Reprod Sci. 2016 May;23(5):662-9.

A Humanized Anti-Interleukin 6 Receptor Monoclonal Antibody, Tocilizumab, for the Treatment of Endometriosis in a Rat Model.

Taskin MI1Gungor AC2Adali E3Yay A4Onder GO4Inceboz U5.

 

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of anti-interleukin 6 (IL-6) therapy in the treatment of endometriosis in a rat model.

STUDY DESIGN:

After the peritoneal implantation of autologous endometrial tissue, 22 Wistar female rats were divided to create 2 intervention groups: the tocilizumab group (n = 13) and the control group (n = 9). After measuring implant volume, saline was administered to the rats in the control group and 8 mg/kg tocilizumab was administered intraperitoneally to the rats in the tocilizumab-treated group every 2 weeks. After a 4-week treatment period, the volumes and histopathological properties of the implants were evaluated. A scoring system was used to evaluate the preservation of epithelia. Fibrosis score was assessed between the groups. Ectopic and eutopic endometrium were evaluated immunohistochemically for IL-6 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF).

RESULTS:

There was a significant difference between the volumes of implants before and after treatment in the tocilizumab group (P < .05). The posttreatment volumes of lesions were smaller in the tocilizumab group than in the control group. Histologic and fibrosis scores were lower in the tocilizumab group than in the control group. Immunoreactivity intensity for VEGF was significantly decreased in the tocilizumab group for ectopic and eutopic endometrium (P < .05). Interleukin 6 levels and endometrial thickness for ectopic and eutopic endometrium were similar between the groups.

CONCLUSION:

Tocilizumab treatment had a regressive effect on the endometriotic implants.

 

 

Iran J Reprod Med. 2015 Aug;13(8):513-6.

An epidemiologic survey on the causes of infertility in patients referred to infertility center in Fatemieh Hospital in Hamadan.

Masoumi SZ1Parsa P2Darvish N3Mokhtari S4Yavangi M5Roshanaei G6.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Infertility is considered as a major health care problem of different communities. The high prevalence of this issue doubled its importance. A significant proportion of infertility have been related to environmental conditions and also acquired risk factors. Different environmental conditions emphasized the need to study the different causes of infertility in each area.

OBJECTIVE:

The aim of this study was to determine the frequency causes of infertility in infertile couples.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

In this cross sectional descriptive study 1200 infertile men and women that were referred to infertility clinic of Fatemieh Hospital during 2010 to 2011, were examined. This center is the only governmental center for infertility in Hamadan. Sampling was based on census method. Information about the patients was obtained from medical examinations and laboratory findings. To analyze the data, descriptive statistics such as frequencies and the mean were used.

RESULTS:

The prevalence of primary and secondary infertility was 69.5% and 30.5% respectively. Among the various causes of infertility women factors (88.6%) had the highest regard. In the causes of female infertility, menstrual disorders, diseases (obesity, thyroid diseases, and diabetes), ovulation dysfunction, uterine factor, fallopian tubes and cervical factor had the highest prevalence respectively. The causes of male infertility based on their frequency included semen fluid abnormalities, genetic factors, vascular abnormalities, and anti-spermatogenesis factors, respectively.

CONCLUSION:

Etiology pattern of infertility in our study is similar with the many other patterns that have been reported by the World Health Organization. However, frequency of menstrual disorders is much higher than other studies that require further consideration.

 

 

Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2015;16(16):2465-83.

Advances in pharmacotherapy for treating endometriosis.

Tafi E1,2Leone Roberti Maggiore U1Alessandri F1Bogliolo S3Gardella B3Vellone VG4Grillo F4Mastracci L4Ferrero S1,2.

 

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

Endometriosis is an estrogen-dependent chronic disease requiring long-term therapy. Therefore, the choice of medical treatment should be based on efficacy, preference of patients, incidence and severity of adverse effects and cost.

AREAS COVERED:

This review briefly summarizes the currently available medical treatment for endometriosis. The treatments most recently proposed for endometriosis will be described in detail, including gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonists, aromatase inhibitors (AIs) and the flexible extended combined oral contraceptive.

EXPERT OPINION:

The oral contraceptive pill and progestogens allow for the treatment of the majority of patients with endometriosis. The flexible extended dosing regimen, containing drospirenone and ethinylestradiol, may be particularly useful in patients suffering severe dysmenorrhea and improving the adherence and compliance with treatment. GnRH agonists may be used in patients resistant to first-line therapy; up to now, limited data are available on the use of GnRH antagonist (such as elagolix) in patients with endometriosis. AIs should be regarded as experimental therapies and used only in patients with symptoms resistant to other therapies; however, the use of these drugs is limited by the possibility to administer the treatment for short-term periods only (6 months) and, similarly to GnRH antagonists, by the high incidence of adverse effects, requiring the use of add-back therapy.

 

 

Exp Clin Psychopharmacol. 2016 Feb;24(1):1-11.

Determining menstrual phase in human biobehavioral research: A review with recommendations.

Allen AM1McRae-Clark AL2Carlson S1Saladin ME3Gray KM2Wetherington CL4McKee SA5Allen SS1.

 

Abstract

Given the volume and importance of research focusing on menstrual phase, a review of the strategies being used to identify menstrual phase and recommendations that will promote methodological uniformity in the field is needed. We conducted a literature review via Ovid Medline and PsycINFO. Our goal was to review methods used to identify menstrual phase and subphases in biobehavioral research studies with women who had physiologically natural menstrual cycles. Therefore, we excluded articles that focused on any of the following: use of exogenous hormones, the postpartum period, menstrual-related problems (e.g., polycystic ovarian syndrome, endometriosis), and infertility/anovulation. We also excluded articles on either younger (<18 years old) or older (>45 years old) study samples. We initially identified a total of 1,809 articles. After our exclusionary criteria were applied, 146 articles remained, within which our review identified 6 different methods used to identify menstrual phase and subphases. The most common method used was self-report of onset of menses (145/146 articles) followed by urine luteinizing hormone testing (50/146 articles) and measurement of hormones (estradiol and/or progesterone) in blood samples (49/146 articles). Overall, we found a lack of consistency in the methodology used to determine menstrual phase and subphases. We provide several options to improve accuracy of phase identification, as well as to minimize costs and burden. Adoption of these recommendations will decrease misclassification within individual studies, facilitate cross-study comparisons, and enhance the reproducibility of results.

 

 

Oncol Rep. 2016 Feb;35(2):607-13.

ARID1A gene mutation in ovarian and endometrial cancers (Review).

Takeda T1Banno K1Okawa R1Yanokura M1Iijima M1Irie-Kunitomi H1Nakamura K1Iida M1Adachi M1Umene K1Nogami Y1Masuda K1Kobayashi Y1Tominaga E1Aoki D1.

 

Abstract

The AT-rich interacting domain‑containing protein 1A gene (ARID1A) encodes ARID1A, a member of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex. Mutation of ARID1A induces changes in expression of multiple genes (CDKN1A, SMAD3, MLH1 and PIK3IP1) via chromatin remodeling dysfunction, contributes to carcinogenesis, and has been shown to cause transformation of cells in association with the PI3K/AKT pathway. Information on ARID1A has emerged from comprehensive genome‑wide analyses with next‑generation sequencers. ARID1A mutations have been found in various types of cancer and occur at high frequency in endometriosis‑associated ovarian cancer, including clear cell adenocarcinoma and endometrioid adenocarcinoma, and also occur at endometrial cancer especially in endometrioid adenocarcinoma. It has also been suggested that ARID1A mutation occurs at the early stage of canceration from endometriosis to endometriosis‑associated carcinoma in ovarian cancer and also from atypical endometrial hyperplasia to endometrioid adenocarcinoma in endometrial cancer. Therefore, development of a screening method that can detect mutations of ARID1A and activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway might enable early diagnosis of endometriosis‑associated ovarian cancers and endometrial cancers. Important results may also emerge from a current clinical trial examining a multidrug regimen of temsirolimus, a small molecule inhibitor of the PI3K/AKT pathway, for treatment of advanced ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma with ARID1A mutation and PI3K/AKT pathway activation. Also administration of sorafenib, a multikinase inhibitor, can inhibit cancer proliferation with PIK3CA mutation and resistance to mTOR inhibitors and GSK126, a molecular‑targeted drug can inhibit proliferation of ARID1A‑mutated ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma cells by targeting and inhibiting EZH2. Further studies are needed to determine the mechanism of chromatin remodeling dysregulation initiated by ARID1A mutation, to develop methods for early diagnosis, to investigate new cancer therapy targeting ARID1A, and to examine the involvement of ARID1A mutations in development, survival and progression of cancer cells.

 

 

Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2016 Apr;293(4):907-14.

BMI and season are associated with vitamin D deficiency in women with impaired fertility: a two-centre analysis.

Dressler N1Chandra A2Aguirre Dávila L3Spineli LM3Schippert C1von Versen-Höynck F4.

 

Abstract

PURPOSE:

Animal and human studies suggest that vitamin D regulates functions of the reproductive system. Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in women of reproductive age. Vitamin D status has been associated with in vitro fertilisation outcome, features of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) and endometriosis. The aims of our study were to investigate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency of infertile women living in central Germany, to identify risk factors for vitamin D deficiency and to specify seasonal variations of vitamin D status.

METHODS:

This was a retrospective cohort study at an academic tertiary care centre (N = 113) and an Outpatient Centre for Reproductive Medicine (N = 193) of women presenting for infertility treatment. The statistical evaluation was descriptive and explorative. Possible risk factors associated with an increased risk for vitamin D deficiency were assessed using multiple logistic regression models. Variables with p value less than 0.05 were further assessed in a multivariable logistic regression model.

RESULTS:

Overall, 98.2 % of patients at centre 1 and 81.3 % of women with impaired fertility at centre 2 had deficient or insufficient vitamin D levels. Overweight BMI and limited exposure to sun (winter, spring and autumn trimester) were associated with an increased risk of vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D levels did not vary according to age or infertility associated disorders (e.g. endometriosis, PCOS).

CONCLUSION:

The rate of vitamin D deficiency among women with impaired fertility is alarming. Prospective studies are pressingly needed to confirm a causal relationship and to investigate the potential therapeutic benefits of vitamin D supplementation in this population.

 

 

Expert Opin Drug Saf. 2016 Jan;15(1):21-30.

Safety of medical treatments for endometriosis.

Berlanda N1,2Somigliana E1,2Viganò P3Vercellini P1,2.

 

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

All medical treatments for endometriosis are equally effective in relieving pain. However, all of them alleviate pain symptoms for as long as they are used, but pain always relapses when medication is discontinued. Therefore, medications need to be used in the long term.

AREAS COVERED:

Formulations of estro-progestins that contain less than 50 µg of estrogen are associated with a low risk of venous thrombosis, myocardial infarction and stroke. When considering the neoplastic effects, data suggest that the overall risk of invasive cancer by age 60 is not increased in previous users of hormonal contraceptives. The use of progestins for contraception has never been associated with an increased risk of breast cancer, venous thromboembolism or bone fractures. Although more data on long-term therapy with progestins are needed, treatment of endometriosis with progestins may be feasible in women with metabolic or cardiovascular contraindications to estroprogestin. The other medications for the treatment of pain associated with endometriosis are less appropriate for long term administration because of side effects (danazol and GnRH analogues), costs (aromatase inhibitors and GnRH agonists) or necessity of complex regimens of associations (GnRH agonists and add back therapy or aromatase inhibitors plus progestins).

EXPERT OPINION:

Progestins and estroprogestins are safe drugs to use in the long term. Adherence to these medications may be high because, being a contraceptive, they are perceived less as a medication for the treatment of a disease. The annual cost of therapy compares favorably with other available medications. Progestins and estroprogestins represent the first-line medications for the treatment of endometriosis associated pain.

 

 

Sci Rep. 2015 Nov 18;5:16859.

Peritoneal VEGF-A expression is regulated by TGF-β1 through an ID1 pathway in women with endometriosis.

Young VJ1Ahmad SF1Brown JK1Duncan WC1Horne AW1.

 

Abstract

VEGF-A, an angiogenic factor, is increased in the peritoneal fluid of women with endometriosis. The cytokine TGF-β1 is thought to play a role in the establishment of endometriosis lesions. Inhibitor of DNA binding (ID) proteins are transcriptional targets of TGF-β1 and ID1 has been implicated in VEGF-A regulation during tumor angiogenesis. Herein, we determined whether peritoneal expression of VEGF-A is regulated by TGF-β1 through the ID1 pathway in women with endometriosis. VEGF-A was measured in peritoneal fluid by ELISA (n = 16). VEGF-A and ID1 expression was examined in peritoneal biopsies (n = 13), and primary peritoneal and immortalized mesothelial cells (MeT5A) by immunohistochemistry, qRT-PCR and ELISA. VEGF-A was increased in peritoneal fluid from women with endometriosis and levels correlated with TGF-β1 concentrations (P < 0.05). VEGF-A was immunolocalized to peritoneal mesothelium and TGF-β1 increased VEGFA mRNA (P < 0.05) and protein (P < 0.05) in mesothelial cells. ID1 was increased in peritoneum from women with endometriosis and TGF-β1 increased concentrations of ID1 mRNA (P < 0.05) in mesothelial cells. VEGF-A regulation through ID1 was confirmed by siRNA in MeT5A cells (P < 0.05). Our data supports role for ID1 in the pathophysiology of endometriosis, as an effector of TGFβ1 dependent upregulation of VEGF-A, and highlights a novel potential therapeutic target.

 

 

Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2017 Mar;65(3):175-178

Resection of pulmonary endometriosis using video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery under preoperative CT-guided marking.

Furuya K1Otsuka H1Koezuka S1Makino T1Hata Y1Wakayama M2Shibuya K2Iyoda A3.

 

Abstract

Pulmonary endometriosis is a gynecological disorder in which endometrial tissue grows outside of the uterine cavity. Usually, the ectopic implants are located in the pelvis and manifest as dysmenorrhea, chronic pelvic pain, or infertility. Pulmonary endometriosis sometimes occurs in the pleurae and can result in catamenial pneumothorax; however, true pulmonary endometriosis, tissue growing in the lung itself, is rare. We report a 22-year-old patient with pulmonary endometriosis and catamenial hemoptysis. Pulmonary endometriosis was proved histologically and treated successfully by wedge resection using video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery.

 

 

J Tradit Chin Med. 2015 Oct;35(5):571-6.

Effect of warming Yang and removing blood stasis method on matrix metalloproteinases / tissue inhibitor metalloproteinases levels secreted by cultured endometrial cells from patients with endometriosis.

Huang YShen LCai AXiao J.

 

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To investigate the effect of Chinese medicines using the warming Yang and removing blood stasis method on levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)/tissue inhibitor metalloproteinases (TIMPs) secreted by cultured endometrial cells from patients with endometriosis.

METHODS:

Ectopic and eutopic endometrial cells obtaind from 15 endometriosis patients were cultured in vitro, and divided randomly into five groups: high dose; moderate dose; low dose; nemestran; blank control. The three dose groups were treated with a decoction prepared according to the principle of warming Yang and removing blood stasis; nemestran and 0.9% NaCl were administered to the nemestran group and balnk control group, respectively. Eutopic endometrial cells obtaind from 10 hysteromyoma patients were cultured in vitro, as the normal control group, 0.9% NaCl were administered to the normal control group. Cell culture supernatants were collected and levels of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), tissue inhibitor metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) and tissue inhibitor metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) detected by enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA).

RESULTS:

Compared with the normal control group, levels of MMP-1, MMP-2, and MMP-9 in eutopic and ectopic endometrium cell supernatants in the blank control group were increased, whereas levels of TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 were decreased (P < 0.05). Compared with the blank control group, levels of MMP-1 and MMP-2 in ectopic and eutopic endometrium cell supernatants cultured in low-dose, middle-dose, and high-dose groups were decreased, whereas levels of TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 were increased significantly (P < 0.05).

CONCLUSION:

The warming Yang and removing blood stasis method affects expression of MMPs and TIMPs.

 

 

J Reprod Med. 2015 Sep-Oct;60(9-10):433-5.

Low-grade Endometrial Stromal Sarcoma Primarily Arising in the Vagina: A Case Report.

Rivard CCarter JSDowns LS Jr.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS) is a rareform of endometrial cancer, comprising < 0.2% of all uterine malignancies and 10% of all uterine sarcomas. To date, the English-language literature contains 6 reports of extrauterine ESS arising primarily in the vagina. We describe the seventh such case, and the first case in which the origin is at the introitus of the vagina.

CASE:

A 43-year-old, nulligravid, Caucasian woman presented for an annual gynecologic examination and was found to have an asymptomatic 5 x 5-mm, rubbery, soft tissue mass at the 5 o’clock position of the vaginal introitus. As has been reported in several cases of low-grade ESS, this case originated at a site of endometriosis.

CONCLUSION:

Based on our experience as well as a thorough review of the literature, it appears that early stage low-grade ESS arising in the vagina can be treated effectively with surgical resection followed by close observation for recurrence.

 

 

Semin Reprod Med. 2015 Nov;33(6):422-8.

The Impact of Endometriosis and Its Treatment on Ovarian Reserve.

Seyhan A1Ata B2Uncu G3.

 

Abstract

Endometriosis is a chronic disease mostly affecting women at reproductive age. There is a clear association between endometriosis and infertility; however, exact mechanisms are unknown. Some evidence suggests an adverse effect on oocytes. Endometriosis and its surgical treatment can affect quantitative ovarian reserve as well. In the presence of endometriomas, serum level of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) seems a more reliable marker of ovarian reserve than antral follicle count. Women with endometrioma have decreased serum AMH levels as compared with healthy controls. This is further declined after surgical excision, and the decline seems permanent. Bipolar cauterization of the ovary seems to be playing a role on ovarian damage. Extraovarian endometriosis and its surgical treatment can also be associated with decreased ovarian reserve, but there is limited information. Patients with endometriosis should be informed about fertility preservation options, especially in the presence of bilateral endometriomas or prior to surgery.

 

 

Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 2015 Jul-Aug;92(4):54-60.

The modern applications of radon therapy for the medical rehabilitation of the patients.

Razumov AN1Puriga AO1Yurova OV1.

 

Abstract

Radon therapy is one of the methods of physiobalneotherapy the mechanism of action of which is believed to consist of the influence of the small radiation doses of radon and its daughter products on the nervous, vascular, and immune apparatuses of the skin and mucosal membranes that eventually enhances the protective and adaptive potential of the body and thereby its ability to resist pathological impacts. At present, the high effectiveness of radon therapy is universally recognized and this method is widely applied for the combined treatment of various diseases in different fields of medicine. These include (1) diseases of the musculoskeletal system and locomotor disorders in the patients presenting with recurrent rheumatic fever, reactive arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, post-traumatic osteoarthrosis and knee joint synovitis, the sympathico-tonic course of vegetative dystonia associated with connective tissue dysplasia, etc.; (2) neurological disorders in the patients presenting with cervical dorsopathy, neurological manifedstations of degenerative lesions of the cervical and lumbar spine, etc.; (3) cardiological disorders in the patients presenting with hypertensive disease, coronary heart disease, atherosclerosis of different localization, etc.; (4) gastrointestinal disorders in the patients presenting with gastric and duodenal ulcers, irritated bowel syndrome, etc.; (5) gynecological problems in the patients presenting with primary and secondary dysmenorrhea, genital endometriosis, uterine myoma, dysregulated reproductive function, polycystic ovary – syndrome, polycystic ovary syndrome and ovulatory disorders of proinflammatory origin, etc.

 

 

Med Tr Prom Ekol. 2015;(8):14-8.

Prevalence and risk of endometriosis in industrial territories.

Alexeyev VBBalashov SYDugina OY.

 

Abstract

The study covered prevalence of endometriosis under various levels of exposure to chemical environmental factors and chemical risk factors for immune and reproductive female systems, identified as exposure markers in sanitary epidemiologic studies. Findings are that a part of inhabited area neighbouring to industrial territory is characterized by unacceptable risk of immune disorders and reproductive system diseases due to chronic exposure to formaldehyde, nickel, lead, benzene, that can result in increased prevalence of endometriosis.

 

 

 

 

 

Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2015 Nov 24;13:128

Age-related trends in anti-Mullerian hormone serum level in women with unilateral and bilateral ovarian endometriomas prior to surgery.

Nieweglowska D1Hajdyla-Banas I2Pitynski K3Banas T1Grabowska O4Juszczyk G5Ludwin A1Jach R6.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Endometriosis is a well-known cause of infertility, and the anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) is an accepted biomarker of ovarian reserve and response to artificial reproductive technology procedures. The present study was a prospective analysis of age-dependent AMH serum concentration in women with bilateral and unilateral ovarian endometriomas before therapy onset compared with healthy controls.

METHODS:

This prospective cross-sectional study included 384 women aged 18-48 years. AMH serum concentration was assessed between days 3 and 6 of the menstrual cycle in 78 patients with bilateral and 157 patients with unilateral ovarian endometriomas and compared with 149 healthy controls. Ovarian endometriosiswas confirmed histopathologically, and data were presented as medians with interquartile range (IQR).

RESULTS:

Stage III endometriosis was diagnosed in 53.2 %, stage IV in 18.3 %, stage V in 23.4 % and stage VI in 5.4 % of the patients. Patients with bilateral ovarian endometriomas showed the lowest median AMH levels compared with patients suffering from unilateral ovarian endometriosis (0.55; IQR: 0.59 vs. 2.00; IQR: 2.80; p < 0.001) and the control group (0.55; IQR: 0.59 vs. 2.84; IQR: 3.2; p < 0.001). Median AMH concentration values were not significantly different between patients with unilateral ovarian endometriosis and the healthy controls (2.00; IQR: 2.80 vs. 2.84; IQR: 3.2; p = 0.182). A strongly negative correlation between AMH levels and age was confirmed in healthy individuals (R = -0.834; p < 0.001) and women with unilateral ovarian endometriomas (R = -0.774; p < 0.001). Patients with bilateral ovarian endometriosis showed a significantly negative but only moderate correlation between AMH levels and age (R = -0.633; p < 0.001), which was significantly lower than in the healthy controls (R = -0.633 vs. R = -0.834; p = 0.006) but not in the patients with unilateral ovarian endometriosis (R = -0.663 vs. R-0.774; p = 0.093). Based on a multivariate regression analysis, only bilateral localization of ovarian endometrial cysts (p = 0.003) and patient age (p < 0.001), but not left/right localization of unilateral cyst or cyst volume, were negatively associated with AMH serum concentration.

CONCLUSION:

According to our data, unilateral ovarian endometriosis had a moderately negative and nonsignificant effect on AMH-based ovarian reserve evaluated prior to surgery, irrespective of age. In contrast, the ovarian reserve was significantly reduced in women with bilateral ovarian endometriomas.

 

 

 

Gynecol Endocrinol. 2016;32(4):293-7.

Anti-Müllerian hormone levels after laparoscopic cystectomy for endometriomas as a possible predictor for pregnancy in infertility treatments.

Iwase A1,2Nakamura T1Kato N1Goto M1Takikawa S1Kondo M1Osuka S1Mori M1Kikkawa F1.

 

Abstract

We assessed the associations between preoperative and postoperative serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels and parameters of endometriosis and endometriomas surgery with the success of infertility treatments after cystectomy. Seventeen out of 54 patients got pregnant during the infertility treatments. In these patients, the median interval from surgery to conception was 16.3 months. The serum AMH levels 1-year postoperatively were significantly higher in the pregnant group compared to the non-pregnant group (3.44 ± 1.78 versus 2.17 ± 2.24 ng/ml, p = 0.049). The median interval from surgery to recurrence was 34.4 months, and no significant differences were found in the serum AMH levels at any time point between the recurrence and non-recurrence groups. Serum AMH levels 1 year after laparoscopic cystectomy for endometriomas may predict the success of postoperative infertility treatments, but not a recurrence of endometriomas.

 

 

Gynecol Obstet Fertil. 2015 Dec;43(12):806-9.

Endometriosis Fertility Index, or classification of the American Society of Reproductive Medicine for postoperative endometriosis patients with infertility: Which is more relevant?.

Boujenah J1Hugues JN2Sifer C3Bricou A2Cédrin-Durnerin I2Sonigo C2Monforte M2Poncelet C2.

 

Abstract

The revised American Fertility Society classification system has been most used after surgery by all consensus on endometriosis fertility. However, it does not predict pregnancy. The EFI score has been recently developed to aim at predicting clinical pregnancy after surgery. Several study performed its external validation. It may be a useful new tool to counsel couples for personalized postoperative management.

 

 

 

Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2016 Jan;35(1):78-81.

Seromucinous Tumors of the Ovary. What’s in a Name?

Kurman RJ1Shih IeM.

 

Abstract

The recent 2014 World Health Organization (WHO) Classification of Tumours of the Female Reproductive Organs introduced a new category of ovarian neoplasm designated “seromucinous tumours”. The recognition of this distinctive group of tumors is an important addition to the classification but the term “seromucinous” has serious flaws that obscures the nature of these neoplasms. Morphologically, seromucinous tumors in addition to serous and endocervical-type mucinous epithelium, contain endometrioid, indifferent and squamous type epithelium. Their immunoprofile is characterized by frequent expression of ER, PR, infrequent expression of WT1 and lack of expression of CK20 and CDX2, an immunostaining pattern consistent with a “müllerian” immunophenotype. Unlike serous and intestinal type mucinous tumors, seromucinous tumors are frequently associated with endometriosismaking them more analogous to endometrioid and clear cell neoplasms. Indeed, recent studies have shown that a high proportion of seromucinous tumors lost expression of ARID1A, a tumor suppressor gene, that is mutated in approximately 50% of endometrioid and clear cell tumors, in sharp contrast to serous and intestinal-type mucinous tumors which do not contain ARID1A mutations or lose its expression. Therefore, based on their clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical and molecular genetic features we believe a more appropriate designation for this group of tumors is “mixed müllerian tumors” which can be subcategorized as “mixed müllerian cystadenomas”, “mixed müllerian atypical proliferative (borderline) tumors” and “mixed müllerian carcinomas”.

 

 

Semin Diagn Pathol. 2016 Jan;33(1):31-42.

Non-neoplastic pancreatic lesions that may mimic malignancy.

Okun SD1Lewin DN2.

 

Abstract

The widespread use of abdominal ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has resulted in an increased identification of asymptomatic pancreatic lesions. Preoperative diagnoses of pancreatic lesions can be difficult. Solid and cystic lesions and anatomic variants of normal can all mimic tumor clinically and radiologically. Newer imaging modalities have increased the likelihood of the accurate diagnosis of non-neoplastic pancreatic disease, however, despite the many advances; it still remains a challenge to differentiate rarer non-neoplastic entities and inflammatory masses from adenocarcinoma, preoperatively. Adding to the challenge is the fact that a variety of inflammatory, solid and cystic non-neoplastic lesions have significant clinical and radiological overlap with malignancies. About 5-10% of pancreatectomies performed with the primary clinical diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma are later proved to be essentially non-neoplastic lesions. It is vital to include these non-neoplastic entities in the differential diagnosis while working up abnormal clinical and radiological pancreatic findings because it may drastically alter therapeutic options for the patients. The significance of recognizing these lesions preoperatively is to help to guide the clinical decision-making process and the avoidance of an unnecessary pancreatectomy. Examples of such entities include chronic pancreatitis, sarcoidosis, intrapancreatic accessory spleen (IPAS), lymphoid hyperplasia, lipomatous pseudohypertrophy (LPH), lymphangioma, lymphoepithelial cyst (LEC) and endometriosis.

 

 

Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2016 Feb 15;422:74-83.

Triclosan and bisphenol a affect decidualization of human endometrial stromal cells.

Forte M1Mita L1Cobellis L2Merafina V3Specchio R3Rossi S3Mita DG4Mosca L2Castaldi MA2De Falco M5Laforgia V5Crispi S6.

 

Abstract

In recent years, impaired fertility and endometrium related diseases are increased. Many evidences suggest that environmental pollution might be considered a risk factor for endometrial physiopathology. Among environmental pollutants, endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) act on endocrine system, causing hormonal imbalance which, in turn, leads to female and male reproductive dysfunctions. In this work, we studied the effects of triclosan (TCL) and bisphenol A (BPA), two widespread EDCs, on human endometrial stromal cells (ESCs), derived from endometrial biopsies from woman not affected by endometriosis. Cell proliferation, cell cycle, migration and decidualization mechanisms were investigated. Treatments have been performed with both the EDCs separately or in presence and in absence of progesterone used as decidualization stimulus. Both TCL and BPA did not affect cell proliferation, but they arrested ESCs at G2/M phase of cell cycle enhancing cell migration. TCL and BPA also increased gene expression and protein levels of some decidualization markers, such as insulin growth factor binding protein 1 (IGFBP1) and prolactin (PRL), amplifying the effect of progesterone alone. All together, our data strongly suggest that TCL and BPA might alter human endometrium physiology so affecting fertility and pregnancy outcome.

 

 

 

Fertil Steril. 2016 Feb;105(2):435-43.

Expression of microtubule associated protein 2 and synaptophysin in endometrium: high levels in deep infiltrating endometriosis lesions.

Gori M1Luddi A1Belmonte G1Piomboni P1Tosti C1Funghi L1Zupi E1Lazzeri L1Petraglia F2.

 

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To assess whether healthy endometrium, eutopic endometrium, and endometriotic lesions express nerve growth factor (NGF), microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP-2), and synaptophysin (SYP).

DESIGN:

Molecular study in tissue extracts.

SETTING:

University hospital.

PATIENT(S):

A group of women (n = 70), divided as [1] healthy controls (n = 30) and [2] with endometriosis (n = 40), was included.

INTERVENTION(S):

From the healthy control group an endometrial specimen was collected by hysteroscopy (proliferative phase, n = 16; secretive phase, n = 14). Endometriotic and endometrial specimens were collected from women undergoing laparoscopic surgery for endometriosis, endometrioma (OMA) (n = 20), or deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE) (n = 20).

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S):

To assess expression of NGF, MAP-2, and SYP messenger RNA (mRNA) levels in endometrium and in endometriosis by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and protein localization by immunofluorescence. Cultures of human endometrial stromal cells were used to evaluate the effect of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α on NGF and SYP.

RESULT(S):

Endometrial tissue from control expressed mRNA for NGF, MAP-2, and SYP, without any difference between proliferative and secretive phase. The DIE and OMA lesions showed the highest NGF mRNA expression, significantly higher than in eutopic endometrium and control. In DIE lesions SYP mRNA expression was higher than in OMA or in eutopic endometrium or controls. Immunofluorescence analysis of NGF, MAP-2, and SYP showed a slightly more intense positive signal in endometriotic lesions. Exposure to TNF-α increased NGF and SYP mRNA expression in endometrial culture cells.

CONCLUSION(S):

The present study revealed the presence of two selected neuronal markers, MAP-2 and SYP mRNAs and protein expression, in eutopic endometrium and in endometriotic lesions.

 

 

 

Avicenna J Med Biotechnol. 2015 Oct-Dec;7(4):173-8.

Association between Serum Paraoxonase 1 Activities (PONase/AREase) and L55M Polymorphism in Risk of Female Infertility.

Motovali-Bashi M1Sedaghat S1Dehghanian F1.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The risk of developing female infertility has been associated with gene polymorphisms that decrease the activity of enzymes involved in systemic Oxidative Stress (OS). In this study, PON1 L55M polymorphism for association with susceptibility to infertility was investigated among Iranian female population.

METHODS:

Samples from 120 Iranian females [20 endometriosis; 30 Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCO); 70 controls] were analyzed and PCR-RFLP assay was used to determine the PON1 rs854560 (L55M) frequencies. The paraoxonase (PONase) and arilesterase (AREase) activities of PON1 enzyme were also assessed in order to investigate the association between serum PON1 activities, female infertility, and PON1 L55M polymorphism.

RESULTS:

The women with a MM genotype (p=0.021; OR=2.55) showed more possibilities of experiencing infertility than those with a LM genotype (p=0.039; OR=1.91). According to LSD test, endometriosis subjects had significantly lower paraoxonase enzyme activity compared to control group (p=0.0024; CI=95%). No significant difference was found in women with PCOS for both PONase and AREase activity in comparison with control group (p=0.469; CI=95%). Furthermore, PON1 activities were the highest in LL genotype followed by LM and then MM genotype (MM<LM<LL) in both patients and controls.

CONCLUSION:

PON1 L55M polymorphism may be associated with serum PON1 activity and the risk of developing female infertility.

 

 

Adv Biomed Res. 2015 Aug 31;4:182

Evaluation of antimullerian hormone levels before and after laparoscopic management of endometriosis.

Mostaejeran F1Hamoush Z1Rouholamin S1.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Serum antimullerian hormone (AMH) proposed to be a reliable marker of ovarian reserve; the aim of this study was to evaluate the influence and value of laparoscopic management in endometriosis as measured by serum AMH levels.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

In this cross-sectional study, 33 infertile patients who referred to fertility – Infertility Center of Isfahan – with different stages of endometriosis managed by diagnostic operative laparoscopy and serum AMH levels were measured pre and one month postoperative laparoscopy. Main outcome measures were serum AMH levels in correlation with the type of infertility, stage of endometriosis, and type of surgery in infertile patients.

RESULTS:

33 infertile patients enrolled in the study with mean age 28.9 ± 5 years, and thus did not show a significant difference. Mean serum AMH levels was 4.23 ± 3.75 ng/ml and 2.2 ± 2.47 ng/ml, respectively, in primary and secondary infertility groups before and one month after laparoscopy, which shows a significant difference (P < 0.001). Median AMH level changes in Cauterization (0.67 ± 0.76 ng/ml), endometrioma excision 2 ± 0.6 ng/ml, both 2.18 ± 0.81 ng/ml and shows no significant differences. Mean serum AMH levels were definitely decreased in minimal/mild and severe stage endometriosis before and 1 month after laparoscopy, (1.84 ± 2.06 ng/ml and 2.18 ± 3.45 ng/ml), respectively. Also serum AMH according to ovarian appearance and evolvement showed no significant differences after laparoscopy: (5.5 ± 1.4 ng/ml and 2.76 ± 0.96 ng/ml) and (3.37 ± 2.2 ng/ml and 1.84 ± 1.5 ng/ml).

CONCLUSION:

Serum AMH levels clearly decreased 1 month after operative laparoscopy.

 

 

J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2015 Sep;37(9):804-809.

An Evaluation Model for a Multidisciplinary Chronic Pelvic Pain Clinic: Application of the RE-AIM Framework.

Chen I1Money D2Yong P2Williams C2Allaire C2.

 

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) is a prevalent, debilitating, and costly condition. Although national guidelines and empiric evidence support the use of a multidisciplinary model of care for such patients, such clinics are uncommon in Canada. The BC Women’s Centre for Pelvic Pain and Endometriosis was created to respond to this need, and there is interest in this model of care’s impact on the burden of disease in British Columbia. We sought to create an approach to its evaluation using the RE-AIM (Reach, Efficacy, Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance) evaluation framework to assess the impact of the care model and to guide clinical decision-making and policy.

METHODS:

The RE-AIM evaluation framework was applied to consider the different dimensions of impact of the BC Centre. The proposed measures, data sources, and data management strategies for this mixed-methods approach were identified.

RESULTS:

The five dimensions of impact were considered at individual and organizational levels, and corresponding indicators were proposed to enable integration into existing data infrastructure to facilitate collection and early program evaluation.

CONCLUSION:

The RE-AIM framework can be applied to the evaluation of a multidisciplinary chronic pelvic pain clinic. This will allow better assessment of the impact of innovative models of care for women with chronic pelvic pain.

 

 

PLoS One. 2015 Nov 25;10(11)

Associations between Medical Conditions and Breast Cancer Risk in Asians: A Nationwide Population-Based Study in Taiwan.

Chuang SC1Wu GJ1Lu YS2,3Lin CH2Hsiung CA1.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The breast cancer incidence in Asia is rising. To explore whether the etiology of breast cancer is different from the known risk factors from studies in Western countries, we conducted a nested case-control study using data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD).

METHODS:

All medical conditions based on the first three digits of the ICD-9 and a list of medical conditions based on literature review were retrieved for each case and control. The odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of the associations between medical conditions and breast cancer risks were estimated using conditional logistic regression and adjusted for occupation, number of breast cancer screening, and the average number of outpatient visits prior the diagnosis. The associations were also estimated for younger (<50 years old) and older subjects separately.

RESULTS:

The analyses included 4,884 breast cancer cases and 19,536 age-matched controls. Prior breast diseases (OR, 95% CI: 2.47, 2.26-2.71), obesity (1.43, 1.04-1.96), endometriosis (1.44, 1.15-1.80), uterine leiomyoma (1.20, 1.03-1.40), hypertensive diseases (1.14, 1.05-1.25), and disorders in lipid metabolism (1.13, 1.04-1.24) were associated with increased breast cancer risk. No heterogeneity was observed between age groups (<50 and ≥50 years old).

CONCLUSIONS:

In addition to benign breast diseases, obesity, endometriosis, uterine leiomyoma, hypertensive diseases, and disorders of lipid metabolism were associated with a subsequent breast cancer risk.

IMPACTS:

Our results suggest that estrogen related factors may play an important role in breast cancer risks in the Taiwanese female population.

 

 

Int J Health Sci (Qassim). 2015 Jul;9(3):273-81

Prevalence of endometriosis among adolescent school girls with severe dysmenorrhea: A cross sectional prospective study.

Ragab A1Shams M2Badawy A2Alsammani MA3.

 

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

To determine the prevalence of endometriosis among adolescent school girls with severe dysmenorrhea.

METHODOLOGY:

Data was collected via interviewed questionnaire. Patients with symptoms and signs suggestive of endometriosis were further evaluated by abdominal ultrasonography (AUS), serum cancer antigen 125 (CA125). Laparoscopy was done for confirmation in those who agreed. Those who declined laparoscopy were offered magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

RESULTS:

A total number of 654 adolescents were interviewed. Their mean age was 15.2 ± 3.53 SD years. The mean duration of cycles and flow days was 29 ± 8.4 SD and 4 ± 2.8 SD respectively. The age of menarche in years was 13 ± 1.2 SD. Cycles were regular in 77.4 % (n=506) while irregular in 22.6 % (n=148). Of all studied girls, 48.9% (n=320) had menstrual pain of varying degree of severity. Severe dysmenorrhea was reported in 68.8 % (n=220/320) of them. Fifty six of these cases (25.5 %) had ultrasound findings suggestive of endometriosis. CA125 was elevated in 41.5 % (n= 27/56) of them. Patients accepted laparoscopic confirmations were 34, of them 79.4%, (n=27) had positive histo-pathological evidence of endometriosis. MRI was offered to those declined laparoscopy (n=22). Endometriosis was suggested in 77.3% of them.

CONCLUSION:

The study concluded the prevalence of endometriosis in adolescents with severe dysmenorrhea was 12.3 % despite some declined laparoscopy. The unacceptability of laparoscopy and unfeasibility of local examination and trans-vaginal ultrasound add more to the difficulty of diagnosis.

 

 

J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2017 Apr;30(2):228-233.

Recurrence of Ovarian Endometrioma in Adolescents after Conservative, Laparoscopic Cyst Enucleation.

Lee SY1Kim ML2Seong SJ2Bae JW3Cho YJ4.

 

Abstract

STUDY OBJECTIVE:

To evaluate the cumulative recurrence rate of endometriomas after a laparoscopic endometriotic cyst enucleation in adolescents and to find the factors associated with recurrence.

DESIGN:

A multicenter retrospective cohort study.

SETTING:

Three university hospitals.

PARTICIPANTS:

One hundred five patients surgically treated with laparoscopic enucleation of endometriotic cysts younger than 20 years of age were selected.

INTERVENTIONS:

None.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:

Endometrioma recurrence was considered when transvaginal or transrectal sonography indicated a cystic mass with a diameter of 20 mm or greater. Recurrence rate of endometrioma and median time to recurrence were evaluated.

RESULTS:

In total, 105 patients were followed for 47.3 (±44.3) months (range, 3-161 months). Seventeen patients (16.2%) experienced recurrence after the first-line surgery and 8 patients (7%) underwent a second surgery. The median time to recurrence was 53.0 (±8.5) months (range, 8-111 months). Using Kaplan-Meier method, the cumulative recurrence rates of endometrioma per patient at 24, 36, 60, and 96 months after the first-line surgery were 6.4%, 10%, 19.9% and 30.9%, respectively. Surgical characteristics, such as the diameter of the cyst, revised American Society for Reproductive Medicine stage, unilateral or bilateral involvement, and coexistence of deep endometriosis were not associated with recurrence in this age group.

CONCLUSION:

Although the short-term recurrence rate in adolescents after first-line surgery is relatively low, the recurrence rate appears to be higher according to the follow-up duration. Long-term and continuous follow-up is needed for patients who have undergone surgical treatment for endometriosis in the adolescent period.

 

 

Fertil Steril. 2016 Feb;105(2):430-4.e26

Mapping of bowel occult microscopic endometriosis implants surrounding deep endometriosis nodules infiltrating the bowel.

Badescu A1Roman H2Aziz M3Puscasiu L4Molnar C4Huet E5Sabourin JC6Stolnicu S7.

 

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To provide a mapping of bowel occult microscopic endometriosis implants from colorectal specimens removed from patients who had undergone colorectal resection for deep endometriosis infiltrating the rectum.

DESIGN:

A series of consecutive patients with deep endometriosis infiltrating the rectum or/and sigmoid colon, between January 2013 and December 2013.

SETTING:

University tertiary referral center.

PATIENT(S):

Twenty-six patients with deep endometriosis infiltrating the rectum or/and sigmoid colon.

INTERVENTION(S):

Surgical management by colorectal resection.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S):

Twenty-six patients with prospective recording of data (age, clinical history, symptoms, preoperative assessment, and intraoperative findings) underwent colorectal resection for bowel endometriosis. Mapping of occult microscopic endometriosis implants from specimens was established by histologic examination of 1,051 microsection slides taken from transversal macrosections of 3-mm thickness (40 microsections per patient on average).

RESULT(S):

The mean (SD) length of colorectal specimens was 110 (42) mm. Microimplants were found at varying distances up to 54 mm from macronodule limits. Multiple macroscopic nodules were identified in five patients (19.2%). In 18 specimens (69%) diffusion of endometriosis microimplants was longitudinal, whereas in 8 specimens (31%) diffusion was concentrated around the macroscopic nodule. Respectively, 31%, 19%, 8%, and 4% of patients presented with endometriosis microimplants at 2, 3, 4, and 5 cm from macroscopic nodules.

CONCLUSION(S):

The present data suggest that in patients presenting with deep colorectal endometriosis, microscopically complete excision of rectal endometriosis may be unachievable because of bowel occult microscopic endometriosis implants located far from macroscopic nodules.

 

 

Minerva Ginecol. 2016 Apr;68(2):211-8.

Should we diagnose and treat minimal and mild endometriosis before medically assisted reproduction?

Leung AS1Dahan MH.

 

Abstract

The treatment of minimal or mild endometriosis prior to assisted reproduction (ranging from intrauterine insemination to in vitro fertilization [IVF]) to improve the likelihood of success is controversial. Ovulation suppression is commonly used in endometriosis to decrease pain, however, there is little evidence to suggest improvements in fertility associated with this technique. Moreover, current evidence is sparse and does not support ovarian suppression prior to intrauterine insemination with or without ovulation induction, while there is some evidence favoring ovarian suppression with gonadotropin releasing hormone agonists prior to IVF to improve pregnancy rates. However, the majority of studies were performed in women with moderate to severe endometriosis. There is currently conflicting evidence regarding surgical ablation or removal of endometriomas prior to IVF, and its outcome on pregnancy rates. This review highlights the paucity of data in the management of endometriosis prior to assisted reproductive technologies and suggests that further studies are needed.

 

 

Cell Physiol Biochem. 2015;37(6):2231-45

Genome-Wide Microarray Analysis of Long Non-Coding RNAs in Eutopic Secretory Endometrium with Endometriosis.

Wang YLi YYang ZLiu KWang D.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND/AIMS:

Dysregulated long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) can lead to the occurrence of various diseases; however, reports of the function of lncRNAs in endometriosis and related studies are scarce. The pathogenesis of endometriosis is still poorly understood.

METHODS:

Dysregulated lncRNAs and mRNAs between eutopic and normal endometrium (both are late secretory) were analyzed by lncRNA microarray. Eight lncRNAs and mRNA CDK6 were validated using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Bioinformatics prediction was used to investigate the potential function of these differentially expressed lncRNAs.

RESULTS:

Microarray expression profiling suggests 1277 lncRNAs (488 up- and 789 down-regulated) and 1216 mRNAs (578 up- and 638 down-regulated) were expressed differentially between eutopic and normal endometrium. Pathway analysis and gene ontology (GO) analysis found differently expressed lncRNAs associated with the cell cycle and immune regulation. The relative level of expression of CDK6 and AC002454.1 were obtained by qRT-PCR and the Pearson correlation coefficient was 0.747 (p<0.0001). A coding-noncoding gene co-expression (CNC) network was constructed for these validated lncRNAs.

CONCLUSION:

These dysregulated lncRNAs might provide information for new biomarkers or novel therapeutic targets of endometriosis. AC002454.1 might induce cell cycle disorder by regulating CDK6 to participate in the pathogenesis of endometriosis.

 

 

Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2016;25(2):227-47.

An overview of early drug development for endometriosis.

Leone Roberti Maggiore U1,2Ferrero S1,2.

 

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

Endometriosis is an estrogen-dependent chronic disease of women of fertile age requiring chronic therapy. Although available drugs have good efficacy and safety profiles, some patients experience partial or no improvement of pain with conventional treatment and recurrence of symptoms after discontinuation of the therapies. For these reasons, many new compounds are currently under investigation for the treatment of endometriosis.

AREAS COVERED:

This review offers the reader a complete and updated overview on emerging therapies for the treatment of endometriosis. The authors describe, in detail, the laboratory and clinical studies on these therapies and highlight the potential advantages and limitations associated with the administration of these new agents.

EXPERT OPINION:

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonists are the most intriguing emerging agents for the treatment of patients with endometriosis. It should be noted that while there are a number of drugs under investigation, a large majority of these new compounds have only been investigated in laboratory studies with more extensive research required to better elucidate their efficacy and safety profiles.

 

 

Arch Iran Med. 2015 Dec;18(12):844-8

Prevalence of Endometriosis in Malignant Epithelial Ovarian Tumor.

Akbarzadeh-Jahromi M1Shekarkhar G2Sari Aslani F2Azarpira N3Heidari Esfahani M2Momtahan M4.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The present study aims to assess the prevalence and histological characteristics of endometriosis in different types of ovarian surface epithelial tumors.

METHODS:

Microscopic slides of 110 ovarian tumors (89 malignant and 21 borderlines) were reviewed from 2008 to 2013 in two major gynecological centers affiliated with the Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. The presence or absence of endometriosis and transitions from atypical endometriosis to carcinoma were also histologically evaluated. Chi-square and t-test were used to compare the study groups.

RESULTS:

The mean age of the patients was 49.93 ± 9.36 years in the Endometriosis-Associated Ovarian Carcinomas (EAOC) group and 50.18 ± 12.8 years in the non-EAOC group. Among the 110 patients, 28 (25.4%) had endometriosis. According to ovarian cancer subtype 67% (4/6) of clear cell adenocarcinoma, 65% (11/17) of endometrioid adenocarcinoma, 28% (7/25) of low grade serous adenocarcinoma, 4% (1/25) of high grade serous adenocarcinoma, 30% (4/13) of borderline serous tumor, and 25% (1/4) of mixed carcinoma had endometriosis. None of the mucinous borderline tumors and mucinous adenocarcinoma cases had endometriosis. Moreover, 23 cases had typical endometriosis, while 14 had atypical endometriosis. On the other hand, 19 cases had both typical and atypical endometriosis. Furthermore, transition from atypical endometriosis to carcinoma was seen in 11 cases.

CONCLUSION:

Clear cell and endometrioid carcinoma are the most common types of EACO. Atypical endometriosis was more commonly seen in endometrioid and clear cell carcinomas which are included in type I ovarian cancer. Thus, it can be concluded that atypical endometriosis is a precursor for type I ovarian cancer.

 

 

J Res Med Sci. 2015 Jul;20(7):668-74.

Serum anti-inflammatory cytokines for the evaluation of inflammatory status in endometriosis.

Măluţan AM1Drugan T2Ciortea R1Mocan-Hognogi RF1Bucuri C1Rada MP1Mihu D1.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Endometriosis is a frequent gynecologic disease with a severe impact on the quality of life in the affected women; its pathogenesis is yet to be fully understood, with an altered immunity as a possible key factor. The present study aimed to investigate the serum anti-inflammatory cytokine profile in the patients with endometriosis compared with the healthy controls.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

One hundred and sixty women were included, divided into two study groups (Group I – endometriosis; Group 2 – healthy women). We evaluated the serum levels of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), IL-2, IL-2R, IL-4, IL-10, IL-13, and IL-15 with the use of Human multiplex cytokine panels. Statistical analyses (normality distribution analysis, independent t-test, Mann-Whitney U-test) were performed using IBM SPSS software (version 22.0) and GraphPad Prism (version 5.00); receiver operating characteristic curve were used to demonstrate the diagnostic performance of the studied markers.

RESULTS:

The mean serum level of IL-1Ra, IL-4, and IL-10 were significantly higher in women with endometriosiscompared to women free of disease from the control group (30.155, 138.459, and 1.489, respectively, compared to 14.109, 84.710, and 0.688, respectively; P < 0.001, P < 0.001, and P = 0.002, respectively.). No significant differences in the mean serum levels of IL-2, IL-13, and IL-15 were observed between the studied groups and IL-2R had a very low detection rate.

CONCLUSION:

Endometriosis is associated with elevated levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines, IL-1Ra, IL-4, and IL-10, markers that have a potential role as a prognostic factor for endometriosis.

 

 

Exp Ther Med. 2015 Aug;10(2):787-791.

Association between macrophage migration inhibitory factor in the endometrium and estrogen in endometriosis.

Zhang X1Mu L2.

 

Abstract

Recent studies have shown that macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) has a possible role in endometriosis-related pain and infertility, yet it has not been explored whether the mRNA level of MIF is altered in endometrial tissues from patients with endometriosis. The aim of the present study was to compare the expression of MIF in endometrial tissues from women with and without endometriosis, and to analyze the association between endometrial MIF expression and 17β-estradiol (E2). The protein and mRNA expression of MIF in the human endometrial tissue was assessed by western blotting and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis, respectively. The MIF expression of women with endometriosis was found to be significantly higher than that of the controls. A positive correlation was noted between the serum E2 level and MIF expression. In endometrial cells from women with endometriosis, the level of E2-induced MIF upregulation was significantly higher than that in cells from women without endometriosis. In conclusion, this study demonstrated a significant increase in MIF expression in the endometrial tissues of women with endometriosis and an association between MIF expression and E2 level. MIF expression in endometrial cells from patients with endometriosisshowed an increased sensitivity to stimulation by E2.

 

 

Oncol Lett. 2015 Aug;10(2):571-576.

Checkpoint kinase 1 inhibitors as targeted molecular agents for clear cell carcinoma of the ovary.

Kobayashi H1Shigetomi H1Yoshimoto C1.

 

Abstract

In clear cell carcinoma of the ovary, chemoresistance frequently results in treatment failure. The present study aimed to review the potential association of transcription factor hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)-1β with cell cycle checkpoint machinery, as a mechanism for chemoresistance. The English-language literature on the subject was reviewed to identify genomic alterations and aberrant molecular pathways interacting with chemoresistance in clear cell carcinoma. Oxidative stress induced by repeated hemorrhage induces greater susceptibility of endometriotic cells to DNA damage, and subsequent malignant transformation results in endometriosis-associated ovarian cancer. Molecular changes, including those in HNF-1β and checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1), may be a manifestation of essential alterations in cell cycle regulation, detoxification and chemoresistance in clear cell carcinoma. Chk1 is a critical signal transducer in the cell cycle checkpoint machinery. DNA damage, in turn, increases persistent phosphorylation of Chk1 and induction of G2/M phase cell cycle arrest in cells overexpressing HNF-1β. HNF-1β deletion induces apoptosis, suggesting that enhanced levels of HNF-1β may be associated with chemoresistance. Targeted therapy with Chk1 inhibitors may be explored as a potential treatment modality for patients with clear cell carcinoma. This provides a novel direction for combination therapy, including targeting of Chk1, which may overcome drug resistance and improve treatment efficacy.

 

 

Oncol Lett. 2015 Aug;10(2):612-618.

Novel biomarker candidates for the diagnosis of ovarian clear cell carcinoma.

Kobayashi H1Sugimoto H1Onishi S1Nakano K1.

 

Abstract

Ovarian clear cell carcinoma can arise from endometriosis; however, it is distinct from other types of epithelial ovarian carcinoma in terms of its clinicopathological and molecular features. Cancer antigen 125 lacks the sensitivity and specificity required for accurate clinical diagnosis of clear cell carcinoma. Therefore, the aim of the current review was to identify novel biomarker candidates for the immunohistochemical and serological diagnosis of clear cell carcinoma. A search of the relevant English language literature published between 1966 and 2014 was conducted using the PubMed MEDLINE online database. High-throughput tissue microarray technology and proteomic screening combined with mass spectrometry may provide additional information regarding diagnostic biomarker candidates for ovarian clear cell carcinoma. The present review summarizes the characteristics of potential genomic alterations that activate cancer signaling pathways and, thus, contribute to carcinogenesis. The major signaling pathways activated in clear cell carcinoma are associated with cell cycle regulation (hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 1 and tumor protein D52), growth factor signaling (insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1; KiSS-1 metastasis-suppressor; erb-b2 receptor tyrosine kinase 2; and fibroblast growth factor receptor 2), anti-apoptosis and survival pathways [sialidase 3 (membrane sialidase)], metabolism (γ-glutamyltransferase 1), chemoresistance (napsin A aspartic peptidase, glutathione peroxidase 3; and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family, member A1), coagulation [coagulation factor III (thromboplastin, tissue factor); and tissue factor pathway inhibitor 2], signaling (lectin, galactoside-binding and soluble, 3), and adhesion and the extracellular matrix [cadherin 1, type 1, E-cadherin (epithelial); versican; and laminin, α 5]. The present review of the relevant literature may provide a basis for additional clinical investigation of the ovarian clear cell carcinoma serum biomarker candidate proteins identified herein.

 

 

Biomed Rep. 2015 Nov;3(6):874-878.

Association between nm23 gene polymorphisms and the risk of endometriosis.

Huang XI1Zhao W2Li Y1Kang S2.

 

Abstract

The first tumor metastasis-suppressor gene, nm23, may have an important role in the pathogenesis of endometriosis (EM). The present study aimed to evaluate whether nm23 gene polymorphisms are correlated with the risk of the development of EM in North Chinese women, as a preliminary study. The case-control study was conducted with 379 EM patients and 384 unrelated healthy controls. Genotyping of two polymorphisms within the nm23 gene promoter region (rs16949649 T/C and rs2302254 C/T) were performed using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The data showed that the rs16949649 and rs2302254 polymorphisms within the nm23 gene were not associated with the risk of developing EM. There were no statistical differences in the distribution of nm23 genotypes between patients with EM and the control group (P=0.490 and P=0.440, respectively). For the rs16949649 T/C, compared with the C/T + T/T genotype, the C/C genotype did not increase the risk of EM [odds ratio (OR)=0.81; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.57-1.17]. For the rs2302254 C/T, compared with the C/T + C/C genotype, the T/T genotype did not increase the risk of EM (OR=1.46; 95% CI, 0.81-2.64). In conclusion, the findings in the present pilot study suggest that nm23 polymorphisms do not contribute to EM susceptibility. However, more studies in larger populations are required to confirm these results.

 

 

Obstet Gynecol Sci. 2015 Nov;58(6):481-6.

Effect of second-line surgery on in vitro fertilization outcome in infertile women with ovarian endometrioma recurrence after primary conservative surgery for moderate to severe endometriosis.

Park H1Kim CH1Kim EY1Moon JW1Kim SH1Chae HD1Kang BM1.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To evaluate the effect of second-line conservative surgery on in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcome in comparison with IVF without second-line surgery in infertile women with ovarian endometrioma recurrence after primary conservative surgery.

METHODS:

In this retrospective cohort study, 121 consecutive IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles that were performed after second-line surgery (n=53) or without second-line surgery (control group, n=68) between January 2006 and December 2011 in 121 infertile women with ovarian endometrioma(s) recurrence after primary conservative surgery for moderate to severe endometriosis were included. The two groups were compared in terms of controlled ovarian stimulation and IVF outcomes.

RESULTS:

There were no differences in patients’ characteristics between the two groups. Total dose and days of gonadotropins administered were significantly higher in the second-line surgery group than in the control group (P<0.001, P=0.008). The numbers of oocytes retrieved, mature oocytes and grade 1 or 2 embryos were significantly lower in the second-line surgery group (P=0.007, P=0.001, P<0.001, respectively). Clinical pregnancy rate per cycle and embryo implantation rate were also significantly lower in the second-line surgery group of 24.5% and 11.8% compared with 48.5% and 25.3% in the control group (P=0.008, P=0.005, respectively).

CONCLUSION:

Ovarian response to controlled ovarian stimulation and IVF outcome after second-line surgery is worse than those in IVF cycles without second-line surgery in infertile women with ovarian endometrioma recurrence after primary surgery for moderate or severe endometriosis.

 

 

Gig Sanit. 2015 Sep-Oct;94(5):86-91.

NIGHT SHIFT WORK AND HEALTH DISORDER RISK IN FEMALE WORKERS.

Kukhtina EGSolionova LGFedichkina TPZykova IE.

 

Abstract

There was evaluated the risk to health in females employed in shift work, including night shifts. According to the data of periodical medical examinations health indices of 403 females employed in shift work, including night shifts, were compared with indices of 205 females–workers of administrative units of the same enterprise. Overall relative risk (RR) for the health disorder associated with the night shift was 1.2 (95%; confidence interval (CI): 1.09-1.28). A statistically significant increase in risk was observed in relation to uterine fibroids (OR 1.3; 95% CI: 1.06-1.54), mastopathy (OR 1.4; 95% CI: 1.2-1.6), inorganic sleep disorders (OR 8.8; 95% CI 2.6-29.8). At the boundary of the statistical significance there was the increase in the risk for obesity (OR 1.2; 95% C: 0.97-1.39), hypertension (OR 1.2; 95% CI, 0.9-1.5) and endometriosis (OR 1.5; 95% CI: 0.98-2.16). There was revealed an adverse effect of night shifts on the gestation course: ectopic pregnancy in the experimental group occurred 6.6 times more frequently than in the control group (95% CI: 0.87-50.2), and spontaneous abortion–1.7 times (95% CI: 0.95-3.22). The performed study has once again confirmed the negative impact of smoking on women’s reproductive health: smoking women in the experimental group compared with the control group smokers had 2.7 times increased risk of uterine fibroids (within 1.06-7.0), the risk in non-smokers was significantly lower–1.2 (0.98-1.4). The findings suggest about a wide range of health problems related to employment on shift work, including night shifts, which indicates to the need for adoption of regulatory and preventive measures aimed to this professional group.

 

 

Kobe J Med Sci. 2015 May 25;61(2):E40-6.

A Case of Bilateral Decidualized Endometriomas during Pregnancy: Radiologic-pathologic Correlation.

Nakai G1Kitano R1Yoshimizu N1Yamamoto K1Higashiyama A1Juri H1Nakamoto A1Yamamoto K1Yamada T2Hirose Y2Ohmichi M3Narumi Y1.

 

Abstract

Clinical differentiation between decidualized endometrioma and malignant transformation still poses difficulties as both are intracystic vascularized excrescences of an endometrial cyst and exhibit similar characteristics on color-flow Doppler sonography. This is a characteristic sonographic finding associated with ovarian cancer, but MRI can provide further information about mural excrescences that can aid in their differential diagnosis; for example, the signal of decidualized endometriomas is isointense with the placenta within the uterus on all sequences and the apparent diffusion coefficient is higher than that of malignant mural nodules. Thus, MRI should be an aid in deciding whether to intervene during pregnancy. However, considering that it is not yet possible to clearly differentiate decidualized endometriomas from ovarian cancer, surgery or watchful observation may still be needed to exclude the possibility of malignancy.

 

 

J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2015 Nov;37(11):1006-15.

A Systematic Review of the Association Between Psychiatric Disturbances and Endometriosis.

Pope CJ1Sharma V2Sharma S3Mazmanian D1.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

An association between endometriosis and psychiatric disturbances has been identified by some researchers. The purpose of this systematic review was to consolidate existing empirical findings to clarify the association between endometriosis and psychiatric conditions.

DATA SOURCES:

We searched three electronic databases (Medline/PubMed, PsychInfo, and ClinicalTrials.gov) using the following search items: “endometriosis” combined with “mood,” “bipolar disorder,” “major depressive disorder,” “anxiety,” “psychiatric,” “psychosocial,” “antidepressants,” “antianxiety,” “pharmacotherapy,” or “psychotherapy.”

STUDY SELECTION:

We included all relevant articles published in English. We identified 18 original research studies examining the association between endometriosis and psychiatric symptoms, with a combined total of 999 endometriosis patients being examined.

DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS:

Of the 18 studies examined, 14 reported that endometriosis was associated with at least some aspect of reduced psychological functioning or mental health quality of life. Tabulation of raw frequencies of the studies using clinical diagnostic criteria and a comparison group revealed that at least 56.4% of women (44/78) with a diagnosis of endometriosis and 43.6% of women (48/110) without such a diagnosis met the criteria for a psychiatric disorder.

CONCLUSION:

The limited research suggests that women presenting with endometriosis are at risk for psychosocial disturbances or psychiatric distress. Whether such disruptions are a consequence of endometriosis, the associated chronic gynaecological pain, or another factor such as inflammation remains to be delineated. In the interim, women presenting with symptoms of endometriosis should also be screened for psychosocial and psychiatric disturbances.

 

 

J Assist Reprod Genet. 2016 Jan;33(1):101-10

Downregulation of adiponectin system in granulosa cells and low levels of HMW adiponectin in PCOS.

Artimani T1,2Saidijam M3Aflatoonian R4Ashrafi M4Amiri I2Yavangi M2SoleimaniAsl S2Shabab N3Karimi J5Mehdizadeh M6,7.

 

Abstract

PURPOSE:

The purpose of the study was to investigate changes in adiponectin system expression in granulosa cells (GCs) and high molecular weight adiponectin levels in serum and follicular fluid (FF) of 40 women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) compared to those in 40 women with normal ovary function.

METHODS:

Adiponectin (Adipo), adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1), and adiponectin receptor 2 (AdipoR2) messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels were measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). High molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin protein concentration was evaluated by ELISA method. Data were analyzed using Student’s t test and one-way ANOVA in SPSS 21 software. At oocyte retrieval, FF was aspirated and GCs were obtained from a pooled collection of FF per each patient.

RESULTS:

PCR results showed expression of adiponectin, AdipoR1, AdipoR2, follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR), and luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) in GCs. After controlling body mass index (BMI) values, qRT-PCR demonstrated a decreased expression of adiponectin system in GCs of PCOS patients compared to those in controls (p = 0.001). There was a strong positive correlation among AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 expression and also among FSH and LH receptor expression. (Both r = 0.8, p = 0.001). There were low levels of high molecular weight adiponectin in the serum of PCOS patients with controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (30.19 ± 4.3 ng/ml) compared to the controls (48.47 ± 5.9 ng/ml) and in the FF of PCOS patients with controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (7.86 ± 1.44 ng/ml) compared to the controls (14.22 ± 2.01 ng/ml; p = 0.02).

CONCLUSIONS:

Lower expression of adiponectin and its receptors in GCs might be an important manifestation in gonadotropin-stimulated PCOS patients which could influence the physiologic adiponectin roles such as interaction with insulin and LH in induction of GC gene expression.

 

 

Dermatol Online J. 2015 Nov 18;21(11).

Painful nodule in the caesarean section scar of a young woman.

Russo VA1Alikhan A.

 

Abstract

Endometriosis is the presence of ectopic endometrial tissue outside the uterus and cutaneous endometriosis is a rare manifestation of this disease that may be found at the sites of surgical scars as a result of iatrogenic implantation. Herein we present a case of scar endometriosis in a 35-year-old woman. The scar was sustained following a remote caesarean section.

 

 

Mass Spectrom Rev. 2017 May;36(3):450-470.

A mass spectrometric insight into the origins of benign gynecological disorders.

Yang H1,2Lau WB3Lau B4Xuan Y5Zhou S1Zhao L5Luo Z6Lin Q6Ren N6Zhao X1Wei Y5.

 

Abstract

Applications of mass spectrometry (MS) are rapidly expanding and encompass molecular and cellular biology. MS aids in the analysis of in vivo global molecular alterations, identifying potential biomarkers which may improve diagnosis and treatment of various pathologies. MS has added new dimensionality to medical research. Pioneering gynecologists now study molecular mechanisms underlying female reproductive pathology with MS-based tools. Although benign gynecologic disorders including endometriosis, adenomyosis, leiomyoma, and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) carry low mortality rates, they cause significant physical, mental, and social detriments. Additionally, some benign disorders are unfortunately associated with malignancies. MS-based technology can detect malignant changes in formerly benign proteomes and metabolomes with distinct advantages of speed, sensitivity, and specificity. We present the use of MS in proteomics and metabolomics, and summarize the current understanding of the molecular pathways concerning female reproductive anatomy. Highlight discoveries of novel protein and metabolite biomarkers via MS-based technology, we underscore the clinical application of these techniques in the diagnosis and management of benign gynecological disorders.

 

 

 

 

 

Nutrients. 2015 Dec 2;7(12):9972-84.

High Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency in Infertile Women Referring for Assisted Reproduction.

Pagliardini L1Vigano’ P2Molgora M3Persico P4Salonia A5Vailati SH6Paffoni A7Somigliana E8Papaleo E9Candiani M10.

 

Abstract

A comprehensive analysis of the vitamin D status of infertile women is the first step in understanding hypovitaminosis impact on reproductive potential. We sought to determine vitamin D profiles of women attending an infertility center and to investigate non-dietary determinants of vitamin D status in this population. In this cross-sectional analysis, a cohort of 1072 women (mean age ± standard deviation 36.3 ± 4.4 years) attending an academic infertility center was used to examine serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25(OH)D) levels in relation to demographic characteristics, seasons and general health risk factors. Both unadjusted and adjusted levels of serum 25(OH)D were examined. Median 25(OH)D concentration was below 30 ng/mL for 89% of the entire year. Over the whole year, 6.5% of patients had 25(OH)D levels ≤10 ng/mL, 40.1% ≤20 ng/mL, and 77.4% ≤30 ng/mL. Global solar radiation was weakly correlated with 25(OH)D levels. At multivariable analysis, 25(OH)D levels were inversely associated with BMI; conversely, 25(OH)D levels were positively associated with height and endometriosis history. Serum 25(OH)D levels are highly deficient in women seeking medical help for couple’s infertility. Levels are significantly associated with body composition, seasonal modifications and causes of infertility. Importantly, this deficiency status may last during pregnancy with more severe consequences.

 

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