in our center between January of 2000 and March of 2013 were evaluated retrospectively. Data related to age, tumor histology, lesion side, disease stage, accompanying incidental ipsilateral and/or contralateral ovarian pathologies, treatment approaches, and follow-up periods were investigated. Incidental gynecologic and non-gynecologic concomitant organ pathologies were also recorded.

RESULTS:

The mean age at diagnosis was 40.6 years (range: 17-78). Ninety- five patients (51%) were ≤40 years. A hundred and forty-seven patients (80%) were at stage IA of the disease. The most common type of BOT was serous in histology. Non-invasive tumor implants were diagnosed in 4% and uterine involvement was found 2% among patients who underwent hysterectomies. There were 12 patients with positive peritoneal washings. Only 17 and 84 patients respectively had concomitant ipsilateral and concomitant contralateral incidental ovarian pathologies. The most common type of uterine, appendicular and omental pathologies were chronic cervicitis, lymphoid hyperplasia and chronic inflammatory reaction.

CONCLUSIONS:

According to our findings most of accompanying pathologies for BOT are benign in nature. Nevertheless, there were additional malignant diseases necessitating further therapy. We emphasize the importance of the evaluation of all abdominal organs during surgery.

 

 

Pain. 2014 Dec;155(12):2448-60.

Ovarian hormones and chronic pain: A comprehensive review.

Hassan S1Muere A2Einstein G3.

 

Abstract

Most chronic noncancer pain (CNCP) conditions are more common in women and have been reported to worsen, particularly during the peak reproductive years. This phenomenon suggests that ovarian hormones might play a role in modulating CNCP pain. To this end, we reviewed human literature aiming to assess the potential role of ovarian hormones in modulating the following CNCP conditions: musculoskeletal pain, migraine headache, temporal mandibular disorder, and pelvic pain. We found 50 relevant clinical studies, the majority of which demonstrated a correlation between hormone changes or treatments and pain intensity, threshold, or symptoms. Taken together, the findings suggest that changes in hormonal levels may well play a role in modulating the severity of CNCP conditions. However, the lack of consistency in study design, methodology, and interpretation of menstrual cycle phases impedes comparison between the studies. Thus, while the literature is highly suggestive of the role of ovarian hormones in modulating CNCP conditions, serious confounds impede a definitive understanding for most conditions except menstrual migraine and endometriosis. It may be that these inconsistencies and the resulting lack of clarity have contributed to the failure of hormonal effects being translated into medical practice for treatment of CNCP conditions.

 

 

 

 

 

Cell Mol Bioeng. 2014 Sep;7(3):409-420.

Endometriotic Epithelial Cell Response to Macrophage-Secreted Factors is Dependent on Extracellular Matrix Context.

Pollock K1Jaraczewski TJ1Carroll MJ1Lebovic DI2Kreeger PK1.

 

Abstract

Endometriosis is a chronic disease in which epithelial and stromal cells that resemble the eutopic endometrium are found in ectopic lesions. In order to examine how microenvironmental factors such as extracellular matrix and macrophages influence disease progression, 12Z (an immortalized ectopic epithelial cell line) were cultured on tissue culture plastic (TCP) or in gels of recombinant basement membrane (rBM) or collagen I. Unlike cells in other conditions, cells in rBM formed multi-cellular structures in a 67 kDa non-integrin laminin receptor (67LR)-dependent manner. To examine the impact of macrophage-secreted factors on cell behavior, 12Z cells on all three substrates were treated with conditioned media from differentiated THP-1 (an immortalized monocytic cell line). Significant proliferation and invasion was observed only with cells cultured in rBM, indicating that extracellular matrix cues help dictate cell response to soluble signals. Cells cultured on rBM were then treated with individual cytokines detected in the conditioned media, with increased proliferation observed following exposure to interleukin-8 (CXCL8/IL-8) and both increased proliferation and invasion following treatment with heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF). This study suggests that rBM gels can be used to induce in vitro lesion formation in order to identify soluble factors that influence proliferation and invasion.

 

 

BMC Womens Health. 2014 Aug 30;14:103.

Patients’ and physicians’ descriptions of occurrence and diagnosis of endometriosis: a qualitative study from Iran.

Riazi HTehranian N1Ziaei SMohammadi EHajizadeh EMontazeri A.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The prevalence of endometriosis is considerable but its diagnosis is a dilemma. The aim of this study was to explore the perception and experiences of endometriosis patients and physicians about occurrence and diagnosis of endometriosis.

METHODS:

A qualitative research using content analysis was used to obtain data from purposely selected endometriosis patients (12 participants) and gynecologists (6 participants) from January to September 2013 in Tehran. Data were coded and analyzed using a thematic approach.

RESULTS:

Seven themes emerged: 1) pain localization, 2) Severity of pain and struggle for pain relief, 3) Feeling inability to play the role of femininity, 4) Reducing physical health, 5) Disruption of social life, 6) Looking for a reliable diagnostic indicator, 7) Uncertainty of physical examination. The results highlighted that patients with the disease can experience different feelings that interfere with their wellbeing and their lives, and sometimes could be disabling.

CONCLUSION:

Patients and physicians are looking for a certain, noninvasive and inexpensive diagnostic method. This study helps to promote clinical diagnostic view and knowledge development about description of endometriosis diagnosis to decrease diagnostic delay and mismanagement.

 

 

Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2014 Dec;93(12):1262-7.

Laparoscopic management of bowel endometriosis: resection margins as a predictor of recurrence.

Nirgianakis K1McKinnon BImboden SKnabben LGloor BMueller MD.

 

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To evaluate possible predictive factors for recurrence after laparoscopic segmental bowel resection for bowel endometriosis.

DESIGN:

Cohort study.

SETTING:

Academic tertiary referral center.

METHODS:

95 symptomatic women with bowel endometriosis who underwent laparoscopic segmental bowel resection at the Endometriosis clinic, University of Berne, between 2002 and 2012 were enrolled. Since 14 women were lost to follow-up, 81 formed the final cohort. Clinical and histological characteristics were examined as possible predictive factors for disease recurrence.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:

Recurrence, defined as a subsequent operation due to recurrent endometriosis-associated pain with a histologically confirmed endometriotic lesion.

RESULTS:

Recurrence was observed in 13 (16%) patients. Variables that were significantly associated to recurrence by the Cox regression analysis were positive bowel resection margins (hazard ratio 6.5, 95% confidence interval 1.8-23.5, p = 0.005), age <31 years (hazard ratio 5.6, 95% confidence interval 1.7-18.6, p = 0.005) and body mass index ≥23 kg/m(2) (hazard ratio 11.0, 95% confidence interval 2.7-44.6, p = 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS:

Positive bowel resection margins as well as age <31 years and body mass index ≥23 kg/m(2) appear to be independent predictors of disease recurrence.

 

 

J Clin Diagn Res. 2014 Jul;8(7):OD05-7.

Role of trans vaginal ultrasound and Doppler in diagnosis of pelvic congestion syndrome.

Sharma K1Bora MK2Varghese J1Malik G3Kuruvilla R3.

 

Abstract

Pelvic congestion syndrome (PCS) is a cause of chronic pelvic pain in women and is defined as pelvic pain lasting for more than six months.The diagnosis of PCS is a challenging task for the gynaecologist. It can be due to many varied causes like endometriosis, adhesions, chronic pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), ovarian cyst, fibroids, pelvic varicosities. Radiology plays an important role in the diagnosis and management of PCS. Pelvic UltraSonography (PUS),transvaginal sonography (TVS) with doppler, Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT) and ovarian venography are usually used in the diagnosis of this condition. We report a case of a 35-year-old multiparous patient with history of pain in lower abdomen, vaginal discharge and general lethargy for past three years who was diagnosed as a case of PCS based on typical TVS and Doppler findings.

 

 

Genet Mol Res. 2014 Aug 26;13(3):6503-11

TP53 gene polymorphisms at codons 11, 72, and 248 and association with endometriosis in a Brazilian population.

Camargo-Kosugi CM1D’Amora P2Kleine JP2Carvalho CV2Sato H2Schor E2Silva ID2.

 

Abstract

We evaluated the association between TP53 gene polymorphisms and endometriosis in Brazilian women. Genomic DNA was extracted from swabs of buccal cells collected from hospital patients. TP53 gene polymorphisms were investigated at three codons: TP53 11 Glu/Gln or Lys (GAG->CAG or AAG), TP53 72 Arg/Pro (CCG->CCC), and TP53 248 Arg/Thr (CGG->TCG) using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. TP53 11 presented the following genotypic distribution: the control group was 98.28% homozygous wild-type (Glu) and 1.72% homozygous variant (Gln/Lys), and the heterozygous genotype was not identified. The genotypic distribution in the endometriosis group was 96% homozygous wild-type (Glu) and 4% heterozygous (Glu-Gln/Lys); the homozygous variant genotype was not identified (P = 0.02). TP53 72 showed the following genotypic distribution: the control group was 29.75% homozygous wild-type (Arg), 47.11% heterozygous (Arg-Pro), and 23.14% homozygous variant (Pro). The genotypic distribution in the endometriosis group was 16.15% homozygous wild-type (Arg), 51.54% heterozygous (Arg-Pro), and 32.31% homozygous variant (Pro) (odds ratio = 2.26; 95% confidence interval = 1.19-4.03; P = 0.02). Only one patient had the homozygous TP53 248 genotype (Arg-Trp/Gln); all other patients were homozygous wild-type in both the control and endometriosis groups (P = 0.51; NS). We found that TP53 72 polymorphism may be associated with susceptibility to endometriosis; the presence of at least 1 polymorphic allele increased the chance of disease development by 2.26-fold. Hence, this genetic variant is a potential candidate marker for endometriosis.

 

 

Hum Reprod Update. 2015 Jan-Feb;21(1):136-52

Systematic review of endometriosis pain assessment: how to choose a scale?

Bourdel N1Alves J2Pickering G3Ramilo I2Roman H4Canis M5.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Numerous studies concerning endometriosis and pain have been reported. However, there is no consensus on the best method to evaluate pain in endometriosis and many scales have been used. Moreover, there are only a few descriptions of minimal clinically important differences after treatment (MCID) to evaluate variations in pain. In our study, we aim to identify pain scales used in endometriosis pain treatment, to address their strong and weak points and to define which would be the ideal scale to help clinicians and researchers to evaluate endometriosis-related pain.

METHODS:

A search of the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases was carried out for publications in English, French or Portuguese from 1980 to December 2012, for the words: endometriosis, treatment, pain. Studies were selected if they studied an endometriosis treatment and a pain scale was specified. A quantitative and a qualitative analysis of each scale was performed to define strong and weak points of each scale (systematic registration number: CRD42013005336).

RESULTS:

A total of 736 publications were identified. After excluding duplications and applying inclusion criteria 258 studies remained. We found that the visual analog scale (VAS) is the most frequently used scale. Both VAS and the numerical rating scale (NRS) show a good balance between strong and weak points in comparison with others such as the Biberoglu and Behrman scale. Concerning MCID, only VAS, NRS and Brief Pain Inventory scales have reported MCID and, among these, only VAS MCID has been studied in endometriosis patients (VAS MCID = 10 mm). Adding the Clinical Global Impression score (CGI) to the pain scale allows calculation of the MCID.

CONCLUSIONS:

When using pain scales their strengths and weaknesses must be known and included in the analysis. VAS is the most frequently used pain scale and, together with NRS, seems the best adapted for endometriosis pain measurement. The use of VAS or NRS for each type of typical pain related to endometriosis(dysmenorrhea, deep dyspareunia and non-menstrual chronic pelvic pain), combined with the CGI and a quality-of-life scale will provide both clinicians and researchers with tools to evaluate treatment response.

 

 

Case Rep Obstet Gynecol. 2014

F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography-positive lymph node endometriosis masquerading as lymph node metastasis of a malignant tumor.

Akiyama M1Suganuma I1Mori T1Kusuki I1Kuroboshi H1Ito F1Matsushima H1Sawada M1Kitawaki J1.

 

Abstract

Endometriosis is defined as the presence of endometrium-like tissues at extrauterine sites, most commonly in the abdominal cavity. Lymph node endometriosis is a rare but clinically important type of endometriosis that can mimic lymph node metastasis of a malignant tumor. (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is a useful tool for diagnosing malignant tumors, although it occasionally shows false positive results in tissues with high metabolic activity caused by severe inflammation. In the present report, we describe a case of lymph node endometriosis that mimicked lymph node metastasis of a malignant tumor and showed a positive result on (18)F-FDG PET/CT. The findings of the present case suggest that lymph node endometriosis could present as swollen lymph nodes with (18)F-FDG PET/CT-positive results and provide important information for determining an appropriate treatment strategy.

 

 

Int Urogynecol J. 2015 Jan;26(1):159-62.

Urinary incontinence and bladder endometriosis: conservative management.

Leone Roberti Maggiore U1Ferrero SSalvatore S.

 

Abstract

Bladder endometriosis causes urinary symptoms including frequency, dysuria, cyclic haematuria and non-urinary pain symptoms. To our knowledge, the association of bladder endometriosis with urinary incontinence has not been described. We present the first case of bladder endometriosis that caused urinary symptoms including mixed urinary incontinence (MUI). A 34-year-old nulliparous woman was referred to our urogynaecology clinic with a 18-month history of urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) and stress urinary incontinence (SUI). A diagnosis of bladder endometriosis was performed on the basis of symptoms and imaging. The patient refused surgery and dienogest was prescribed. At the 12-month follow-up, all endometriosis-related symptoms and questionnaire scores had significantly improved, and there was resolution of the abnormal urodynamic findings. In reproductive-aged women suffering pain symptoms, bladder endometriosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of urinary incontinence and treatment with dienogest may lead to improvement of both urinary and pain symptoms.

 

 

Health Expect. 2015 Dec;18(6):2606-15

What women want from women’s reproductive health research: a qualitative study.

Pandey S1Porter M2Bhattacharya S3.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Researchers are being urged to involve patients in the design and conduct of studies in health care with limited insight at present into their needs, abilities or interests. This is particularly true in the field of reproductive health care where many conditions such as pregnancy, menopause and fertility problems involve women who are otherwise healthy.

OBJECTIVE:

To ascertain the feasibility of involving patients and members of the public in research on women’s reproductive health care (WRH).

SETTING:

University and tertiary care hospital in north-east Scotland; 37 women aged 18-57.

METHOD:

Four focus groups and one individual interview were audio-recorded and verbatim transcripts analysed thematically by two researchers using a grounded theory approach.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:

Most participants were interested in WRH, but some participated to promote a health issue of special concern to them. Priorities for research reflected women’s personal concerns: endometriosis, polycystic ovary syndrome, menopause, fertility risks of delaying parenthood and early post-natal discharge from hospital. Women were initially enthusiastic about getting involved in research on WRH at the design or delivery stage, but after discussion in focus groups, some questioned their ability to do so or the time available to commit to research. None of the respondents expected payment for any involvement, believing that the experience would be rewarding enough in itself.

CONCLUSIONS:

Involving patients and public in research would include different perspectives and priorities; however, recruiting for this purpose would be challenging.

 

 

Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2015 Mar;291(3):657-62.

Time to pregnancy in subfertile women in German gynecological practices: analysis of a representative cohort of more than 60,000 patients.

Ziller V1Heilmaier CKostev K.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The aim of this study was to assess the time from the first subfertility diagnosis to pregnancy (TTP) and to elucidate factors influencing TTP for patients in German gynecological practices comprising a representative sample and provide a realistic picture of the current situation in Germany.

METHODS:

The study collective included all women with first-time diagnoses of female infertility (ICD: N97) or unfulfilled desire for children (ICD: Z31) from the representative database (IMS Disease Analyzer). Demographic data on patients such as their age (ranges 18-25, 26-30, 31-35, 36-40 or 51-50) and information on previous pregnancies and births and concomitant diseases were collected. Data pertaining to 61,815 women from 433 gynecological practices in Germany with a first diagnosis of female infertility or an unfulfilled desire for children were analyzed. The period of data collection was between January 1, 2001 to December 31, 2012 (=144 months). The mean observation period for the patients after the first gynecological consultation was 1,420 days (=47.3 months), with a standard deviation of 879 days.

RESULTS:

A total of 22,744 patients became pregnant during the first year of observation (36.8%). The highest cumulative pregnancy rate was seen in women between 18 and 30 years of age (74.8%). The older the women were, the lower the cumulative pregnancy rate became (18.1% in the group of 41- to 50-year-old women). Cox regression calculations showed that the following factors considerably impaired the chances of pregnancy: age, endometriosis, diabetes mellitus, ovarian dysfunction, PCOS, previous infection of the genitourinary tract. In contrast, a couple of factors were proven to increase pregnancy rates, namely previous use of hormonal contraceptives, private insurance, previous birth, previous pregnancy and progesterone therapy (at any time).

CONCLUSION:

Along with information about reproductive physiology, such as decreasing fertility with maternal age, counseling in daily practice should also include individual factors influencing fertility. It is of the utmost importance to further increase public awareness of the impact of advanced female and male age on the reproductive outcome so that people can make well-informed decisions on when to start a family.

 

 

J Fam Plann Reprod Health Care. 2015 Jul;41(3):225-34.

Women’s experiences of endometriosis: a systematic review and synthesis of qualitative research.

Young K1Fisher J2Kirkman M3.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Endometriosis is experienced by approximately 10% of women worldwide; it is associated with significant burden on the woman, her family, and society.

AIM:

The aim of this systematic review was to synthesise the available qualitative literature to increase our understanding of the effects of endometriosis on women’s lives.

METHODS:

Seven social science and medical databases (PubMed, Medline, CINAHL, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, PsycInfo and Embase) and Google Scholar were searched for peer-reviewed papers published in English of research using qualitative methods.

RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS:

Eighteen papers reporting 11 studies met the inclusion criteria. Participant numbers ranged from 15 to 61 women, all recruited from support groups and specialised clinics. Studies were conducted in high-income, Anglophone countries. The review identified four prominent themes: Life, Symptoms, Medical Experience, and Self. Women’s reported experiences demonstrated opportunities for enhancing current clinical practice, including improved education about endometriosis for health professionals, the need to take a comprehensive approach to pain treatment, and initiating appropriate discussion of the impact on sex life. Significant evidence gaps were identified: there was inadequate investigation of women’s experiences of endometriosis-associated infertility and of the impact of reduced social participation on perceived support and emotional well-being, and limited or no inclusion of the experiences of adolescent and post-menopausal women, women from low socioeconomic backgrounds, women who do not identify as Caucasian, and non-heterosexual women.

 

 

Case Rep Urol. 2014;2014:

Bladder endometriosis and endocervicosis: presentation of 2 cases with endoscopic management and review of literature.

Fuentes Pastor J1Ballestero Diego R1Correas Gómez MÁ1Torres Díez E2Fernández Flórez A2Ballesteros Olmos G3Gutierrez Baños JL1.

 

Abstract

Urinary tract endometriosis and endocervicosis are an uncommon pathologic finding, with a common embryological origin. We present 2 cases of female patients with bladder mass. The first one was a finding of a nodular formation in the bladder during study of a nonviable foetus and the second was an incidental finding of a neoformation in the fundus of the bladder during the realization of an ultrasound. In both cases, we performed a surgical management with transurethral resection. Histopathological examination revealed a bladder endometrioma in the first case and endocervicosis with associated endometriosis in the second.

 

 

 

 

BMC Womens Health. 2014 Sep 3;14:104

Huge pyogenic cervical cyst with endometriosis, developing 13 years after myomectomy at the lower uterine segment: a case report.

Oda K1Ikeda YMaeda DArimoto TKawana KFukayama MOsuga YFujii T.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Surgical site infections are potential complications following open myomectomy. These infections usually develop immediately after the surgery, and are most often located in the myometrium. Pyogenic cervical cysts are rare and have not been previously reported to occur at the site of myomectomy.

CASE PRESENTATION:

A 41-year-old nulligravida Japanese woman was referred to our hospital with a large cervical cyst (>15 cm in diameter). She had undergone a myomectomy 13 years previously, and the surgical site had extended to the endocervical gland. Standard blood tests did not show any evidence of inflammation. The patient underwent a total abdominal hysterectomy, which revealed that the cyst contained multiple components, including Escherichia coli, old blood, and evidence of endometriosis. A pathological review did not show malignant cells within the cyst. The pyogenic cyst originated from the upper anterior cervix, which was one of the sites involved in the previous myomectomy.

CONCLUSION:

We reported a huge pyogenic cervical cyst exhibiting signs of endometriosis, in the vicinity of the uterine scar from the open myomectomy. The previous surgery and endometriosis might have contributed to the formation of this rare pyogenic cyst.

 

 

J Assist Reprod Genet. 2014 Nov;31(11):1445-51.

Serum tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and paraoxonase-1 profiles in women with endometriosis, PCOS, or unexplained infertility.

Younis A1Hawkins KMahini HButler WGarelnabi M.

 

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To investigate the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), and Paraoxonase-1 (PON-1) during fertility treatment of women with endometriosis (Endo), PCOS or unexplained infertility (Unexpl).

METHODS:

Thirty-six patients with Endo, PCOS or Unexpl undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation for IVF or IUI were consented and their serum, on day-3 (baseline) and at the end of FSH treatment (peak), was collected and investigated for levels of TNF-α, IL-6, MCP-1, and PON-1. Correlations, ANOVA and Student’s t-test were used for statistical analysis.

RESULTS:

Peak serum levels of IL-6, MCP-1 and PON-1 were positively correlated to E2 peak levels. TNF-α levels were inversely correlated to estradiol levels and they were lower in patients who ultimately became pregnant when compared to non-pregnant (P < 0.05). Mean TNF-α levels were significantly higher in Unexpl group (P < 0.05). The mean levels of IL-6, and MCP-1 were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in women with PCOS compared with Endo and Unexpl. No differences were found between the three clinical groups in patient’s age, BMI, Day-3 FSH, PON-1 and pregnancy outcome.

CONCLUSION:

Circulating cytokine levels were influenced by ovarian stimulation, as demonstrated by increased levels of IL-6, MCP-1 and PON-1, and decreased level of TNF-α at the end of controlled ovarian stimulation. While evidence of relationship between circulating cytokines with mild endometriosis was not found, PCOS was associated with elevated serum IL-6 and MCP-1 but lower TNF-α concentration. Unexplained infertility was associated with elevated TNF-α level. No relationship between serum PON-1 concentration and PCOS, mild endometriosis or unexplained infertility was noted.

 

 

Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2014 Oct;181:256-8.

Mannan-binding lectin polymorphisms and serum levels in patients with endometriosis.

Kruse C1Steffensen R2Nielsen HJ3Jensenius JC4.

 

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To investigate a possible association between endometriosis and low levels of mannan-binding lectin (MBL).

STUDY DESIGN:

Case-control study of blood samples from 100 patients with endometriosis compared with results from a group of 350 blood donors.

RESULT:

The frequency of MBL levels <100ng/ml was 14.0% in patients and 14.9% in controls. Correspondingly, the frequencies of low producing MBL genotypes were 15.0% and 16.0%, respectively.

CONCLUSION:

No association was found between endometriosis and low levels of MBL.

 

 

 

 

J Hum Reprod Sci. 2014 Apr;7(2):125-9.

Laparoscopic cystectomy of endometrioma: Good surgical technique does not adversely affect ovarian reserve.

Bhat RG1Dhulked S1Ramachandran A1Bhaktha R1Vasudeva A1Kumar P1Rao AC2.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The damage to ovarian reserve inflicted by surgery for endometriosis represents a major concern in the balance between reproductive benefits and risks.

AIM:

To evaluate the ovarian reserve in sub fertile women after laparoscopic endometriotic cystectomy.

SETTINGS AND DESIGN:

Prospective study, done in Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, tertiary care hospital between August 2010-2012.

MATERIALS AND METHOD:

Laparoscopic cystectomy performed by stripping technique for endometriotic cysts. Endometriosis was staged according to revised American Society of Reproductive Medicine classification (rASRM). Ovarian reserve assessed by comparing FSH and LH levels, measurement of residual ovarian volume, antral follicle counts and stromal blood flow on second day of menses pre and postoperatively. Cyst wall was evaluated histologically to note the presence of normal ovarian tissue in resected tissue.

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS:

SPSS for Windows version 16.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL) was used for statistical calculations. Wilcoxon signed test and Pearson Chi – Square test were applied. Significance level was P < 0.05.

RESULTS:

Incidence of minimal, mild, moderate, and severe endometriosis was 4.1%, 21.9%, 28.7%, 45.3% respectively. Ovarian reserve was assessed both by ultrasound and biochemical parameters on day 2 of menses; pre and post-operatively. Preoperative and post-operative values; FSH (7.24 ± 1.21, 7.23 ± 1.51 m IU/ml), LH levels (6.37 ± 1.8, 6.6 ± 2.3 m IU/ml), residual ovarian volume (8.5 cm(3) ± 5.3, 7.4 cm(3) ± 5.8), antral follicle count(3.3 ± 1.9, 4.1 ± 1.5) and stromal blood flow (6.8 cm/sec ± 4.57, 7.1 cm/sec ± 3.55) were statistically not significant. Loss of follicle was seen in 27.2% cyst walls on histopathological examination while 72.73% had no loss.

CONCLUSION:

Laparoscopic cystectomy when performed for endometriotic cysts with accurate surgical technique leads to no significant ovarian tissue removal.

 

 

J Hum Reprod Sci. 2014 Apr;7(2):143-7.

Effect of endometriosis on implantation rates when compared to tubal factor in fresh non donor in vitro fertilization cycles.

Singh N1Lata K1Naha M1Malhotra N1Tiwari A1Vanamail P1.

 

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

The objective of the following study is to compare the outcome of in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) in women with endometriosis and tubal-factor infertility.

DESIGN:

Retrospective study.

SETTING:

Tertiary referral hospital, assisted reproductive technologies unit.

MATERIALS AND METHOD:

The study group consisted of 78 women diagnosed with advanced stage endometriosis. The control group included 100 women with tubal-factor infertility. These groups were retrospectively analyzed regarding stimulation, fertilization, embryo development, implantation and pregnancy outcome.

INTERVENTION S:

Controlled ovarian hyperstimulation and IVF-ET.

RESULTS:

Lower oocyte yield with lower fertilization rate were found in women with endometriosis compared with tubal-factor control subjects. However, no differences were found in cleavage, implantation and clinical pregnancy rates between the endometriosis and tubal-factor groups.

CONCLUSIONS:

Our results showed that women with endometriosis have a lower oocyte yield and lower fertilization rate compared with women with tubal-factor infertility. However, once the oocyte is fertilized, it seems that the embryo has a normal chance of implantation, leading to similar pregnancy rates and adequately treated women with endometriosis have equal chances of conception as seen with tubal-factor infertility.

 

 

 

 

J Neurosurg Spine. 2014 Nov;21(5):799-804.

Endometriosis of the conus medullaris causing cyclic radiculopathy.

Steinberg JA1Gonda DDMuller KCiacci JD.

 

Abstract

Intramedullary spinal cord hematomas are a rare neurosurgical pathological entity typically arising from vascular and neoplastic lesions. Endometriosis is an extremely rare cause of intramedullary spinal cord hematoma, with only 5 previously reported cases in the literature. Endometriosis is characterized by ectopic endometrial tissue, typically located in the female pelvic cavity, that causes a cyclical pain syndrome, bleeding, and infertility. In the rare case of intramedullary endometriosis of the spinal cord, symptoms include cyclical lower-extremity radiculopathies and voiding difficulties, and can acutely cause cauda equina syndrome. The authors report a case of endometriosis of the conus medullaris, the first to include radiological, intraoperative, and histopathological imaging. A brief review of the literature is also presented, with discussion including etiological theories surrounding intramedullary endometriosis.

 

 

Urol J. 2014 Sep 6;11(4):1806-12.

Diagnosis and treatment of ureteral endometriosis: study of 23 cases.

Mu D1Li X2Zhou G3Guo H3.

 

Abstract

PURPOSE:

To describe our experience in the diagnosis and treatment of 23 patients with ureteral endometriosis.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

We performed a retrospective analysis of 23 cases of ureteral endometriosis with histopathological results from 2002 to 2011.

RESULTS:

In patients with ureteral endometriosis, 23 cases were diagnosed by ultrasound, 21 by intravenous urography, 11 by retrograde urography, 16 by computed tomography, and 8 with magnetic resonance imaging. All cases were treated by operative treatment. The treatments included ureterolysis in 3 cases, partial ureteral resection and ureteroneocystostomy in 6 cases, partial ureteral resection and end-to-end ureteral anastomosis in 12 cases, and endoscopic resection of ureteral endometriosis lesion in 2 cases. All of the pathologic exam­ination results were endometriosis.

CONCLUSION:

Our findings suggest that surgery is an effective treatment option in most patients with ureteral endometriosis exhibiting mild or moderate to severe hydronephrosis. The type of technique depends on the location and depth of the lesion.

 

 

Reprod Sci. 2015 Apr;22(4):502-10.

Unremitting cell proliferation in the secretory phase of eutopic endometriosis: involvement of pAkt and pGSK3β.

Franco-Murillo Y1Miranda-Rodríguez JA2Rendón-Huerta E3Montaño LF3Cornejo GV4Gómez LP4Valdez-Morales FJ1Gonzalez-Sanchez I1Cerbón M5.

 

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Endometriosis is linked to altered cell proliferation and stem cell markers c-kit/stem cell factor (SCF) in ectopic endometrium. Our aim was to investigate whether c-kit/SCF also plays a role in eutopic endometrium.

DESIGN:

Eutopic endometrium obtained from 35 women with endometriosis and 25 fertile eumenorrheic women was analyzed for in situ expression of SCF/c-kit, Ki67, RAC-alpha serine/threonine-protein kinase (Akt), phosphorylated RAC-alpha serine/threonin-protein kinase (pAkt), Glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3β), and phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (pGSK3β), throughout the menstrual cycle.

RESULTS:

Expression of Ki67 and SCF was higher in endometriosis than in control tissue (P < .05) and greater in secretory rather than proliferative (P < .01) endometrium in endometriosis. Expression of c-kit was also higher in endometriosis although similar in both phases. Expression of Akt and GSK3β was identical in all samples and cycle phases, whereas pAkt and pGSK3β, opposed to control tissue, remained overexpressed in the secretory phase in endometriosis.

CONCLUSION:

Unceasing cell proliferation in the secretory phase of eutopic endometriosis is linked to deregulation of c-kit/SCF-associated signaling pathways.

 

 

Emerg Radiol. 2015 Apr;22(2):207-9.

A rare presentation of catamenial hemoptysis as a solitary pulmonary nodule.

Kim KW1Lee JIKim EYKim HLee SHKang SMKim YSKim JH.

 

Abstract

Thoracic endometriosis is a rare disorder characterized by the presence of functioning endometrial tissue within the pleura, lung parenchyma, or the airways. We report a case of catamenial hemoptysis with a rare presentation, that is, as a solitary pulmonary nodule with an internal cavity and surrounding ground glass opacity.

 

 

 

Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2014 Oct;181:267-74.

Circulating endometrial cells in peripheral blood.

Bobek V1Kolostova K2Kucera E3.

 

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

Endometriosis is a common disorder amongst women of reproductive age. Despite extensive research, no reliable blood tests currently exist for the diagnosis of endometriosis

STUDY DESIGN:

We report several new approaches enabling study of cell specific characteristic of endometrial cells, introducing enrichment and culturing of viable circulating endometrial cells (CECs) isolated from peripheral blood (PB) and peritoneal endometrial cells (PECs) from peritoneal washing (PW). Size-based enrichment method (MetaCell(®), Czech Republic) has been used for the filtration of PB and PW in patients with diagnosed endometriosis.

RESULTS:

The PECs were found in the PW in all of the tested patients (n=17), but CECs) only in 23.5% (4/17) cases. Their endometrial origin has been proved by immunohistochemistry. PECs were successfully cultured in vitro directly on the separating membrane (9/17) exhibiting both endometrial cell phenotypes: stromal and glandular within the culture. CECs were successfully cultured in the two of the four positive cases, but in none of them confluence has been reached. The occurrence in CECs in PB is clear and very specific evidence of an active endometrial disease.

CONCLUSIONS:

We demonstrated efficient, quick and user friendly endometrial cells capture platform based on a cell size. Furthermore, we demonstrated an ability to culture the captured cells, a critical requirement for post-isolation cellular analysis directed to better understanding of endometriosis pathogenesis.

 

 

Int J Cancer. 2015 Apr 15;136(8):1985-90.

Difference in mesothelin-binding ability of serum CA125 between patients with endometriosis and epithelial ovarian cancer.

Sasaki A1Akita KIto FMori TKitawaki JNakada H.

 

Abstract

The epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) is an aggressive malignant tumor, and is currently the leading cause of gynecologic cancer death. CA125 is the most commonly used serum marker for EOC, but shows a high-false-positive rate for several benign diseases such as endometriosis. The purpose of our study is therefore to identify a useful biochemical tool for detecting qualitative differences between CA125 from patients with endometriosisand EOC, and to facilitate differential diagnosis of these diseases. In our study, using two different CA125-binding molecules, i.e., recombinant mesothelin and an anti-CA125 monoclonal antibody, a novel sandwich ELISA for determining the serum levels of CA125 with mesothelin-binding ability (CA125(meso) ) was developed, and tested for patients with endometriosis (n = 59) and EOC (n = 36). We found that both the serum CA125(meso) level and the ratio of the serum CA125(meso) to CA125 levels (CA125(meso) /CA125) were significantly higher in patients with EOC than in patients with endometriosis (p < 0.00005 and p < 0.000001, respectively). Furthermore, receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that the CA125(meso) assay was superior to the conventional antibody-based CA125 assay in discriminating endometriosis from EOC. Thus, mesothelin-binding ability may be a useful indicator for qualitatively evaluating CA125 in patients with endometriosis and EOC.

 

 

 

 

 

Minim Invasive Surg. 2014;2014

How to evaluate adenomyosis in patients affected by endometriosis?

Di Donato N1Seracchioli R1.

 

Abstract

Objective. The aim of the study is to evaluate adenomyosis in patients undergoing surgery for different type of endometriosis. It is an observational study including women with preoperative ultrasound diagnosis of adenomyosis. Demographic data and symptoms were recorded (age, body mass index, parity, history of previous surgery, dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, dyschezia, dysuria, and abnormal uterine bleeding). Moreover a particular endometrial shape “question mark sign” linked to the presence of adenomyosis was assessed. Results. From 217 patients with ultrasound diagnosis of adenomyosis, we found 73 with ovarian histological confirmation of endometriosis, 92 with deep infiltrating endometriosis, and 52 patients who underwent surgery for infertility. Women with adenomyosis alone represented the oldest group of patients (37.8 ± 5.18 years, P = 0.02). Deep endometriosis patients were nulliparous more frequently (P < 0.0001), had history of previous surgery (P = 0.004), and complained of more intense pain symptoms than other groups. Adenomyosis alone was significantly associated with abnormal uterine bleeding (P < 0.0001). The question mark sign was found to be strongly related to posterior deep infiltrating endometriosis (P = 0.01). Conclusion. Our study confirmed the strong relationship between adenomyosis and endometriosis and evaluated demographic aspects and symptoms in patients affected by different type of endometriosis.

 

 

Obstet Gynecol. 2014 Oct;124(4):787-93.

Intracorporeal electromechanical tissue morcellation: a critical review and recommendations for clinical practice.

Kho KA1Anderson TLNezhat CH.

 

Abstract

Electromechanical morcellators have come under scrutiny with concerns about complications involving iatrogenic dissemination of both benign and malignant tissues. Although the rapidly rotating blade has resulted in morcellator-related vascular and visceral injuries, equally concerning are the multiple reports in the literature demonstrating seeding of the abdominal cavity with tissue fragmented such as leiomyomas, endometriosis, adenomyosis, splenic and ovarian tissues, and occult cancers of the ovaries and uterus. Alternatives to intracorporeal electric morcellation for tissue extirpation through the vagina and through minilaparotomy are feasible, safe, and have been shown to have comparable, if not superior, outcomes without an increased need for laparotomy. Intracorporeal morcellation within a containment bag is another option to minimize the risk of iatrogenic tissue seeding. Patient safety is a priority with balanced goals of maximizing benefits and minimizing harm. When intracorporeal electromechanical morcellation is planned, physicians should discuss the risks and consequences with their patients. Although data are being collected to quantify and understand these risks more clearly, a minimally invasive alternative to unenclosed intracorporeal morcellation is favored when available. It is incumbent on surgeons to communicate the risks of practices and devices and to advocate for continued improvement in surgical instrumentation and techniques.

 

 

Obstet Gynecol. 2014 Oct;124(4):709-17.

Association of history of surgery for endometriosis with severity of deeply infiltrating endometriosis.

Sibiude J1Santulli PMarcellin LBorghese BDousset BChapron C.

 

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To assess whether a history of surgery for endometriosis could be considered as a marker for disease severity.

METHODS:

This cross-sectional study included 780 women with histologically proven endometriosis who underwent surgery. We compared 309 patients with a history of surgery for endometriosis (study group) with 471 patients who did not receive prior surgical intervention (control group). Multivariate logistic regression was performed to assess the risk of deeply infiltrating endometriosis (defined by invasion of the muscularis by endometriotic tissue).

RESULTS:

Patients with a history of surgery displayed an increased prevalence of deeply infiltrating endometriosis (242 patients [78.3%] compared with 210 patients [44.6%], respectively; P<.001). Moreover, the study group showed significantly higher stage, mean total (P<.001), and mean adhesions (P<.001) scores based on the American Society for Reproductive Medicine classification system. Furthermore, history of previous surgery remained independently associated with the presence of deeply infiltrating endometriosis(compared with superficial endometriosis and ovarian endometrioma grouped together) in multivariate regression analysis, which adjusted for preoperative pain scores, age, body mass index, smoking habits, oral contraceptive pill use, infertility, and parity (adjusted odds ratio 2.96, 95% confidence interval 1.99-4.39; P<.001). The number of previous surgeries for endometriosis correlated significantly with lesion severity. Among women presenting with deeply infiltrating endometriosis (n=452), surgical history was significantly associated with a higher mean number of deeply infiltrating endometriosis lesions (3.1 ± 1.9 compared with 2.6 ± 1.8; P=.001) and with increased severity of deeply infiltrating endometriosis lesions, especially in the case of intestinal lesions (159 patients [66.0%] compared with 77 patients [37%], P<.001).

CONCLUSION:

A history of surgery for endometriosis correlates with the presence and severity of deeply infiltrating endometriosis, which underlines the necessity of a thorough preoperative assessment and a complete information of these patients before undertaking subsequent surgeries.

 

 

J Mol Histol. 2015 Feb;46(1):33-43.

The intricate role of mast cell proteases and the annexin A1-FPR1 system in abdominal wall endometriosis.

Paula R Jr1Oliani AHVaz-Oliani DCD’Ávila SCOliani SMGil CD.

 

Abstract

Endometriosis is a continuous and progressive disease with a poorly understood aetiology, pathophysiology and natural history. This study evaluated the histological differences between eutopic and ectopic endometria (abdominal wall endometriosis) and the expression of mast cell proteases (tryptase and chymase), annexin A1 (ANXA1) and formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1). Ectopic endometrium from 18 women with abdominal wall endometriosis and eutopic endometrium from 10 women without endometriosis were obtained. The endometrial samples were analysed by histopathology, immunohistochemistry and ultrastructural immunogold labeling to determine mast cell heterogeneity (tryptase and chymase positive cells) and the expression levels of ANXA1 and FPR1. Histopathological analysis of the endometriotic lesions showed a glandular pattern of mixed differentiation and an undifferentiated morphology with a significant influx of inflammatory cells and a change in mast cell heterogeneity, as evidenced by a significant increase in the number of chymase-positive cells and endogenous chymase expression. The undifferentiated glandular pattern of endometriotic lesions was positively associated with a marked increase and co-localization of ANXA1 and FPR1 in the epithelial cells. In conclusion, the co-upregulated expression of mast cell chymase and ANXA1-FPR1 system in ectopic endometrium suggests their involvement in the development of endometriotic lesions.

 

 

Eur J Pharm Sci. 2014 Dec 18;65:15-20.

Evaluation of biodegradable microspheres containing nomegestrol acetate in a rat model of endometriosis.

Zhang J1Zhu Y2Zhou X3Hao S3Xie S3Zhou J3Guo X3Li Z3Huang Y4Chen Q5.

 

Abstract

We assessed the efficacy of biodegradable microspheres (MSs) containing nomegestrol acetate (NOMAC) for treatment of endometriosis in a rat model and investigated its preliminary mechanism of action. Sprague-Dawley rats with surgically implanted endometrial autografts were divided randomly into four groups of thirteen rats each, and subcutaneously injected twice (10d apart) with either empty MSs or MSs containing nomegestrol acetate (NOMAC-MS; 27-800mg per kg of rat body weight). Twenty-one days after the first injection, blood and endometriotic tissues were collected and assayed for changes in endometriotic tissue, serum hormone, liver function parameters, and apoptotic protein. No remarkable irritation was observed at the site of injection. NOMAC-MS treatment significantly reduced the volume of the endometrial autografts, decreased serum levels of estradiol, progesterone, triiodothyronine, and alanine aminotransferase, and decreased levels of estrogen receptor alpha protein. Furthermore, NOMAC-MS at the highest dose significantly reduced serum aspartate aminotransferase and endometrial antibody, reduced the Bcl-2/Bax protein ratio, and increased caspase-3 and caspase-9 proteins. There was no pronounced difference observed in alkaline phosphatase, carbohydrate antigen 125, progesterone receptor, or vascular endometrial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) in any of the tested groups relative to the control. NOMAC-MS significantly changed the expression of apoptotic protein only at the highest dose. Our findings warrant the further investigation of sustained application of steroid hormone via microspheres for the treatment of endometriosis.

 

 

Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2014 Oct;181:289-93.

Prevalence of adenomyosis in women undergoing surgery for endometriosis.

Di Donato N1Montanari G2Benfenati A2Leonardi D2Bertoldo V2Monti G2Raimondo D2Seracchioli R2.

 

Abstract

OBJECTIVE(S):

To evaluate the prevalence of adenomyosis in patients undergoing surgery for endometriosis.

STUDY DESIGN:

Retrospective study including 1618 women with preoperative clinical and ultrasound diagnosis of endometriosis. As preoperative assessment, all patients underwent ultrasound to assess endometriosis and all features associated with adenomyosis (heterogeneous myometrial echotexture, globular-appearing uterus, asymmetrical thickness of anteroposterior wall of the myometrium, subendometrial myometrial cysts, subendometrial echogenic linear striations or poor definition of the endometrial-myometrial junction).

RESULTS:

Adenomyosis was present in 353/1618 (21.8%) women included in the study. Multivariate analysis showed that the prevalence of adenomyosis was significantly associated with deep infiltrating endometriosis, parity, dysmenorrhea intensity and women’s age (P<0.0001).

CONCLUSION(S):

Adenomyosis is a common condition but its aetiology and natural history are still unknown. Our experience showed a 21.8% of prevalence of adenomyosis in patients affected by endometriosis and its association with parous women, increasing age, dysmenorrhea intensity and with the presence of deep infiltrating endometriosis.

 

 

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2014;2014

Bian zheng lun zhi as a complementary and alternative treatment for menstrual cramps in women with dysmenorrhea: a prospective clinical observation.

Lin PY1Tsai YT1Lai JN2Yeh CH3Fang RC1.

 

Abstract

Background. Limited scientific evidence supports the positive effects of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for treating dysmenorrhea. Thus, an observation period of 3 months could verify the ancient indication that TCM treatments effectively alleviate menstrual cramps in women with primary dysmenorrhea or endometriosis. Methods. A prospective, nonrandomized study (primary dysmenorrhea and endometriosis groups) was conducted in women with dysmenorrhea for more than three consecutive menstrual cycles. All patients received TCM prescriptions based on bian zheng lun zhi theory 14 days before menstruation for a period of 12 weeks. Pain intensity was evaluated using a 10-cm visual analogue scale and two validated questionnaires (the Menstrual Distress Questionnaire and the World Health Organization Quality of Life questionnaire). Results. Of the initial 70 intent-to-treat participants, the women with dysmenorrhea reported significant alleviation of cramps during menstruation after the 12-week TCM treatment. Mixed model analysis revealed that TCM prescriptions were more effective in alleviating fatigue, hot flashes, dizziness, painful breasts, excitement, and irritability in the primary dysmenorrhea group (N = 36) than in the endometriosis group (N = 34). Conclusion. TCM prescriptions based on syndrome differentiation theory might be a potentially viable choice for treating painful menstruation and premenstrual symptoms after ruling out endometriosis.

 

 

Acta Med Port. 2014 Jul-Aug;27(4):489-97

Angiogenesis as a therapeutic target in endometriosis.

Djokovic D1Calhaz-Jorge C2.

 

Abstract

in EnglishPortuguese

INTRODUCTION:

Angiogenesis is a key factor for the successful establishment and growth of endometriotic lesions.

MATERIAL AND METHODS:

We performed a literature search in PubMed and reviewed the most pertinent studies published until January 2014 and focused on the endometriosis-associated angiogenesis and/or anti-angiogenic strategies for the treatment of this gynecological disorder.

RESULTS:

The present review provides a concise summary of the known molecular mechanisms that promote vascularization of endometriotic lesions and may serve as potential therapeutic targets. We also present a systematic overview of the inclusive and exclusive anti-angiogenic agents that have been already studied in cell cultures, animal models and/or endometriosis patients.

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION:

The integration of anti-angiogenic approaches in the multimodal management strategies for endometriosis patients will be conditioned by the outcomes of future assessments regarding the effectiveness of such treatments, the risk of drug resistance development and the incidence of unacceptable side effects.

 

 

J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2014 Oct;144 Pt B:427-35.

Molecular determinants of the recognition of ulipristal acetate by oxo-steroid receptors.

Petit-Topin I1Fay M1Resche-Rigon M2Ulmann A2Gainer E2Rafestin-Oblin ME1Fagart J3.

 

Abstract

The human progesterone receptor (PR) plays a key role in reproductive function in women. PR antagonists have numerous applications in female health care including regular and emergency contraception, and treatment of hormone-related pathological conditions such as breast cancer, endometriosis, and leiomyoma. The main factor limiting their long-term administration is the fact that they cross-bind to other oxo-steroid receptors. Ulipristal acetate (UPA), a highly potent PR antagonist, has recently come onto the market and is much more selective for PR than the other oxo-steroid receptors (androgen, AR, glucocorticoid, GR, and mineralocorticoid, MR receptors) and, remarkably, it displays lower GR-inactivating potency than RU486. We adopted a structural approach to characterizing the binding of UPA to the oxo-steroid receptors at the molecular level. We solved the X-ray crystal structure of the ligand-binding domain (LBD) of the human PR complexed with UPA and a peptide from the transcriptional corepressor SMRT. We used the X-ray crystal structure of the GR in its antagonist conformation to dock UPA within its ligand-binding cavity. Finally, we generated three-dimensional models of the LBD of androgen and mineralocorticoid receptors (AR and MR) in an antagonist conformation and docked UPA within them. Comparing the structures revealed that the network of stabilizing contacts between the UPA C11 aryl group and the LBD is responsible for its high PR antagonist potency. It also showed that it is the inability of UPA to contact Gln642 in GR that explains why it has lower potency in inactivating GR than RU486. Finally, we found that the binding pockets of AR and MR are too small to accommodate UPA, and allowed us to propose that the extremely low sensitivity of MR to UPA is due to inappropriate interactions with the C11 substituent. All these findings open new avenues for designing new PR antagonist compounds displaying greater selectivity.

 

 

Hum Reprod. 2014 Nov;29(11):2446-56

Intra-uterine microbial colonization and occurrence of endometritis in women with endometriosis†.

Khan KN1Fujishita A2Kitajima M3Hiraki K3Nakashima M4Masuzaki H3.

 

Abstract

STUDY QUESTION:

Is there any risk of intra-uterine bacterial colonization and concurrent occurrence of endometritis in women with endometriosis?

SUMMARY ANSWER:

An increase in intra-uterine microbial colonization and concurrent endometritis occurred in women with endometriosis that was further increased after GnRH agonist (GnRHa) treatment.

WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY:

Higher bacterial contamination of menstrual blood and increased endotoxin level in menstrual and peritoneal fluids have been found in women with endometriosis than in control women. However, information on intra-uterine microbial colonization across the phases of the menstrual cycle and possible occurrence of endometritis in women with endometriosis is still lacking.

STUDY DESIGN, SIZE AND DURATION:

This is a case-controlled study with prospective collection of vaginal smears/endometrial samples from women with and without endometriosis and retrospective evaluation.

PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS:

Vaginal smears and endometrial smears were collected from 73 women with endometriosis and 55 control women. Twenty of the women with endometriosis and 19 controls had received GnRHa therapy for a period of 4-6 months. Vaginal pH was measured by intra-vaginal insertion of a pH paper strip. The bacterial vaginosis (BV) score was analyzed by Gram-staining of vaginal smears and based on a modified Nugent-BV scoring system. A panel of bacteria was analyzed by culture of endometrial samples from women treated with GnRHa or not treated. Immunohistochemcial analysis was performed using antibody against Syndecan-1 (CD138) and myeloperoxidase in endometrial biopsy specimens from women with and without endometriosis.

MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE:

A significant shifting of intra-vaginal pH to ≥4.5 was observed in women with endometriosis compared with control women (79.3 versus 58.4%, P < 0.03). Compared with untreated women, use of GnRHa therapy also shifted vaginal pH to ≥4.5 in both control women (P = 0.004) and in women with endometriosis (P = 0.03). A higher risk of increasing intermediate flora (total score, 4-6) (P = 0.05) was observed in women with endometriosis who had GnRHa treatment versus untreated women. The number of colony forming units (CFU/ml) of Gardnerella, α-Streptococcus, Enterococci and Escherichia coli was significantly higher in endometrial samples from women with endometriosis than control women (P < 0.05 for each bacteria). GnRHa-treated women also showed significantly higher colony formation for some of these bacteria in endometrial samples than in untreated women (Gardnerella and E. coli for controls; Gardnerella, Enterococci and E. coli for women with endometriosis, P < 0.05 for all). Although there was no significant difference in the occurrence of acute endometritis between women with and without endometriosis, both GnRHa-treated controls and women with endometriosis had a significantly higher occurrence of acute endometritis (P = 0.003 for controls, P = 0.001 for endometriosis versus untreated women). Multiple analysis of covariance analysis revealed that an intra-vaginal pH of ≥4.5 (P = 0.03) and use of GnRHa (P = 0.04) were potential factors that were significantly and independently associated with intra-uterine microbial colonization and occurrence of endometritis in women with endometriosis. These findings indicated the occurrence of sub-clinical uterine infection and endometritis in women with endometriosis after GnRHa treatment.

LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION:

We cannot exclude the introduction of bias from unknown previous treatment with immunosuppressing or anti-microbial agents. We have studied a limited range of bacterial species and used only culture-based methods. More sensitive molecular approaches would further delineate the similarities/differences between the vaginal cavity and uterine environment.

WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS:

Our current findings may have epidemiological and biological implications and help in understanding the pathogenesis of endometriosis and related disease burden. The worsening of intra-uterine microbial colonization and higher occurrence of endometritis in women with endometriosis who were treated with GnRHa identifies some future therapeutic avenues for the management, as well as prevention of recurrence, of endometriosis. Further studies are needed to examine intra-uterine colonization of a broad range of common bacteria as well as different viruses and their role in the occurrence of endometritis.

STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTERESTS:

This work was supported by Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research from the Ministry of Education, Sports, Culture, Science and Technology of Japan. There is no conflict of interest related to this study.

 

 

Hum Reprod. 2014 Nov;29(11):2457-64

A population-based case-control study of urinary bisphenol A concentrations and risk of endometriosis.

Upson K1Sathyanarayana S2De Roos AJ3Koch HM4Scholes D5Holt VL6.

 

Abstract

STUDY QUESTION:

Is bisphenol A (BPA) exposure associated with the risk of endometriosis, an estrogen-driven disease of women of reproductive age?

SUMMARY ANSWER:

Our study suggests that increased urinary BPA is associated with an increased risk of non-ovarian pelvic endometriosis, but not ovarian endometriosis.

WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY:

BPA, a high-volume chemical used in the polymer industry, has been the focus of public and scientific concern given its demonstrated estrogenic effects in vivo and in vitro and widespread human exposure. Prior studies of BPA and endometriosis have yielded inconsistent results and were limited by the participant sampling framework, small sample size or use of serum (which has very low/transient concentrations) instead of urine to measure BPA concentrations.

STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION:

We used data from the Women’s Risk of Endometriosis study, a population-based case-control study of endometriosis, conducted among female enrollees of a large healthcare system in the US Pacific Northwest. Cases were women with incident, surgically confirmed endometriosis diagnosed between 1996 and 2001 and controls were women randomly selected from the defined population that gave rise to the cases, without a current or prior diagnosis of endometriosis.

PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTINGS, METHODS:

Total urinary BPA concentrations were measured in 143 cases and 287 population-based controls using single, spot urine samples collected after disease diagnosis in cases. Total urinary BPA concentration (free and conjugated species) was quantified using a high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using unconditional logistic regression, adjusting for urinary creatinine concentrations, age and reference year. We also evaluated the association by disease subtypes, ovarian and non-ovarian pelvic endometriosis, that may be etiologically distinct.

MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE:

We did not observe a statistically significant association between total urinary BPA concentrations and endometriosis overall. We did observe statistically significant positive associations when evaluating total urinary BPA concentrations in relation to non-ovarian pelvic endometriosis (second versus lowest quartile: OR 3.0; 95% CI: 1.2, 7.3; third versus lowest quartile: OR 3.0; 95% CI: 1.1, 7.6), but not in relation to ovarian endometriosis.

LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION:

Given the short elimination half-life of BPA, our study was limited by the timing of collection of the single urine sample, that occurred after case diagnosis. Thus, our BPA measurements may not accurately represent the participants’ levels during the etiologically relevant time period for endometriosis development. In addition, since it was not feasible in this population-based study to surgically confirm the absence of disease, it is possible that some controls may have had undiagnosed endometriosis.

WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS:

By using population-based data, it is more likely that the controls represented the underlying frequency of BPA exposure in contrast to prior studies that used for comparison control women undergoing surgical evaluation, where the indication for surgery may be associated with BPA exposure. The significant associations observed in this study suggest that BPA may affect the normal dynamic structural changes of hormonally responsive endometrial tissue during the menstrual cycle, promoting the establishment and persistence of refluxed endometrial tissue in cases with non-ovarian pelvic endometriosis. Further research is warranted to confirm our novel findings in endometriosis subtypes that may be etiologically distinct.

STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTERESTS:

This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (grant number R03 ES019976), the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (grant number R01 HD033792); US Environmental Protection Agency, Science to Achieve Results (STAR) (grant number R82943-01-0) and National Institute of Nursing Research (grant number F31NR013092) to KU for training support. This work was supported in part by the Intramural Research Program of the National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official view of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institute of Nursing Research or the National Institutes of Health. The authors have no actual or potential competing financial interests.

 

 

Balkan Med J. 2013 Sep;30(3):287-92

The status of telomerase enzyme activity in benign and malignant gynaecologic pathologies.

Gül I1Dündar O2Bodur S3Tunca Y4Tütüncü L2.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Telomeres are essential for the function and stability of eukaryotic chromosomes. Telomerase consists of three subunits: human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), human telomerase RNA (hTR), and telomerase protein 1 (TP1). The hTERT subunit determines the activity of telomerase as an enzyme and is detected in most human tumors and regenerative cells. Telomerase activity is a useful cancer-cell detecting marker in some types of cancers.

AIMS:

The aim of this study was to assess of telomerase hTERT mRNA in gynaecological tumors for diagnosis of malignancy.

STUDY DESIGN:

Cross-sectional study.

METHODS:

A total of 55 gynaecologic tumor samples (35 ovarian, 13 endometrial, 6 cervical and 1 placental site trophoblastic tumor tissue) were obtained at the time of surgery. Quantification of hTERT mRNA was performed in a real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using the LightCycler TeloTAGGG hTERT Quantification Kit.

RESULTS:

It was histopathologically detected that 18 of the tissue samples were malignant and 37 of the samples were benign. 16 of the malignant tissue samples (88.9%) and 3 (8.1%) (endometrial tissue in proliferative phase, mucinous cyst adenoma and endometriosis) of the benign tissue samples were found to be hTERT positive. With the presence of these data, sensitivity and specificity of hTERT for the diagnosis of malignancy were calculated to be 88.9% and 91.9%, respectively.

CONCLUSION:

It was suggested that the measurement of telomerase activity in gynaecologic tumors, except for endometrial tissue in the reproductive phase, is a valuable method for pathological investigation.

 

 

 

PLoS One. 2014 Sep 10;9

The peritoneum is both a source and target of TGF-β in women with endometriosis.

Young VJ1Brown JK1Saunders PT1Duncan WC1Horne AW1.

 

Abstract

Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is believed to play a major role in the aetiology of peritoneal endometriosis. We aimed to determine if the peritoneum is a source of TGF-β and if peritoneal TGF-β expression, reception or target genes are altered in women with endometriosis. Peritoneal fluid, peritoneal bushings and peritoneal biopsies were collected from women with and without endometriosis. TGF-β1, 2 and 3 protein concentrations were measured in the peritoneal fluid. TGF-β1 was measured in mesothelial cell conditioned media. Control peritoneum and peritoneum prone to endometriosis (within Pouch of Douglas) from women without disease (n = 16) and peritoneum distal and adjacent to endometriosis lesions in women with endometriosis (n = 15) and were analysed for TGF-β expression, reception and signalling by immunohistochemistry, qRT-PCR and a TGF-β signalling PCR array. TGF-β1 was increased in the peritoneal fluid of women with endometriosis compared to those without disease (P<0.05) and peritoneal mesothelial cells secrete TGF-β1 in-vitro. In women with endometriosis, peritoneum from sites adjacent to endometriosis lesions expressed higher levels of TGFB1 mRNA when compared to distal sites (P<0.05). The TGF-β-stimulated Smad 2/3 signalling pathway was active in the peritoneum and there were significant increases (P<0.05) in expression of genes associated with tumorigenesis (MAPK8, CDC6), epithelial-mesenchymal transition (NOTCH1), angiogenesis (ID1, ID3) and neurogenesis (CREB1) in the peritoneum of women with endometriosis. In conclusion, the peritoneum, and in particular, the peritoneal mesothelium, is a source of TGF-β1 and this is enhanced around endometriosis lesions. The expression of TGF-β-regulated genes is altered in the peritoneum of women with endometriosis and this may promote an environment favorable to lesion formation.

 

 

 

 

 

PLoS One. 2014 Sep 10;9(9)

Null genotypes of GSTM1 and GSTT1 and endometriosis risk: a meta-analysis of 25 case-control studies.

Zhu H1Bao J2Liu S1Chen Q3Shen H1.

 

Abstract

Endometriosis is one of the most frequent benign gynecological disorders. Numerous studies have shown an association between GSTM1 and/or GSTT1 polymorphisms and endometriosis susceptibility. However, these associations remain inconclusive. To derive a more precise estimation, we conducted a comprehensive search to identify all existing studies and then performed a meta-analysis. Electronic literature searches of the PubMed, Chinese Biomedical, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases were performed up to December 2013. GSTM1-, GSTT1-, and dual-null genotypes were analyzed independently, and pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated by comparing the null genotype with other genotypes using the random-effects or fixed-effects model. Twenty-five and 16 independent studies on GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms, respectively, and five GSTM1-GSTT1 interaction analyses were identified and included in this meta-analysis. Both GSTM1- and GSTT1-null genotypes increased risk of endometriosis (OR = 1.54, 95% CI: 1.30-1.83, P<0.001; OR = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.10-1.82, P = 0.007; respectively). Moreover, we found a significant positive association between the dual null genotype GSTM1-GSTT1 and endometriosis susceptibility (OR = 1.33, 95% CI: 1.03-1.72, P = 0.027). This meta-analysis provides evidence that null genotypes of GSTM1 and/or GSTT1 contribute to risk of endometriosis. Further investigations are required to confirm these findings.

 

 

Reprod Sci. 2015 Jan;22(1):31-7.

The relationship among HOXA10, estrogen receptor α, progesterone receptor, and progesterone receptor B proteins in rectosigmoid endometriosis: a tissue microarray study.

Zanatta A1Pereira RM2Rocha AM3Cogliati B4Baracat EC5Taylor HS6Motta EL7Serafini PC5.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Very few studies have evaluated the expression of homeobox A10 (HOXA10) and steroid (estrogen and progesterone) receptors exclusively in deep endometriosis. Conclusions drawn from studies evaluating peritoneal and ovarian endometriosis are usually generalized to explain the pathogenesis of the disease as a whole. We aimed to evaluate the expression of HOXA10, estrogen receptor α (ER-α), progesterone receptor (PR), and PR-B in rectosigmoid endometriosis (RE), a typical model of deep disease.

METHODS:

We used RE samples from 18 consecutive patients to construct tissue microarray blocks. Nine patients each were operated during the proliferative and secretory phases of the menstrual cycle. We quantified the expressions of proteins by immunohistochemistry using the modified Allred score.

RESULT:

The HOXA10 was expressed in the stroma of nodules during the secretory phase in 5 of the 18 patients. Expression of ER-α (in 16 of 18 patients), PR (in 17 of 18 patients), and PR-B (17 of 18 patients) was moderate to strong in the glands and stroma of nodules during both phases. Expression of both PR (P = .023) and PR-B (P = .024) was significantly greater during the secretory phase.

CONCLUSION:

The HOXA10 is expressed in RE, where it likely imparts the de novo identity of endometriotic lesions. The ER-α, PR, and PR-B are strongly expressed in RE, which differs from previous studies investigating peritoneal and ovarian lesions. This suggests different routes of pathogenesis for each of the 3 types of endometriosis.

 

 

J Natl Cancer Inst. 2014 Sep 13;106(10).

Analysis of serial ovarian volume measurements and incidence of ovarian cancer: implications for pathogenesis.

Bodelon C1Pfeiffer RM2Buys SS2Black A2Sherman ME2.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Accumulating evidence suggests that many ovarian cancers represent metastases from occult fallopian tube carcinomas or tumors arising within ovarian endometriosis. We hypothesized that small ovarian volumes, as reflected in nonvisualization by transvaginal ultrasound (TVU), would be a marker of lower ovarian cancer risk, whereas enlargement on serial examinations would indicate higher risk.

METHODS:

To address these hypotheses, we analyzed serial ovarian volume measurements determined by TVU for 29321 women (102787 scans) performed in the ovarian cancer screening arm of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) trial. Cox models were used to compute hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) as measures of association between TVU results and ovarian cancer. We assessed whether increasing ovarian volume preceded diagnosis of ovarian cancer in a nested case-control analysis comparing case patients and control patients matched on age, center, and screening year (1:4 ratio). All statistical tests were two-sided.

RESULTS:

Visualization of normal-appearing ovaries at the last TVU scan was associated with marginally higher ovarian cancer risk compared with nonvisualization of the ovaries (HR = 1.42, 95% CI = 1.00 to 2.01). Ovarian volume increased statistically significantly in ovarian cancer case patients one to two years before diagnosis (P < .001), but not in matched control patients.

CONCLUSION:

Our analysis of TVU data suggests that increasing ovarian volume is associated with greater ovarian cancer risk, but it is only detectable one to two years before diagnosis.

 

 

 

Biomed Pharmacother. 2014 Sep;68(7):899-904.

Identification of local angiogenic and inflammatory markers in the menstrual blood of women with endometriosis.

da Silva CM1Vilaça Belo A1Passos Andrade S2Peixoto Campos P2Cristina França Ferreira M1Lopes da Silva-Filho A1Mendonça Carneiro M3.

 

Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of myeloperoxidase (MPO), N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in peripheral and menstrual blood in women with (n=10) and without (n=7) endometriosis. NAG and MPO activities were evaluated by enzymatic methods, whereas TNF-α and VEGF by immunoassay. No significant differences were found for these markers, neither in menstrual nor in peripheral blood between groups. Menstrual blood NAG (P=0.039) and MPO (P=0.0117) activities in the endometriosis group were significantly higher than in peripheral blood. NAG and MPO presented positive linear correlation in peripheral (P=0.07; r=0.641) and menstrual blood (P=0.01; r=0.603). These findings point to the existence of an increased local inflammatory activity in women with endometriosis.

 

Lascia un commento

Cerca

Utilizzando il sito, accetti l'utilizzo dei cookie da parte nostra. maggiori informazioni

Questo sito utilizza i cookie per fornire la migliore esperienza di navigazione possibile. Continuando a utilizzare questo sito senza modificare le impostazioni dei cookie o cliccando su "Accetta" permetti il loro utilizzo.

Chiudi