Int Urogynecol J. 2016 Jan;27(1):147-50.

Recognition and treatment of endometriosis involving the sacral nerve roots.

Lemos N1D’Amico N2Marques R3Kamergorodsky G3Schor E3Girão MJ3.

 

Abstract

INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS:

Endometriosis involving the sacral plexus is still poorly understood or neglected by many surgeons. Looking at that scenario, we have designed this educational video to explain and describe the symptoms suggestive of endometriotic involvement of the sacral plexus in addition to the technique for the laparoscopic treatment of this condition.

METHODS:

Retrospective analysis of 13 consecutive cases of endometriotic entrapment of nerves of the lumbosacral plexus.

RESULTS:

Paired t test revealed a statistically significant (p < 0.0000001) reduction in pain VAS score, from preoperative average 9.1 (±1.98) to postoperative 1.46 (±1.66). Twelve out of 13 patients (92.3%) experienced a reduction of 50% or more in VAS score and 6 (46.15%) became completely pain-free.

CONCLUSION:

The signs suggestive of intrapelvic nerve involvement include perineal pain or pain irradiating to the lower limbs, lower urinary tract symptoms, tenesmus or dyschezia associated with gluteal pain. Whenever deeply infiltrating lesions are present, the patient must be asked about those symptoms and specific MRI sequences for the sacral plexus must be taken, so that the equipment and team can be arranged and proper treatment performed.

 

 

Int J Surg Pathol. 2015 Sep;23(6):465-71.

Malignant Transformation of Pelvic Endometriosis: Case Series and Review of the Literature.

Jaiman S1Pochiraju M1Gundabattula SR2Surampudi K1Narayana Rao DV1Kandikattu S1.

 

Abstract

Endometriosis affects 4% to 13% of all women of reproductive age although its true incidence is unknown. The ability of endometriosis to transform into malignancy, first described by Sampson in 1925, is a rare occurrence affecting 1% of lesions with ovary being the primary site in 79%. The authors describe 3 premenopausal women without risk factors for malignancy presenting with ovarian and/or extraovarian endometrioid adenocarcinoma. All of them demonstrated features of pre-/coexisting endometriosis but malignancy was preoperatively suspected in only 1 instance. Postsurgical follow-up of the cases did not document any recurrence. The propensity for malignant conversion occurring in women 10 to 20 years younger vis-a-vis those affected by de novo ovarian cancer, destruction of the endometriotic foci, and underreporting vindicate close follow-up and scrutiny of women with endometriosis and ovarian endometriomas.

 

 

Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2015 Jul;130(1):27-30.

The ARID1A pathway in ovarian clear cell and endometrioid carcinoma, contiguous endometriosis, and benign endometriosis.

Chene G1Ouellet V2Rahimi K3Barres V2Provencher D4Mes-Masson AM5.

 

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To assess ARID1A-encoded protein (BAF250a) and phosphorylated AKT (pAKT) expression, apoptosis, and the DNA damage response pathway in endometrioid and clear cell ovarian cancers (endometriosis-associated ovarian cancers [EAOCs]), and benign endometriotic ovarian cysts.

METHODS:

In a retrospective study, tissue samples were reviewed from patients who had undergone surgery for EAOC or endometriotic ovarian cysts at a center in Montreal, QC, Canada, between 2000 and 2012. A tissue microarray including cases of endometrioid carcinoma, clear cell carcinoma, contiguous endometriosis (i.e. apparently benign endometriosis near the EAOC), and benign endometriotic ovarian cysts, was analyzed for the expression of various proteins.

RESULTS:

Loss of BAF250a expression was seen in 13 (22%) of 59 endometrioid cancers, 17 (47%) of 36 clear cell cases, 8 (44%) of 18 contiguous endometriosis cases, and 3 (8%) of 66 benign endometriotic ovarian cysts. In tissues showing loss of BAF250a, expression of pAKT, γH2AX, BIM, and BAX was higher in EAOC and contiguous endometriosis than in benign endometriosis (P<0.05), whereas expression of pATM, pCHK2, and Bcl2 was low. All proteins except for Bcl2 showed low expression in benign endometriosis.

CONCLUSION:

Loss of ARID1A-encoded protein seems to be an early event in EOAC, along with pAKT activation, alteration of γH2AX, and concomitant activation of the apoptosis pathway.

 

 

Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2015 Apr;19(7):1146-54.

Diagnostic findings in adenomyosis: a pictorial review on the major concerns.

Graziano A1Lo Monte GPiva ICaserta DKarner MEngl BMarci R.

 

Abstract

Adenomyosis is a benign pathology with a marked impact on women in reproductive age. The prevalence of adenomyosis ranges from 5 to 70%. Dysmenorrhea, metrorrhagia, chronic pelvic pain, dyspareunia and infertility often occur, while a third of the women is asymptomatic. This pictorial review focuses on the peculiar patterns of presentation in adenomyosis. They are identified by means of non-invasive or minimally invasive techniques, with particular reference to 2D- and 3D-transvaginal sonography, sonohysterosalpingography, magnetic resonance imaging, and endoscopic techniques (i.e. hysteroscopy and laparoscopy).

 

 

Reprod Biomed Online. 2015 Jun;30(6):635-42.

The impact on ovarian reserve of haemostasis by bipolar coagulation versus suture following surgical stripping of ovarian endometrioma: a meta-analysis.

Ding W1Li M1Teng Y2.

 

Abstract

Concern is increasing that the use of bipolar coagulation or suturing to obtain haemostasis after surgical stripping of ovarian endometrioma could affect ovarian reserve. To compare the ovarian damage associated with the use of bipolar coagulation with ovarian suture as determined by anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), FSH and antral follicle count, 21 studies were identified. Pooled analysis of 312 patients showed the average serum level of AMH was lower in the coagulation group than in the suture group (3-month follow-up: weighted mean difference (WMD) -0.75 ng/ml, 95% confidence interval (CI) -1.82 to 0.31; 6 months: WMD -1.45 ng/ml, 95% CI -2.43 to -0.47; 12 months: WMD -1.01 ng/ml; 95% CI -1.85 to -0.17), although heterogeneity was high. The weighted overall average levels of FSH between the two groups were not statistically significantly different 3 months after surgery (WMD 0.37 mIU/ml; 95% CI -1.56 to 1.30). The mean antral follicle count in the coagulation group was significantly less than in the suture group at 3 months’ follow-up (WMD -2.53, with 95% CI -4.94 to -0.12). This study showed bipolar coagulation did more harm to the ovarian reserve than the suture haemostasis during excision of ovarian cyst as shown by a significant postoperative reduction in AMH.

 

 

Histopathology. 2015 Dec;67(6):866-71.

ARID1A expression in ovarian clear cell carcinoma with an adenofibromatous component.

Nishikimi K1Kiyokawa T2Tate S1Iwamoto M3Shozu M1.

 

Abstract

AIMS:

The carcinogenesis of ovarian clear cell carcinoma (CCC) has been hypothesized to comprise two different pathways: an adenofibroma-carcinoma sequence and an endometriosis-carcinoma sequence. However, the difference in the genetic basis of these two pathways remains unclear. Recent studies have suggested that an ARID1A mutation and the loss of the corresponding protein, BAF250a, are frequent events in CCC. Herein, we investigated the difference in the loss of BAF250a expression in adenofibroma-related CCC and endometriosis-related CCC.

METHODS AND RESULTS:

In total, 93 cases of surgically treated CCC were evaluated. The presence of adenofibroma and endometriosis associated with carcinoma was determined by reviewing haematoxylin and eosin-stained slides for each case. BAF250a expression in carcinoma was examined immunohistochemically. The loss of BAF250a expression was detected in carcinomas in 50 of 93 (54%) cases, including five of 18 (28%) with adenofibroma alone, 30 of 45 (67%) with endometriosis alone, eight of 18 (44%) with both conditions and seven of 12 (58%) with neither condition. The loss of BAF250a expression was significantly less frequent in CCC cases with adenofibroma than in cases with endometriosis (P = 0.01, Fisher’s exact test).

CONCLUSIONS:

The action of ARID1A in carcinogenesis differs between adenofibroma-related CCC and endometriosis-related CCC.

 

 

Asian J Endosc Surg. 2015 May;8(2):205-8.

Small bowel obstruction caused by endometriosis in a postmenopausal woman.

Izuishi K1Sano TShiota AMori HEbara K.

 

Abstract

We report a rare case of small bowel obstruction (SBO) caused by endometriosis in a postmenopausal woman. A 54-year-old postmenopausal woman presented with severe abdominal pain and vomiting. Before menopause, she sometimes had abdominal pain associated with menses. Axial multi-dimensional CT images revealed a SBO with small nodules near the terminal ileum. The obstruction was diagnosed as being caused by small bowel endometriosis. Curved planar reconstruction images showed a complicated obstruction of the small intestine 15 cm from the terminal ileum. Based on the stenotic lesion, a SILS procedure was performed. The patient’s SBO diagnosis was histologically confirmed as being caused by small bowel endometriosis. SILS was deemed to be a safe, feasible procedure for treating this bowel obstruction. Curved planar reconstruction images were useful in preoperative imaging and diagnosis of SBO, especially as they were able to highlight the constricting legion.

 

 

Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2015 Oct;46(4):501-5.

Ovarian response is a better predictor of clinical pregnancy rate following embryo transfer than is thin endometrium or presence of an endometrioma.

Coelho Neto MA1Martins WP1Lima ML1Barbosa MA1Nastri CO1Ferriani RA1Navarro PA1.

 

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

To examine whether endometrial thickness and the presence of endometrioma are independent predictors of clinical pregnancy rate or simply associated with poor ovarian response (POR).

METHODS:

This was a retrospective cohort study assessing the first cycle of all women undergoing in-vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in a university hospital in Brazil between January 2011 and December 2012. Only the first cycle of each woman within the study period was considered. Women over 40 years of age and those who used clomiphene citrate during controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) or did not undergo embryo transfer were excluded from analysis. POR was defined as ≤ three oocytes retrieved and a thin endometrium was defined as endometrial thickness ≤ 7.0 mm on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration. We performed a multiple regression analysis to identify which of the following parameters were independent predictors of clinical pregnancy: age, number of oocytes retrieved, endometrial thickness or the presence of endometrioma.

RESULTS:

Within the study period, 787 women began COS, but 270 were excluded from analysis. Among the 517 women analyzed, those who achieved pregnancy were younger and yielded more oocytes. The proportion of POR was higher in women with a thin endometrium (17/57 (29.8%) vs 80/460 (17.4%); P = 0.03) and in women with endometrioma (15/39 (38.5%) vs 82/478 (17.2%); P = 0.002). The results of regression analysis showed that only age and the number of oocytes retrieved were independent predictors of pregnancy. Additionally, we observed higher clinical pregnancy rates in women with a thin endometrium from whom ≥ seven oocytes were retrieved (11/25 (44.0%)) compared to women with normal endometrial thickness (99/241 (41.1%)). Considering only women from whom ≥ four oocytes were retrieved, we observed reasonable pregnancy rates in those with a thin endometrium (14/40 (35.0%)) and in those with endometrioma (9/24 (37.5%)).

CONCLUSION:

Both a thin endometrium and the presence of endometrioma are associated with POR but are not important independent predictors of clinical pregnancy. Good pregnancy rates can be observed when these conditions are present in women with a good ovarian response.

 

 

PLoS One. 2015 Apr 27;10(4)

Interplay between Endometriosis and Pregnancy in a Mouse Model.

Bilotas MA1Olivares CN1Ricci AG1Baston JI1Bengochea TS1Meresman GF1Barañao RI1.

 

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

To evaluate the effect of endometriosis on fertility and the levels of the IL-2 and IFN-γ in the peritoneal fluid in a mouse model; to evaluate the effect of pregnancy on endometriotic lesion growth, apoptosis and cell proliferation.

STUDY DESIGN:

Two month old C57BL/6 female mice underwent either a surgical procedure to induce endometriosis or a sham surgery. Four weeks after surgery mice were mated and sacrificed at day 18 of pregnancy. Number of implantation sites, fetuses and fetal weight were recorded. Endometriotic lesions were counted, measured, excised and fixed. Apoptosis and cell proliferation were evaluated in lesions by TUNEL and immunohistochemistry for PCNA respectively. Levels of IL-2 and IFN-γ were assessed by ELISA in the peritoneal fluid.

RESULTS:

Pregnancy rate (i.e. pregnant mice/N) decreased in mice with endometriosis. However there were no significant differences in resorption rate, litter size and pup weight between groups. IFN-γ augmented in endometriosis mice independently of pregnancy outcome. Additionally IFN-γ increased in pregnant endometriosis mice compared to pregnant sham animals. While IFN-γ increased in non pregnant versus pregnant mice in the sham group, IL-2 was increased in non pregnant mice in the endometriosis group. The size of endometriotic lesions increased in pregnant mice while apoptosis increased in the stroma and cell proliferation decreased in the epithelium of these lesions. Additionally, leukocyte infiltration, necrosis and decidualization were increased in the same lesions.

CONCLUSIONS:

Pregnancy rate is reduced in this mouse model of endometriosis. Levels of IL-2 are increased in the peritoneal fluid of mice with endometriosis suggesting a role of this cytokine in infertility related to this disease. The size of endometriotic lesions is increased in pregnant mice; however pregnancy has a beneficial effect on lesions by decreasing cell proliferation and by increasing apoptosis, decidualization and necrosis.

 

 

Int J Colorectal Dis. 2015 Jul;30(7):907-12

The risk of irritable bowel syndrome in patients with endometriosis during a 5-year follow-up: a nationwide population-based cohort study.

Wu CY1Chang WPChang YHLi CPChuang CM.

 

Abstract

PURPOSE:

Studies have suggested that endometriosis may coexist with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Using a population-based cohort study, we followed subjects for a 5-year period to identify the risk of IBS after a diagnosis of endometriosis.

METHODS:

This cohort study used the Taiwan National Health Insurance Database as a source of subjects. A total of 6076 patients with endometriosis from 2000 to 2005 were identified. Their data were compared with those of 30,380 age-matched controls without endometriosis who were randomly selected from the same database. All subjects were tracked for 5 years from the date of cohort entry to identify the risk of IBS. The Cox model was used to evaluate the 5-year event occurrence of IBS.

RESULTS:

Nine hundred twenty-six patients were diagnosed with IBS, including 256 in the case cohort (4.2%) and 670 in the control cohort (2.2%). The Kaplan-Meier survival curves demonstrated significantly lower event-free rates in the case cohort than in the control cohort (P = 0.001). After adjusting for urbanization level, monthly income, residential region and comorbidities, the hazard ratio (HR) within 5 years revealed a 1.79-fold (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.55-2.07) greater risk among the cases than the controls. The HR was higher within the first year of follow-up (HR 1.90, 95% CI 1.42-2.55) and in those women aged 25-34 years (HR 2.17, 95% CI 1.61-2.92).

CONCLUSIONS:

The risk of IBS among endometriosis patients persisted over 5 years of follow-up. The association detected in this study might have proceeded through shared risk and pathogenic factors.

 

J Minim Invasive Gynecol. 2015 Sep-Oct;22(6):944-50.

Surgical Excision of Advanced Endometriosis: Perioperative Outcomes and Impacting Factors.

Magrina JF1Espada M2Kho RM3Cetta R3Chang YH4Magtibay PM3.

 

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To determine perioperative outcomes and factors impacting operating time, length of hospital stay, and complications of patients undergoing surgery for stage 3 or 4 endometriosis.

DESIGN:

Retrospective review of medical records (Canadian Task Force classification II-2).

SETTING:

Mayo Clinic Hospital, Phoenix, Arizona.

PATIENTS:

Women (n = 493) with endometriosis stage 3 and 4 undergoing surgical excision between March 15, 2005, and December 31, 2011.

INTERVENTIONS:

Robotic-assisted (n = 331) or laparoscopic (n = 162) excision.

MEASUREMENTS:

Age, body mass index, comorbidities, number and type of procedures per patient, type of surgical approach, operating time, blood loss, intraoperative and postoperative complications (within 42 days), and length of hospital stay.

MAIN RESULTS:

The mean patient age was 39.5 years; body mass index, 25.9; number of procedures, 3.3; operating time, 130.4 minutes; blood loss, 88.5 mL; and hospital stay, 1.0 days. Major complications occurred in 5 patients (1.5%). Fifty-nine patients (12.0%) underwent modified radical hysterectomy, 90 (18.3%) underwent ureteral and/or intestinal resection, and 3 (0.6%) underwent diaphragm resection. Factors significantly associated with operating time included age (p = .008) and blood loss, number of procedures per patient, and robotics (all p < .001). Length of stay was affected by age, operating time, and blood loss (all p < .001). Operating time was the only significant factor associated with postoperative complications (p < .001).

CONCLUSION:

Operating time is an independent and significant factor for postoperative complications and hospital stay.

 

 

Int J Fertil Steril. 2015 Apr-Jun;9(1):71-80

Effect of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells transplantation on nerve fibers of a rat model of endometriosis.

Chen Y1Li D2Zhang Z3Takushige N4Kong BH3Wang GY3.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Endometriosis is a common, benign, oestrogen-dependent, chronic gynaecological disorder associated with pelvic pain and infertility. Some researchers have identified nerve fibers in endometriotic lesions in women with endometriosis. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have attracted interest for their possible use for both cell and gene therapies because of their capacity for self-renewal and multipotentiality of differentiation. We investigated how human umbilical cord-MSCs (hUC-MSCs) could affect nerve fibers density in endometriosis.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

In this experimental study, hUC-MSCs were isolated from fresh human umbilical cord, characterized by flow cytometry, and then transplanted into surgically induced endometriosis in a rat model. Ectopic endometrial implants were collected four weeks later. The specimens were sectioned and stained immunohistochemically with antibodies against neurofilament (NF), nerve growth factor (NGF), NGF receptor p75 (NGFRp75), tyrosine kinase receptor-A (Trk-A), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P (SP) to compare the presence of different types of nerve fibers between the treatment group with the transplantation of hUC-MSCs and the control group without the transplantation of hUC-MSCs.

RESULTS:

There were significantly less nerve fibers stained with specific markers we used in the treatment group than in the control group (p<0.05).

CONCLUSION:

MSC from human umbilical cord reduced nerve fiber density in the treatment group with the transplantation of hUC-MSCs.

 

 

Ginekol Pol. 2015 Mar;86(3):188-92.

Concentration of selected angiogenic factors in serum and peritoneal fluid of women with endometriosis.

Gogacz MGałczyński KRomanek-Piva KWinkler IRechberger TAdamiak-Godlewska A.

 

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

Endometriosis is a sex hormone-dependent and successively progressing gynecological disease, characterized by the presence of endometrial tissue outside the uterus. The etiology of endometriosis is known to be multifactorial, and its growth depends on immunological, hormonal, genetic and environmental factors. Angiogenesis plays a key role in implantation and growth of endometriotic lesions, as well as in adhesion formation. Physiologically angiogenesis is responsible for neoangiogenesis and recruitment of new capillaries from the already existing capillaries. It is well-documented that altered angiogenesis provokes improper follicular maturation, infertility recurrent miscarriages, ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, and carcinogenesis. Factors stimulating angionesis include angiogenin, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF).

OBJECTIVES:

The aim of the study was to analyze angiogenic factor concentration (angiogenin, VEGF, FGF) in blood serum and peritoneal fluid in patients with diagnosed endometriosis and idiopathic infertility.

MATERIAL AND METHODS:

A total of 39 patients were recruited for the study including 19 patients (study group) diagnosed with endometriosis during the laparoscopic procedure and 20 patients (control group) with idiopathic infertility and no morphologic changes within the pelvis revealed during the laparoscopic procedure. All patients underwent laparoscopy during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Vein blood sample was obtained before the procedure and during laparoscopy the entire peritoneal fluid was aspirated for further measurement of VEGF, FGF and angiogenin concentrations.

RESULTS:

Angiogenin concentration in peritoneal fluid was statistically higher in patient with idiopathic infertility in comparison to endometriosis (p<0.05). Higher angiogenin concentration was detected also in blood serum of patients with idiopathic infertility as compared to patients with endometriosis, but no statistical significance was found. VEGF and FGF concentration in blood serum and peritoneal fluid was similar in both groups (p>0.05). There were no significant differences between serum and peritoneal fluid in case of VEGF FGF and angiogenin in any of the groups.

CONCLUSIONS:

Angiogenic factors concentration (VEGF FGF agiogenin) in the peritoneal fluid and blood serum during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle is not a diagnostic criterion for endometriosis.

 

 

Ginekol Pol. 2015 Mar;86(3):193-7.

Evaluation of applicability of HE4 and ROMA in the preoperative diagnosis of adnexal masses.

Janas LGłowacka EWilczyński JRMalinowski ANowak M.

 

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of HE4 alone and in combination with CA 125 (ROMA) in selecting patients at high risk of adnexal malignancy.

MATERIAL AND METHODS:

Serum CA 125 and HE4 levels were determined and the ROMA value was calculated in 259 women qualified for surgery due to adnexal mass. The results were compared with histopathological findings.

RESULTS:

Sensitivity and specificity in preoperative diagnosis of primary ovarian cancer were 93.2% and 71.5% for CA 125 and 95.4% and 81.3% for HE4, respectively ROMA algorithm achieved sensitivity of 95.4% and specificity of 79.8%. All methods reached sensitivity of 100% at specificity of 65.6% for CA125, 93.4% for HE4 and 82.0% for ROMA in premenopausal women, whereas in postmenopausal women sensitivity and specificity achieved levels of 92.1% and 81.7% for CA 125, 94.7% and 60.6% for HE4 and 94.7% and 76.1% for ROMA, respectively Serum levels of both CA 125 and HE4 were significantly higher in women with primary ovarian cancer as compared to benign disease. Concentrations of CA 125 in patients with endometriosis were significantly elevated as compared to women with other benign tumors. Such relation was not observed when HE4 levels were concerned.

CONCLUSIONS:

CA 125, HE4 and ROMA are useful in preoperative diagnosis of ovarian malignancy HE4 improves the diagnostic accuracy in cases of endometriosis, verifying false positive results of CA 125.

 

 

Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2015 Nov;292(5):973-86

Correlation between dioxin and endometriosis: an epigenetic route to unravel the pathogenesis of the disease.

Sofo V1Götte M2Laganà AS3Salmeri FM1Triolo O4Sturlese E4Retto G4Alfa M1Granese R4Abrão MS5.

 

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

Environmental toxicants can act as endocrine disrupters on the female reproductive system. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is resistant to degradation and due to its lipophilic nature, accumulates in the fat tissue and in the food chain. Human and animal exposure to TCDD affects levels of the steroid receptors and steroid-responsive gene expression and has an impact on metabolism and serum transport of steroids. Gene expression is commonly altered in endometriosis and in the eutopic endometrium of women with the disease. Aberrantly expressed genes include those associated with the regulation of transcription, proliferation, sex steroid metabolism, apoptosis, cell cycle, the immune response and cell adhesion.

METHODS:

In this paper, we review the evidence about TCDD’s effect on eutopic and ectopic endometrium, in order to unravel the machinery behind the dysregulation of immune and hormonal homeostasis caused by this environmental toxicant.

CONCLUSION:

The evidence collected in this review suggests that TCDD could modulate transcription at multiple levels, including the epigenetic level, and via microRNAs, thus disturbing the physiologic processes mediated through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor pathways. Exposure to TCDD also modulates the immune response by influencing the production and action of endometrial cytokines and chemokines, destroying mucosal immunity of the reproductive tract and re-directing the tissue distribution and behavior of leukocytes. Despite this large body of evidence, current human-based epidemiological studies on the association between TCDD and endometriosis remain controversial.

 

 

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2015;16(8):3407-12.

Differentiation of benign from malignant adnexal masses by functional 3 tesla MRI techniques: diffusion-weighted imaging and time-intensity curves of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI.

Malek M1Pourashraf MMousavi ASRahmani MAhmadinejad NAlipour AHashemi FSShakiba M.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the accuracy of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value, and time-intensity curve (TIC) type analysis derived from dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging (DCE-MRI) in differentiating benign from malignant adnexal masses.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

47 patients with 56 adnexal masses (27 malignant and 29 benign) underwent DWI and DCE-MRI examinations, prior to surgery. DWI signal intensity, mean ADC value, and TIC type were determined for all the masses.

RESULTS:

High signal intensity on DWI and type 3 TIC were helpful in differentiating benign from malignant adnexal masses (p<0.001). The mean ADC value was significantly lower in malignant adnexal masses (p<0.001). An ADC value<1.20?10-3 mm2/s may be the optimal cutoff for differentiating between benign and malignant tumors. The negative predictive value for low signal intensity on DWI, and type 1 TIC were 100%. The pairwise comparison among the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves showed that the area under the curve (AUC) of TIC was significantly larger than the AUCs of DWI and ADC (p<0.001 for comparison of TIC and DWI, p<0.02 for comparison of TIC and ADC value).

CONCLUSIONS:

DWI, ADC value and TIC type derived from DCE-MRI are all sensitive and relatively specific methods for differentiating benign from malignant adnexal masses. By comparing these functional MR techniques, TIC was found to be more accurate than DWI and ADC.

 

 

Ugeskr Laeger. 2015 Apr 27;177(18):849-53.

Laparoscopic surgery of endometriomas reduces pain and subfertility.

Seyer-Hansen M1.

 

Abstract

The Cochrane collaboration has published two reviews on endometriosis in 2014. The review by Duffy et al analyses ten RCTs focussing on pain or subfertility, and laparoscopic surgery results in lower pain scores and increased clinical pregnancy rate compared to diagnostic laparoscopy. The other review by Brown & Farguhar describes 17 systematic reviews also reporting on pain and subfertility, and it highlights the finding of gestagen-releasing intrauterine system being more effective than expectant management regarding pain relief. Surgical treatment of endometriomas should be performed by excision rather than ablation.

 

 

Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Apr 30;(4):

Barrier agents for adhesion prevention after gynaecological surgery.

Ahmad G1O’Flynn HHindocha AWatson A.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Pelvic adhesions can form as a result of inflammation, endometriosis or surgical trauma. During pelvic surgery, strategies to reduce pelvic adhesion formation include placing barrier agents such as oxidised regenerated cellulose, polytetrafluoroethylene or fibrin sheets between the pelvic structures.

OBJECTIVES:

To evaluate the effects of barrier agents used during pelvic surgery on rates of pain, live birth and postoperative adhesions in women of reproductive age.

SEARCH METHODS:

We searched the following databases in February 2015: the Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group (MDSG) Specialised Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and trial registries. We handsearched relevant journals, conference proceedings and grey literature sources and we contacted pharmaceutical companies for information.

SELECTION CRITERIA:

Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of the use of barrier agents compared with other barrier agents, placebo or no treatment for the prevention of adhesions in women undergoing gynaecological surgery.

DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:

Two review authors independently assessed trials for eligibility and risk of bias and extracted the data. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) or mean differences (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using a fixed effect model. The overall quality of the evidence was assessed using GRADE (Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation) methods.

MAIN RESULTS:

Eighteen RCTs (1262 women) were included. Six RCTs randomised women; the remainder randomised pelvic organs. Laparoscopy (eight RCTs) and laparotomy (10 RCTs) were the primary surgical techniques. Indications for surgery included myomectomy (six RCTs), ovarian surgery (five RCTs), pelvic adhesions (five RCTs), endometriosis (one RCT) and mixed (one RCT). The sole indication for surgery in three of the RCTs was infertility. Twelve RCTs reported commercial funding; the rest did not state their source of funding.No studies reported either of our primary outcomes of pelvic pain and live birth. Oxidised regenerated cellulose (Interceed) versus no treatment at laparoscopy or laparotomy (13 RCTs)At second-look laparoscopy oxidised regenerated cellulose at laparoscopy was associated with reduced incidence of de novo adhesions (OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.30 to 0.83, three RCTs, 360 participants, I(2) = 75%, very low-quality evidence) and of re-formed adhesions (OR 0.17, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.41, three RCTs, 100 participants, I(2) = 36%, low quality evidence).At second-look laparoscopy no evidence was found of any difference between the groups in the incidence of de novo adhesions after laparotomy (OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.42 to 1.25, one RCT, 271 participants, I(2) = 41%, low-quality evidence). However, the incidence of re-formed adhesions was lower in the intervention group (OR 0.38, 95% CI 0.27 to 0.55, six RCTs, 554 participants, moderate-quality evidence). Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (Gore-Tex) versus no treatment at gynaecological surgery (one RCT) The evidence suggested that at second-look laparoscopy expanded polytetrafluoroethylene was associated with a reduction in new adhesion formation (OR 0.17, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.94, one RCT, 42 participants, low-quality evidence). Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (Gore-Tex) versus oxidised regenerated cellulose (Interceed) at gynaecological surgery (two RCTs)One RCT found no difference between the groups at second-look laparoscopy in the incidence of de novo adhesions (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.26 to 3.41, 38 participants, very low-quality evidence). A second RCT suggested that the expanded polytetrafluoroethylene group had a lower adhesion score (out of 11) (MD -3.79, 95% CI -5.12 to -2.46, 62 participants, very low-quality evidence) and a lower risk of re-formed adhesions (OR 0.13, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.80, 23 participants, very low-quality evidence). This last finding was sensitive to choice of effect estimate and no longer suggested a difference between the groups when a risk ratio was calculated (RR 0.36, 95% CI 0.13 to 1.01). Sodium hyaluronate and carboxymethylcellulose (Seprafilm) versus no treatment at gynaecological surgery (one RCT)Sodium hyaluronate and carboxymethylcellulose was associated with a lower adhesion score (out of 4) at second-look laparoscopy (MD 0.49, 95% CI 0.53 to 0.45, one RCT, 127 participants, moderate-quality evidence). Fibrin sheet versus no treatment at laparoscopic myomectomy (one RCT)There was no evidence of a difference between the groups in the incidence of de novo adhesions at second-look laparoscopy (OR 1.20, 95% CI 0.42 to 3.41, one RCT, 62 participants) or in adhesion score (out of 4) (MD 0.14, 95% CI -0.67 to 0.39, one RCT, 48 participants, low-quality evidence).Fourteen of the 18 RCTs reported adverse events. No events directly attributed to adhesion agents were reported.

AUTHORS’ CONCLUSIONS:

We found no evidence on the effects of barrier agents used during pelvic surgery on either pain or fertility outcomes in women of reproductive age.Low quality evidence suggests that oxidised regenerated cellulose (Interceed), expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (Gore-Tex) and sodium hyaluronate with carboxymethylcellulose (Seprafilm) may all be more effective than no treatment in reducing the incidence of adhesion formation following pelvic surgery. There is no conclusive evidence on the relative effectiveness of these interventions. There is no evidence to suggest that fibrin sheet is more effective than no treatment. No adverse events directly attributed to the adhesion agents were reported. The quality of the evidence ranged from very low to moderate. The most common limitations were imprecision and poor reporting of study methods. Most studies were commercially funded, and publication bias could not be ruled out.

 

 

Int J Womens Health. 2015 Apr 15;7:393-401.

Safety and tolerability of dienogest in endometriosis: pooled analysis from the European clinical study program.

Strowitzki T1Faustmann T2Gerlinger C3Schumacher U4Ahlers C5Seitz C6.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

In four randomized, controlled, European trials, dienogest 2 mg once daily demonstrated significant efficacy for lesion reduction and reduction in pain intensity in endometriosis. We describe a pooled analysis of the safety and tolerability data from these trials to confirm and further characterize the safety profile of dienogest in the treatment of endometriosis.

METHODS:

All 332 women treated with dienogest 2 mg who participated in the four clinical trials were included in the pooled analyses for safety assessments, including adverse events, laboratory tests, vital signs, body weight, and bleeding patterns. Safety variables were analyzed using descriptive statistics.

RESULTS:

Pooled analyses of this large patient population confirmed that dienogest 2 mg is well tolerated, with a favorable safety profile extending over a period up to 65 weeks in women with endometriosis. The most common adverse drug reactions were headache, breast discomfort, depressed mood, and acne, each occurring in <10% of women. All these adverse events were generally of mild-to-moderate intensity and associated with low discontinuation rates. The bleeding pattern associated with dienogest 2 mg was well tolerated, and only two women (0.6%) reported bleeding events as the primary reason for premature discontinuation. Laboratory and vital sign assessments indicated no safety concerns for dienogest. Estradiol levels were maintained within the low-physiological range, in support of previous evidence indicating that dienogest 2 mg demonstrates therapeutic efficacy without inducing estradiol deficiency.

CONCLUSION:

In this pooled analysis of 332 women with endometriosis, dienogest was well tolerated with a favorable safety profile extending over a period of up to 65 weeks. There is a paucity of randomized trial evidence to support the use of many treatments in endometriosis. These pooled analyses from four clinical trials of dienogest 2 mg represent a contribution to evidence-based medicine in endometriosis, providing outcomes of potential relevance to daily practice.

 

 

 

 

Reprod Sci. 2016 Apr;23(4):415-28.

Statins as Targeted “Magical Pills” for the Conservative Treatment of Endometriosis: May Potential Adverse Effects on Female Fertility Represent the “Dark Side of the Same Coin”? A Systematic Review of Literature.

Vitagliano A1Noventa M1Quaranta M2Gizzo S3.

 

Abstract

The aim of the study was to analyze all the available evidence from both in vitro and in vivo studies regarding the efficacy of statin therapy in the treatment of endometriosis, evaluating the potential efficacy, side effects, and contraindications of their administration in humans. We focused on defining the potential benefits that the administration of statins may have on patients affected by endometriosis and the possible adverse effects of such a therapy on ovarian function and fertility profile. According to our article selection criteria, we included in the review in vitro and in vivo studies performed on human or animal models. The systematic review of literature identified 24 eligible articles, 12 of which reported evidence regarding the effects of statins on endometrial/endometriotic cells and 12 regarding their effects on ovarian function and fertility. All articles seem to emphasize the utility of statin administration in the treatment of endometriosis due to their anti-proliferative/proapoptotic effects, their ability to reduce cell viability and migration, and the inhibition of angiogenesis and anti-inflammatory activities. Regarding the potential adverse effects on gonadal activities, steroidogenesis and fertility function, no conclusive data were collected in human models (excluding women affected by polycystic ovary syndrome in which significant decline of androgen levels was reported after statin treatment), while contrasting results were reported by studies conducted in in vitro and in vivo in animal models. Despite evidence supporting statins as the potential therapeutic agent for a targeted conservative treatment of endometriosis, the uncertainties regarding their impact on gonadal function may not define them as an appropriate therapy for all young fertile women.

 

 

Pain Med. 2015 Jul;16(7):1426-32

Menstrual-Cycle and Menstruation Disorders in Episodic vs Chronic Migraine: An Exploratory Study.

Spierings EL1,2Padamsee A1.

 

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Migraine is a chronic condition of recurring moderate-to-severe headaches that affects an estimated 6% of men and 18% of women. The highest prevalence is in those 18-49 years of age, generally when women menstruate. It is divided into episodic and chronic migraine depending on the total number of headache days per month being 14 or less or 15 or more, respectively. Migraine has been associated with menorrhagia, dysmenorrhea, and endometriosis, the latter particularly in chronic migraine.

METHODS:

We conducted a questionnaire survey of 96 women with migraine, 18-45 years old, to determine the occurrence of the menstrual-cycle disorders, oligomenorrhea, polymenorrhea, and irregular cycle, and the menstruation disorders, dysmenorrhea and menorrhagia, in episodic vs chronic migraine.

RESULTS:

The prevalence of menstrual-cycle disorders in general (41.2 vs 22.2%) and dysmenorrhea (51.0 vs 28.9%) was statistically significantly higher in the women with chronic migraine than in those with episodic migraine (P ≤ 0.05) (not corrected for multiple comparisons). Whether the migraine was menstruation sensitive, that is, the headaches consistently occurred or worsened with menstruation, did not impact the prevalence of menstrual disorders.

CONCLUSION:

We conclude that chronic migraine is possibly more often than episodic migraine associated with menstrual-cycle disorders in general and dysmenorrhea, without impact on menstruation sensitivity of the headaches.

 

 

J Assist Reprod Genet. 2015 Jun;32(6):991-7.

LH (Trp8Arg/Ile15Thr), LHR (insLQ) and FSHR (Asn680Ser) polymorphisms genotypic prevalence in women with endometriosis and infertility.

Schmitz CR1Souza CAGenro VKMatte UConto EdCunha-Filho JS.

 

Abstract

PURPOSE:

To verify if polymorphisms of LH (Trp8Arg/Ile15Thr), LH receptor (insLQ), and FSH receptor (Asn680Ser) are associated with endometriosis and infertility.

METHODS:

This is a prospective case-control study. Sixty-seven patients with endometriosis and infertility (study group) and 65 healthy fertile patients (control group) were enrolled in the study between July 2010 and July 2013. All patients had their endometriosis diagnosis made or excluded by laparoscopic surgery; study group was submitted to the surgery for infertility investigation and control group for tubal ligation. Day-3 serum hormones were collected from all patients. Analysis of nucleotide mutations for LH polymorphisms (Trp8Arg and Ile15Thr), LHR polymorphism (insLQ), and FSHR polymorphism (Asn680Ser) were performed by PCR.

RESULTS:

Day-3 FSH, estradiol and LH serum levels were not different between the groups, while CA-125 was higher in patients with endometriosis and infertility. All polymorphisms studied were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The prevalence of insLQ was significantly higher in patients with endometriosis and infertility (P = 0.005). Allele occurrence in control group was 0.10 versus 0.25 in infertile endometriosis group (P = 0.001). There was no difference regarding Trp8Arg/Ile15Thr (P > 0.05) and Asn680Ser (P > 0.05) prevalence between groups.

CONCLUSION:

This is the first time that prevalence of insLQ was shown to be higher in patients with endometriosis and infertility than in healthy fertile patients. There was no difference in LH and FSHR polymorphisms’ prevalence between groups.

 

 

Saudi Med J. 2015 May;36(5):630-3.

Sigmoid colon endometriotic mass. A rare cause of complete large bowel obstruction.

Al-Qahtani HH1Alfalah HAl-Salamah RAElshair AA.

 

Abstract

Large bowel obstruction is a rare complication of gastrointestinal endometriosis. A 32-year-old female patient presented to the emergency department with complaints of diffuse abdominal pain and constipation for 10 days with progressive abdominal distention and vomiting. Plain abdominal x-ray showed grossly dilated large bowel up to the sigmoid colon with no gas in the rectum. Abdominal computed tomography revealed hugely dilated large bowel up to the sigmoid colon, with sigmoid soft tissue mass. Flexible sigmoidoscopy showed a non-ulcerating sigmoid mass, with complete obstruction of the sigmoid colon, which impeded the further advancement of the scope. She underwent exploratory laparotomy with provisional diagnosis of complete large bowel obstruction due to sigmoid tumor. Sigmiodectomy with end colostomy was performed. Histopathology revealed endometrial glands with stroma in muscularis properia of the sigmoid colon mass. Endometriosis should be considered in women of reproductive age presenting with symptoms of large bowel obstruction.

 

 

 

Neurochem Res. 2015 Jun;40(6):1267-73.

Upregulation of αδ-1 Calcium Channel Subunit in the Spinal Cord Contributes to Pelvic Organ Cross-Sensitization in a Rat Model of Experimentally-Induced Endometriosis.

Wang Y1Zhang MXie FLi XBao MYang NShi RWang ZWu AGuan YYue Y.

 

Abstract

Pelvic organ cross-sensitization, also termed as viscero-visceral referred hyperalgesia, is a major contributor to painful endometriosis. Its underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Clinical and basic studies have shown that gabapentin, a drug that binds to the α2δ-1 subunit of voltage-dependent calcium channels (Cavα2δ-1), is effective in treating chronic visceral pain. Accordingly, we hypothesized that pelvic organ cross-sensitization in painful endometriosis is mediated by an upregulation of Cavα2δ-1 in the spinal cord. We examined if the dysregulation of spinal Cavα2δ-1 subunit may play an important role in the development of ectopic growths-to-colon cross-sensitization in a rat model of experimentally-induced endometriosis. Our findings suggest that there was an increased Cavα2δ-1 expression in the dorsal horn and an ectopic growths-to-colon cross-sensitization in female rats with established endometriosis. Intrathecal administration of gabapentin (300 μg) remarkably reduced the ectopic growths-to-colon cross-sensitization in rats with established endometriosis. Furthermore, intrathecal injection of Cavα2δ-1 antisense oligodeoxynucleotides reversed the ectopic growths-to-colon cross-sensitization and also normalized the upregulation of spinal Cavα2δ-1 expression in endometriosis rats. The current study suggests that the upregulation of Cavα2δ-1 in the spinal cord may contribute to pelvic organ cross-sensitization in painful endometriosis. Our study may provide a biological basis for selectively targeting this pathway to relieve viscero-visceral referred hyperalgesia in patients with painful endometriosis.

 

 

Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2015 Aug;130(2):190-4.

Endometriosis and associated symptoms among Nigerian women.

Fawole AO1Bello FA2Ogunbode O2Odukogbe AT2Nkwocha GC2Nnoaham KE3Zondervan KT4Akintan A2Abdus-Salam RA2Okunlola MA2.

 

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To determine the prevalence of endometriosis and identify associated symptoms among Nigerian women.

METHODS:

A cross-sectional study was conducted at a center in Ibadan, Nigeria, between October 2008 and December 2010. All women aged 18-45 years scheduled for their first diagnostic laparoscopy for gynecologic indications were enrolled. Participants completed a previously validated self-administered questionnaire. Endometriosis was diagnosed on the basis of visual evidence.

RESULTS:

Among 239 women analyzed, 115 (48.1%) had endometriotic lesions. Endometriosis was more common among women reporting dysmenorrhea and pelvic pain than among those not reporting these symptoms (20/28 [71.4%] vs 95/211 [45.0%]; P=0.009). Women who reported dysmenorrhea were significantly more likely to have endometriosis than were those without dysmenorrhea (90/171 [52.6%] vs 25/68 [36.8%]; P=0.027). The risk of endometriosis was not significantly increased in women with one pain symptom (odds ratio [OR]1.69; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.67-4.27), but was significantly increased in women with two (OR 2.70; 95% CI 1.13-6.52) or three (OR 4.87; 95% CI 1.88-12.82) pain symptoms (χ(2)trend=15.5; P<0.001). In a multivariate logistic regression model, only pain other than dysmenorrhea or dyspareunia independently predicted endometriosis (P=0.017).

CONCLUSION:

Endometriosis is fairly common among Nigerian women. Efforts to increase the awareness of endometriosis among the public, researchers, and clinicians are needed.

 

 

Fertil Steril. 2015 Jul;104(1):217-24.

Drospirenone induces decidualization in human eutopic endometrial stromal cells and reduces DNA synthesis of human endometriotic stromal cells.

Miyashita M1Koga K2Izumi G1Makabe T1Hasegawa A1Hirota Y1Hirata T1Harada M1Fujii T1Osuga Y1.

 

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To investigate the in vitro effect of drospirenone on human eutopic endometrial (EuSC) and ectopic endometriotic stromal cells (EcSC).

DESIGN:

Comparative and laboratory study. The experimental procedures were approved by the Institutional Review Board of the University of Tokyo (registration no. 0324-4).

SETTING:

University research laboratory.

PATIENTS(S):

Eight patients undergoing hysterectomy for benign gynecologic disease and 19 patients undergoing cystectomy or adnectomy for endometriosis.

INTERVENTION(S):

EuSC and EcSC were treated with drospirenone.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S):

For the analysis of decidualization of EuSC, cells were observed using microscopy, and the production of PRL was measured using enzyme immunoassay. For the analysis of DNA synthesis of EcSC, 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine incorporation was measured by ELISA. Cells in apoptosis were detected and measured by flow cytometry.

RESULT(S):

Drospirenone induced decidualization in EuSC, and the induction was negated by RU486. Drospirenone reduced DNA synthesis on EcSC, and this reduction was negated by RU486 or P receptor silencing, but not by aldosterone or mineralocorticoid receptor silencing. Drospirenone did not cause EcSC to undergo apoptosis.

CONCLUSION(S):

Our study demonstrates the direct effects of drospirenone: decidualization of EuSC and reduced DNA synthesis of EcSC, but it does not cause EsSC apoptosis.

 

 

Fertil Steril. 2015 Jul;104(1):119-23.e1.

External validation of the Endometriosis Fertility Index in a French population.

Boujenah J1Bonneau C2Hugues JN3Sifer C4Poncelet C3.

 

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To show an external validation of the Endometriosis Fertility Index (EFI) and to observe cumulated pregnancy rates after infertility management combining surgery and assisted reproductive technologies (ART).

DESIGN:

Observational study from January 2004 to December 2012.

SETTING:

Tertiary-care university hospital and ART center.

PATIENT(S):

Four hundred twelve infertile and endometriotic patients after laparoscopic surgery.

INTERVENTION(S):

Surgical diagnosis and treatment followed by spontaneous fertility or ART management.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S):

Spontaneous pregnancy rates and cumulative (spontaneous and ART) pregnancy rates according to the EFI.

RESULT(S):

A significant relationship between EFI and spontaneous pregnancy rates was observed at 12 months (P=.001). The least function score and complete removal of endometriotic lesions and pelvic adhesions were significantly associated with spontaneous pregnancy (P=.006). Cumulative pregnancy rate at 18 months was 78.8%. ART benefits for pregnancy rates were higher for patients with poor EFI.

CONCLUSION(S):

External validation of the EFI in a French population was demonstrated. Combining surgery for endometriosis and ART led to a 78.8% pregnancy rate at 18 months after surgery.

 

 

Fertil Steril. 2015 Jun;103(6):1544-50.e1-3.

Antral follicle count as a predictor of ovarian responsiveness in women with endometriomas or with a history of surgery for endometriomas.

Benaglia L1Candotti G2Busnelli A3Paffoni A2Vercellini P3Somigliana E3.

 

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To evaluate the accuracy of antral follicular count (AFC) in predicting ovarian responsiveness in ovaries with endometriomas or with a past history of surgical excision of endometriomas.

DESIGN:

Retrospective review.

SETTING:

Academic hospital.

PATIENT(S):

Eighty-three women for a total of 166 gonads.

INTERVENTION(S):

None.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S):

Total number of developing follicles.

RESULT(S):

The ovaries were characterized as four groups: [1] unoperated gonads without endometriomas (n = 42, control group), [2] unoperated gonads with endometriomas (n = 46), [3] operated gonads without endometriomas (n = 55), and [4] operated gonads with endometriomas (n = 23). The analyses subsequently considered all ovaries with endometriomas (groups 2 + 4, n = 69) and all operated ovaries (groups 3 + 4, n = 78). The capacity of AFC to predict low response (≤ 2 follicles) or hyperresponsiveness (≥ 7 follicles) was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic curves. We used a linear regression model to calculate the adjusted B coefficients. The adjusted B coefficients in unaffected ovaries, in all ovaries with endometriomas, and in all operated ovaries were 0.55 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.07-1.03), 0.76 (95% CI, 0.54-0.98), and 0.51 (95% CI, 0.26-0.76), respectively. The area under the curve (AUC) for the prediction of low response was 0.83 (95% CI, 0.68-0.99), 0.83 (95% CI, 0.73-0.93), and 0.74 (95% CI, 0.63-0.85), respectively. The AUC for the prediction of hyperresponse was 0.84 (95% CI, 0.70-0.97), 0.74 (95% CI, 0.63-0.85), and 0.77 (0.60-0.94), respectively.

CONCLUSION(S):

The accuracy of AFC for predicting ovarian response is similar in unaffected ovaries, ovaries with endometriomas and ovaries with a history of surgery for endometriomas.

 

 

Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2015 Sep;213(3):326-31

Endometriosis and atherosclerosis: what we already know and what we have yet to discover.

Santoro L1D’Onofrio F2Flore R2Gasbarrini A2Santoliquido A2.

 

Abstract

The possible association between endometriosis and atherosclerosis represents an emerging topic in the field of women’s health. In this Clinical Opinion paper, we analyze this theme focusing on the pathogenetic mechanisms of both diseases, deeply discussing about what is already known about this association and producing starting points about what we consider suitable to research in the near future with regard to cardiovascular involvement in women affected by endometriosis. We have identified 5 reports specifically carried out to investigate the relationship between atherosclerosis and endometriosis; these studies show the presence of subclinical atherosclerosis in women affected by endometriosis, susceptible of regression after surgical removal of endometriosis, with a possible prognostic relevance for variations of cardiovascular risk in these women. However, to date, no studies in literature have been carried out to investigate the real incidence of cardiovascular events in women with endometriosis.

 

 

Hum Reprod Update. 2015 Jul-Aug;21(4):536-51.

Predisposing factors to post-operative adhesion development.

Fortin CN1Saed GM2Diamond MP3.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Adhesion development is the most common sequelae of intra-abdominal and pelvic surgery and represents a significant, yet poorly understood, cause of morbidity among post-operative patients. It remains unclear, for example, exactly why adhesions form more frequently in certain tissues and/or patients, or at specific locations within them, as opposed to others. This review contributes to the growing knowledge pool by elucidating factors that potentially predispose to the development of adhesions. Given the strong correlation between a hypofibrinolytic state and adhesion formation, this review article will examine not only those factors that have been shown to directly predispose to adhesion development, but also those that are likely do so indirectly by means of altering the coagulation/fibrinolytic profile.

METHODS:

A literature search was performed using the PubMed database for all relevant English language articles up to February 2014. All of the identified articles were reviewed with particular attention to predisposing factors to post-operative adhesion development. In addition, the reference lists of each article were reviewed to identify additional relevant articles.

RESULTS:

Various factors have been shown to directly increase the risk of post-operative adhesion development; namely, certain genetic polymorphisms in the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, increased estrogen exposure, and endometriosis. In addition, numerous factors are known to increase the risk of fibrosis, therefore likely increasing the risk of adhesion development indirectly. These factors include genetic polymorphisms in plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, hyperglycemia, obesity, depression, binge alcohol consumption, anti-Parkinsonian medications, oral hormone therapy, pregnancy, and cancer.

CONCLUSIONS:

The literature reviewed in this paper will help to direct future research aimed at understanding the mechanisms that underlie the association of certain factors with adhesion development. This information will be crucial in the creation of adequate preventative and treatment strategies.

 

 

J Minim Invasive Gynecol. 2015 Sep-Oct;22(6):980-4.

Four Cases of Postoperative Pneumothorax Among 2814 Consecutive Laparoscopic Gynecologic Surgeries: A Possible Correlation Between Postoperative Pneumothorax and Endometriosis.

Hirata T1Nakazawa A2Fukuda S2Hirota Y2Izumi G2Takamura M2Harada M2Koga K2Wada-Hiraike O2Fujii T2Osuga Y2.

 

Abstract

STUDY OBJECTIVES:

To evaluate the frequency of pneumothorax after laparoscopic surgery and to identify possible correlations to endometriosis.

DESIGN:

Retrospective review.

SETTING:

Tokyo University Hospital between 2006 and 2013.

PATIENTS:

Four patients among a total of 2814 patients with a postoperative pneumothorax.

INTERVENTION:

Laparoscopic surgery for gynecologic benign disease. The main outcome was the clinical frequency and characteristics of the patients with postoperative pneumothorax.

MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:

We observed 4 (0.14%) cases of postoperative pneumothorax after laparoscopic surgery, all of whom were diagnosed with endometriomas and developed a right-sided pneumothorax. The incidence of postoperative pneumothorax in 1097 patients with endometriomas was 0.36%, which was significantly higher than those without endometriomas.

CONCLUSION:

The presence of endometrioma should be considered a risk factor for postoperative pneumothorax in gynecologic laparoscopic surgery.

 

 

J Minim Invasive Gynecol. 2015 Sep-Oct;22(6):929-31.

Laparoscopic Double Discoid Resection With a Circular Stapler for Bowel Endometriosis.

Kondo W1Ribeiro R2Zomer MT2Hayashi R2.

 

Abstract

STUDY OBJECTIVE:

To demonstrate the technique of laparoscopic double discoid resection with a circular stapler for bowel endometriosis.

DESIGN:

Case report (Canadian Task Force classification III).

SETTING:

Private hospital in Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil.

PATIENT:

A 33-year-old woman was referred to our service complaining about cyclic dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, chronic pelvic pain, and cyclic dyschezia. Transvaginal ultrasound with bowel preparation showed a 6-cm endometriotic nodule at the retrocervical area, uterosacral ligaments, posterior vaginal fornix, and anterior rectal wall, infiltrating up to the submucosa, 5 cm far from the anal verge.

INTERVENTIONS:

Under general anesthesia, the patient was placed in the dorsal decubitus position with her arms alongside her body and her lower limbs in abduction. Pneumoperitoneum was achieved using a Veres needle placed at the umbilicus. Four trocars were placed: a 10-mm trocar at the umbilicus for the zero-degree laparoscope; a 5-mm trocar at the right anterosuperior iliac spine; a 5-mm trocar in the midline between the umbilicus and the pubic symphysis, approximately 8 to 10 cm inferior to the umbilical trocar; and a 5-mm trocar at the left anterosuperior iliac spine. The entire pelvis was inspected for endometriotic lesions, and all implants in the anterior compartment of the pelvis were resected. The lesions located at the ovarian fossae were completely removed. The ureters were identified bilaterally, and both para-rectal fossae were dissected. The right hypogastric nerve was released from the disease laterally. The lesion was separated from the retrocervical area, and the posterior vaginal fornix was resected (reverse technique), leaving the disease attached to the anterior surface of the rectum. The lesion was shaved off the anterior rectal wall using a harmonic scalpel. A x-shaped stitch was placed at the anterior rectal wall using 2-0 mononylon suture. A 33-mm circular stapler was placed transanally under laparoscopic control, and once it reached the area to be resected, it was opened. A gap was created between the envil and the stapler. The anterior rectal wall was placed inside this gap with the aid of the stitch at the anterior rectal wall. The stapler was fired, and a piece of the anterior rectal wall was resected. The same procedure was performed using a 29-mm circular stapler, which allowed for the complete removal of the lesion. We usually perform the second discoid resection using a 29-mm circular stapler to allow an easy progression of the stapler through the rectum beyond the first stapler line, so not to put too much pressure on it. In our experience, the first discoid resection removes most of the disease, and the second discoid resection is only needed to remove a small amount of residual disease, along with the first staple line.

MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:

The procedure took 177 min, and the estimated blood loss was 100 mL. The patient started clear liquids 6 hours after the procedure, and was discharged 19 hours after that [1]. Pathological examination of the 2 strips of the anterior rectal wall revealed infiltration of the bowel wall by endometriotic tissue. She had an uneventful postoperative course, and was able to re-start sexual intercourse 50 days after surgery. Between January 2010 and January 2015, 315 women underwent laparoscopic surgery for the treatment of bowel endometriosis in our service. Among them, 16 (5.1%) were operated on by using the double discoid resection technique. Median age of the patients was 34 years, and median body mass index was 25.9 kg/m(2). Median preoperative cancer antigen-125 level was 26.5 U/mL (normal value is <35 U/mL). Median size of the rectosigmoid nodule was 35 mm (range: 30-60), and median distance from the anal verge was 10.5 cm (range: 5-15 cm). Median surgical time was 160 min (range: 54-210 min). Concomitant procedures included hysterectyomy (n = 5), partial cystectomy (n = 3), resection of the posterior vaginal fornix (n = 4), and appendectomy (n = 1). Median estimated intraoperative bleeding was 32.5 mL (range: 30-100), and median time of hospitalization was 19 hours (range: 10-41). Median American Fertility Society score was 46 (10-102). Two minor complications (12.5%) occurred in this initial series: 1 patient required bladder catheterization for urinary retention; and 1 patient developed a urinary tract infection that required oral antibiotic treatment. One major complication (6.2%) was observed; the patient developed fever and abdominal pain on the fourth postoperative day. She was re-operated, and the intraoperative diagnosis was pelviperitonitis. The abdominal cavity was inspected for any dehiscence of the bowel and then washed. She was discharged on the second day after re-operation with oral antibiotic therapy. In our daily practice, we are used to discharging our patients soon in the postoperative setting (19 hours for rectal shaving or discoid resection and 28 hours for segmental bowel resection) [1] because the rate of postoperative fistula seems to be low [2]. Because we still have not seen any fistulas after conservative surgery (rectal shaving, discoid resection, and double discoid resection), we usually prefer to perform this type of surgery compared with segmental bowel resection, when possible.

CONCLUSIONS:

Laparoscopic double discoid resection with circular stapler may be an alternative to segmental bowel resection in selected patients with bowel endometriosis.

 

 

Balkan J Med Genet. 2015 Apr 10;17(2):73-80.

A novel angiogenesis inhibitor bevacizumab induces apoptosis in the rat endometriosis model.

Soysal D1Kızıldağ S2Saatlı B1Posacı C1Soysal S3Koyuncuoğlu M4Doğan Ö1.

 

Abstract

Our aim was to investigate the effects of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) antibody Bevacizumab on endometrial explants and on apoptotic gene expression levels in the rat endometriosis model. Endometriotic implants were surgically formed, and rats treated with (i) 1 mg/kg single subcutaneous injection of depot leuprolide acetate; (ii) 2.5 mg/kg of single intaperitoneal injection of bevacizumab; (iii) intraperitoneal injection of saline. Histopathologic scores and adhesion scores of endometriotic foci and levels of Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), Cytochrome c (Cyt-c), B-cell lymphoma/leukemia 2 (Bcl-2) and B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xl) mRNA gene expressions of endometriotic foci. Bevacizumab treatment decreased the endometriotic explant size compared with control. Bevacizumab-treated rats had lower total adhesion scores when compared with the control group. Semi-quantitative evaluation of the persistence of endometrial epithelial cells in the explants showed a lower score in gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist-treated rats compared with control rats. In Bevacizumab increased expression of Bax 3.1-fold, Cyt-c 1.3-fold and decreased expression of Bcl-2 0.4-fold, Bcl-xl 0.8-fold compared with the control group. The GnRH agonist increased expression of Bax 3.0 fold, Cyt-c 1.3 fold and decreased expression of Bcl-2 0.4-fold, Bcl-xl 0.8-fold, compared with the control group. This study suggests that a novel angiogenesis inhibitor, anti-VEGF antibody bevacizumab is as effective as GnRH agonist in the regression of the endometriotic lesions in rat endometriosis model. One possible mechanism of this effect is the induction of apoptosis.

 

 

World J Gastroenterol. 2015 Apr 28;21(16):4997-5001.

Role of colonoscopy in the diagnostic work-up of bowel endometriosis.

Milone M1Mollo A1Musella M1Maietta P1Sosa Fernandez LM1Shatalova O1Conforti A1Barone G1De Placido G1Milone F1.

 

Abstract

AIM:

To evaluate the accuracy of colonoscopy for the prediction of intestinal involvement in deep pelvic endometriosis.

METHODS:

This prospective observational study was performed between September 2011 and July 2014. Only women with both a clinical and imaging diagnosis of deep pelvic endometriosis were included. The study was approved by the local ethics committee and written informed consent was obtained in all cases. Both colonoscopy and laparoscopy were performed by expert surgeons with a high level of expertise with these techniques. Laparoscopy was performed within 4 wk of colonoscopic examination. All hypothetical colonoscopy findings (eccentric wall thickening with or without surface nodularities and polypoid lesions with or without surface nodularities of endometriosis) were compared with laparoscopic and histological findings. We calculated the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for the presence of colonoscopic findings of intestinal endometriosis.

RESULTS:

A total of 174 consecutive women aged between 21-42 years with a diagnosis of deep pelvic endometriosis who underwent colonoscopy and surgical intervention were included in our analysis. In 76 of the women (43.6%), intestinal endometrial implants were found at surgery and histopathological examination. Specifically, 38 of the 76 lesions (50%) were characterized by the presence of serosal bowel nodules; 28 of the 76 lesions (36.8%) reached the muscularis layer; 8 of the 76 lesions (10.5%) reached the submucosa; and 2 of the 76 lesions (2.6%) reached the mucosa. Colonoscopic findings suggestive of intestinal endometriosis were detected in 7 of the 174 (4%) examinations. Colonoscopy failed to diagnose intestinal endometriosis in 70 of the 76 women (92.1%). A colonoscopic diagnosis of endometriosis was obtained in all cases of mucosal involvement, in 3 of 8 cases (37.5%) of submucosal involvement, in no cases of muscularis layer involvement and in 1 of 38 cases (2.6%) of serosa involvement. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive and negative predictive values of colonoscopy for the diagnosis of intestinal endometriosis were 7%, 98%, 85% and 58%, respectively.

CONCLUSION:

Being an invasive procedure, colonoscopy should not be routinely performed in the diagnostic work-up of bowel endometriosis.

 

 

Case Rep Obstet Gynecol. 2015;2015:

Tubocutaneous fistula.

Nayini K1Gie C1.

 

Abstract

Introduction. Tubocutaneous fistula is a very rare condition; most cases described in the literature are secondary to endometriosis, tuberculosis, and complications of child birth and gynecological operations. Case Presentation. We report a case of 40-year-old woman who presented with tubocutaneous fistula secondary to pelvic inflammatory disease which was diagnosed in the setting of persistent discharging wound in the right groin. Conclusion. Tubocutaneous fistula is a rare condition. Salpingectomy and resection of fistulous tract is the treatment of choice as is treating the underlying cause. Early diagnosis and treatment of these patients are essential for avoiding long term complications.

 

 

Reprod Sci. 2015 Nov;22(11):1452-60.

Higher SOD1 Gene Expression in Cumulus Cells From Infertile Women With Moderate and Severe Endometriosis.

Donabela FC1Meola J1Padovan CC1de Paz CC2Navarro PA3.

 

Abstract

It is questioned whether worsening of oocyte quality and oxidative stress (OS) are involved in the pathogenesis of infertility related to endometriosis and in compromised intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcomes. Cumulus cells (CCs) protect oocytes from entering apoptosis induced by OS. Thus, we carried out a case-control study comparing expression of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2), and glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4; genes encoding for the main antioxidant enzymes) in CCs from mature oocytes of 26 infertile patients with minimal/mild endometriosis, 14 patients with moderate/severe endometriosis, and 41 controls undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation for ICSI, using real-time polymerase chain reaction. As a secondary objective, we investigated the interaction between the expression of these genes and clinical pregnancy (CP) by a statistical model. Only infertile women with moderate/severe endometriosis showed increased expression of the SOD1 in CCs compared to women with minimal/mild endometriosis and controls, with a positive interaction between increased expression and the occurrence of CP, suggesting that SOD1 might be a potential biomarker of CP following ICSI.

 

 

J Cytol. 2015 Jan-Mar;32(1):71-3.

Role of fine needle aspiration cytology and cell block in diagnosis of scar endometriosis: A case report.

Dash S1Panda S2Rout N2Samantaray S2.

 

Abstract

Presence of endometrial glands and stroma in places other than the uterus is called endometriosis. It can be pelvic or extra-pelvic. Abdominal scar endometriosis is an extra-pelvic endometriosis that can occur after surgery involving the uterus. Post-caesarean section, scar endometriosis is a rare event. The diagnosis is frequently made only after excision of disease tissue. We present a case of post-caesarean section abdominal scar endometriosis presenting as a tumor on the abdominal wall, which was diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology and confirmed by cell block preparation.

 

 

PLoS One. 2015 May 7;10(5):e0125559.

Combined 17β-Estradiol with TCDD Promotes M2 Polarization of Macrophages in the Endometriotic Milieu with Aid of the Interaction between Endometrial Stromal Cells and Macrophages.

Wang Y1Chen H1Wang N1Guo H1Fu Y1Xue S1Ai A1Lyu Q1Kuang Y1.

 

Abstract

The goal of this study is to elucidate the effects of 17β-estradiol and TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin) on macrophage phenotypes in the endometriotic milieu. Co-culture of endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) and U937 cells (macrophage cell line) was performed to simulate the endometriotic milieu and to determine the effects of 17β-estradiol and/or TCDD on IL10, IL12 production and HLA-DR, CD86 expression by U937 macrophages. We found that combining 17β-estradiol with TCDD has a synergistic effect on inducing M2 activation when macrophages are co-cultured with ESCs. Moreover, the combination of 17β-estradiol and TCDD significantly enhanced STAT3 and P38 phosphorylation in macrophages. Differentiation of M2 macrophages induced by 17β-estradiol and TCDD were effectively abrogated by STAT3 and P38MAPK inhibitors, but not by ERK1/2 and JNK inhibitors. In conclusion, 17β-estradiol and TCDD in the ectopic milieu may lead to the development of endometriosis by inducing M2 polarization of macrophages through activation of the STAT3 and P38MAPK pathways.

 

 

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol. 2015 Apr;54(2):126-30

Novel markers in the diagnostics of endometriomas: Urocortin, ghrelin, and leptin or leukocytes, fibrinogen, and CA-125?

Chmaj-Wierzchowska K1Kampioni M2Wilczak M3Sajdak S4Opala T5.

Author information

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

CA-125 protein is used as a marker in clinical practice for the diagnosis of endometriomas. The aim of this study was to determine whether endometriomas are accompanied by an increased level of urocortin, ghrelin, and leptin, as well as the increased parameters of blood cell count, fibrinogen, and CA-125.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

The study included 86 women aged 18-38 years who had been treated laparoscopically for lesions in the adnexa with the characteristics of endometriomas and mature teratoma, during the period September 2009 to November 2012. The statistical analysis was performed using the nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test and the Spearman rank correlation coefficients (p ≤ 0.05).

RESULTS:

The medians were 105.31 pg/mL versus 120.84 pg/mL for urocortin, 7.16 pg/mL versus 9.13 pg/mL for leptin and 584.33 pg/mL versus 657.82 pg/mL for ghrelin (p > 0.05), respectively. Analyzing the parameters of blood cell count, statistically significant differences were shown in the respective groups for leucocyte level (5.35 × 10(9)/L vs. 6.7 × 10(9)/L; p = 0.029), fibrinogen level (3.12 mg% vs. 2.57 mg%; p = 0.001), and CA-125 (36.50 U/mL vs. 15.08 U/mL; p = 0.001).

CONCLUSION:

In conclusion, the prognostic values for CA-125, leukocytes, and fibrinogen may prove a very useful tool for the diagnosis of lesions in the adnexa of the type endometriomas.

 

 

BMC Womens Health. 2015 May 8;15:39

Clinical diagnosis of pelvic endometriosis: a scoping review.

Riazi H1Tehranian N2Ziaei S3Mohammadi E4Hajizadeh E5Montazeri A6,7.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Accurate and timely diagnosis of endometriosis is associated with confusion. Clinical manifestations, imaging techniques, biomarkers and surgical techniques are used as diagnostic approaches. This paper reviews current evidence on clinical manifestation in order to help practitioners and perhaps improve women’s health.

METHODS:

A review of the literature on clinical diagnosis of pelvic endometriosis that appeared in the English language biomedical journals was performed using PubMed, Science Direct and Google Scholar. The search strategy included the combination of key words ‘endometriosis’ and ‘diagnosis’ or ‘clinical diagnosis’ in the titles or abstracts of articles. The search included all papers published during the year 2000 to 2014. Then, the findings were classified in order to summarize the evidence.

RESULTS:

Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement, in all 51 papers were found relevant and included in this review. In general we found three categories of diagnostic approaches for clinical manifestation including: i) diagnosis via symptoms obtained from history taking, ii) diagnosis via signs obtained from physical examination and iii) diagnosis via risk factors obtained from history taking.

CONCLUSION:

Diagnosis of endometriosis is a matter of concern. Since the disease is associated with diverse clinical symptoms and signs, deeper and more comprehensive consideration according to patient’s history and clinical findings is recommended for early and more accurate detection in order to prioritize women for further investigation and contribute to its early management.

 

 

 

Future Oncol. 2015;11(9):1389-405.

Molecular pathogenesis of ovarian clear cell carcinoma.

Gounaris I1Brenton JD.

 

Abstract

Ovarian clear cell carcinoma is a distinct subtype of epithelial ovarian cancer, characterized by an association with endometriosis, glycogen accumulation and resistance to chemotherapy. Key driver events, including ARID1A mutations and HNF1B overexpression, have been recently identified and their functional characterization is ongoing. Additionally, the role of glycogen in promoting the malignant phenotype is coming under scrutiny. Appreciation of the notion that ovarian clear cell carcinoma is essentially an ectopic uterine cancer will hopefully lead to improved animal models of the disease, in turn paving the way for effective treatments.

 

 

J Evid Based Med. 2015 May;8(2):61-74

Efficacy and safety of focused ultrasound versus microwave therapy for cervical ectopy: a meta-analysis.

Tang X1Gao Z2Li Y1Yu J1Li X1.

 

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

To assess the efficacy and safety of focused ultrasound therapy (FU) and microwave therapy (MW) for cervical ectopy (CE).

METHODS:

We searched PubMed, EMbase, the Cochrane Library, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM), Chinese Scientific Journals Database (VIP), China Academic Journals Full-text Database (CNKI), and WanFang Data for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing FU with MW for women with symptomatic CE from inception to 30 August 2014. Two review authors (Tang XL and Gao Z) independently screened for eligible studies according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, extracted data and assessed risk of bias of included RCTs. Then, meta-analysis was performed using the RevMan 5.2 software. Funnel plots were used to evaluate publication bias.

RESULTS:

A total of 33 RCTs with 11,759 participants were included. All studies had high risk of bias. The results of meta-analysis indicated that compared to MW, FU significantly reduced the risk of vaginal bleeding (RR = 0.09, 95%CI 0.05 to 0.17, P < 0.00001) and vaginal discharge (RR = 0.10, 95%CI 0.04 to 0.24, P < 0.00001), increased the cure rate (RR = 1.10, 95%CI 1.05 to 1.15, P < 0.0001) and the total effectiveness rate (RR = 1.04, 95%CI 1.02 to 1.06, P = 0.0005), and decreased the recurrence rate (RR = 0.13, 95%CI 0.02 to 1.00, P = 0.05); however, this last difference was not statistically significant.

CONCLUSION:

Current available evidence suggests that FU is safer and more effective than MW for treating CE. However, some limitations will reduce the reliability of our results. Further well-designed clinical trials are needed to provide further clarification.

 

 

Mol Med Rep. 2015 Aug;12(2):3055-60.

Polymorphic variants in the dopamine receptor D2 in women with endometriosis-related infertility.

Szczepańska M1Mostowska A2Wirstlein P1Skrzypczak J1Misztal M2Jagodziński PP2.

 

Abstract

Data suggests that dopamine receptor DRD2 gene variants may contribute to hyperprolactinemia and that they may be risk factors for endometriosis-related infertility. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether nucleotide variants of the DRD2 gene may be associated with infertility related to endometriosis. Five DRD2 SNPs, rs1800497, rs6277, rs2283265, rs4245146 and rs4648317, which are located in different blocks of linkage disequilibrium, were studied in 151 cases and 381 controls. No significant differences between DRD2 rs1800497, rs6277, rs2283265, rs4245146 and rs4648317 genotype, allele nor haplotype frequencies were observed in women with endometriosis-related infertility compared with the control group. The present results did not confirm DRD2 gene variants to be genetic risk factors for endometriosis-related infertility.

 

 

Stem Cell Res. 2015 Jul;15(1):14-22.

Chemoattraction of bone marrow-derived stem cells towards human endometrial stromal cells is mediated by estradiol regulated CXCL12 and CXCR4 expression.

Wang X1Mamillapalli R2Mutlu L1Du H1Taylor HS1.

 

Abstract

Bone marrow derived cells engraft to the uterine endometrium and contribute to endometriosis. The mechanism by which these cells are mobilized and directed to the endometrium has not been previously characterized. We demonstrate that human endometrial stromal cells (hESCs) produce the chemokine CXCL12 and that bone marrow cells (BMCs) express the CXCL12 receptor, CXCR4. Treatment with physiological levels of estradiol (E2) induced both CXCL12 and CXCR4 expression in hESCs and BMCs, respectively. BMCs migrated towards hESCs conditioned media; a CXCR4 antagonist blocked migration indicating that CXCL12 acting through its receptor, CXCR4, is necessary for chemoattraction of BM cells to human endometrial cells. E2 increased both CXCL12 expression in endometrial cells and CXCR4 expression in BM cells, further enhancing chemoattraction. E2 induced CXCL12/CXCR4 expression in endometrium and BM, respectively, drives migration of stem cells to the endometrium. The E2-CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling pathway may be useful in determining treatments for endometrial disorders, and may be antagonized to block stem cell migration to endometriosis.

 

 

Climacteric. 2015;18(4):448-52.

Should we abstain from treating women with endometriosis using menopausal hormone therapy, for fear of an increased ovarian cancer risk?

Rozenberg S1Antoine CVandromme JFastrez M.

 

Abstract

Women suffering from endometriosis often have an early menopause, resulting in severe menopausal symptoms and an increased risk of osteoporosis. They are therefore candidates for menopausal hormone therapy (MHT). Unfortunately, MHT may increase the risk of endometriosis recurrence. Moreover, endometriosis patients are at increased risk of ovarian cancer, which may be further enhanced by MHT use. It is unknown, however, whether MHT more frequently increases type I (low-grade serous tumors), which seem to be increased when endometriosis is present, or type II (the more aggressive high-grade serous) tumors. We propose the following decision-making algorithm for endometriosis patients considering MHT. Those who have been treated with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and in whom there is no residual endometriotic disease, can probably be treated using MHT without risk of endometriosis recurrence or fear of ovarian cancer. For women with significant, residual endometriosis lesions, the benefit may outweigh the risks, when menopause is reached before the age of 45 years or when severe symptoms are present.

 

 

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2016;29(8):1195-9.

The endometrium from the neonate to the adolescent.

Brosens I1Benagiano G2.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Scientific data on the phenomenon of uterine bleeding in the neonate (NUB) began to appear over a century ago when angiogenesis and petechial haemorrhages in the endometrium of newborn female infants, as well as fluid blood within the uterine cavity, were first described.

METHODS:

A thorough search of the 20th century literature was carried out to identify studies reporting data on NUB.

RESULTS:

The neonatal endometrium, although not identical to the adult, shows cellular responses of the same type, and at birth the endometrium is proliferative in 2/3 of all newborns with the residual 1/3 showing secretory, decidual or menstrual features. In the latter neonates, the presence of a functional cervical obstruction may expose them to menstrual regurgitation including neonatal mesenchymal stem-like cells. This can represent the origin of early-onset endometriosis. At menarche, partial or full ontogenic progesterone resistance can occur in the majority. If persisting, adolescent pregnancy may be exposed to major obstetrical syndromes including preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction.

CONCLUSIONS:

Increasing evidence indicates that the origin of major reproductive disorders in adolescents may lie in the degree of progesterone response in the neonate. The spectrum of progesterone response from resistance till decidualisation may explain the early occurrence of major obstetrical syndromes and endometriosis, respectively.

 

 

J Minim Invasive Gynecol. 2015 Sep-Oct;22(6):997-1003.

Changes in Markers of Ovarian Reserve After Laparoscopic Ovarian Cystectomy.

Ergun B1Ozsurmeli M1Dundar O2Comba C1Kuru O1Bodur S3.

 

Abstract

STUDY OBJECTIVE:

This study was conducted to determine the changes in ovarian reserve markers after laparoscopic ovarian cystectomy (LOC).

DESIGN:

Prospective cohort study (Canadian Task Force classification II-2).

SETTING:

University teaching hospital.

PATIENTS:

Fifty 50 patients who underwent LOC were prospectively examined to determine the changes in serum markers of ovarian reserve, starting from 1 month before and 3 months after consecutive operations.

INTERVENTIONS:

Changes in serum markers were compared between the following groups: endometrioma cysts (n = 26) versus nonendometrioma cysts (n = 24), unilateral cystectomy (n = 38) versus bilateral cystectomy (n = 12), and bilateral endometrioma extirpation (n = 10) versus other cystectomy operations (n = 40).

MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:

A significant change was noticed between the preoperative and postoperative antimüllerian hormone (AMH) levels (2.67 ± 2.67 ng/mL vs 1.84 ± 1.72 ng/mL, p < .0001). Serum AMH levels were found to be significantly decreased in endometrioma (p = .002), nonendometrioma (p = .019), unilateral cystectomy (p = .001), bilateral cystectomy (p = .005), bilateral endometrioma (p = .011), and cysts other than bilateral endometrioma (p = .000) groups.

CONCLUSION:

The ovarian reserve was found to be diminished after LOC regardless of the presence of endometrioma that could be distinguishable by serum AMH levels.

 

 

Mediators Inflamm. 2015;2015:918089.

The combination of N-acetyl cysteine, alpha-lipoic acid, and bromelain shows high anti-inflammatory properties in novel in vivo and in vitro models of endometriosis.

Agostinis C1Zorzet S2De Leo R1Zauli G1De Seta F3Bulla R2.

 

Abstract

To evaluate the efficacy of an association of N-acetyl cystein, alpha-lipoic acid, and bromelain (NAC/LA/Br) in the treatment of endometriosis we set up a new in vivo murine model. We explored the anti-inflammatory and proapoptotic effect of this combination on human endometriotic endothelial cells (EECs) and on endothelial cells isolated from normal uterus (UtMECs). We implanted fragments of human endometriotic cysts intraperitoneally into SCID mice to evaluate the efficacy of NAC/LA/Br treatment. UtMECs and EECs, untreated or treated with NAC/LA/Br, were activated with the proinflammatory stimulus TNF-α and their response in terms of VCAM1 expression was evaluated. The proapoptotic effect of higher doses of NAC/LA/Br on UtMECs and EECs was measured with a fluorogenic substrate for activated caspases 3 and 7. The preincubation of EECs with NAC/LA/Br prior to cell stimulation with TNF-α prevents the upregulation of the expression of the inflammatory “marker” VCAM1. Furthermore NAC/LA/Br were able to induce EEC, but not UtMEC, apoptosis. Finally, the novel mouse model allowed us to demonstrate that mice treated with NAC/LA/Br presented a lower number of cysts, smaller in size, compared to untreated mice. Our findings suggest that these dietary supplements may have potential therapeutic uses in the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases like endometriosis.

 

 

Case Rep Obstet Gynecol. 2015;2015:217367

Decidualized ovarian mass mimicking malignancy.

Wong L1Botolahy V2Carteret T2Marty M3Brun JL1.

 

Abstract

Deciduosis classically occurs in the context of known endometriosis in the pelvis, most commonly in the ovaries, but also in the peritoneum. However, ovarian deciduosis outside the context of endometriosis is rare and makes diagnosis difficult, especially as the sonographic appearance suggests a malignant process. We report a case of decidualized ovarian mass in a patient without prior history of endometriosis that mimicked an ovarian malignancy. MRI may be a useful imaging modality to monitor these lesions and guide management. Consultation with a multidisciplinary team accustomed to such conditions will help to tailor the management to each individual.

 

 

Front Biosci (Schol Ed). 2015 Jun 1;7:40-5.

Effect of early endometriosis on ovarian reserve and reproductive outcome.

Kitaya K1.

 

Abstract

Accumulating evidence suggests that advanced (moderate/severe) endometriosis negatively affects female fecundity, whereas the influence of early (minimal/mild) endometriosis on human reproduction remains unclear. Recent studies showed that the presence of the early pelvic endometriosis lesions deteriorates the ovarian reserve, luteal function, and fertilization rate in infertile women undergoing in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer treatment, but not their final reproductive outcome. Meanwhile, laparoscopic resection of early endometriosislesions may be a promising therapeutic option to improve the fecundity of the affected subfertile women. Insufficient evidence on the relationship between early endometriosis, ovarian reserve, and reproductive outcome warrants further investigations.

 

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