Minerva Ginecol. 2017 Aug;69(4):315-321.

Outcomes of first IVF/ICSI in young women with diminished ovarian reserve.

Cohen J1,2Mounsambote L3Prier P3Mathieu d’ARGENT E3Selleret L3Chabbert-Buffet N3,4Delarouziere V5Levy R5Darai E3,4Antoine JM3.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

There is no consensual definition of diminished ovarian reserve and the best therapeutic strategy has not yet been demonstrated.

METHODS:

We performed a retrospective study to evaluate outcomes following a first in-vitro fertilization/intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI) cycle in young women with diminished ovarian reserve. Women with tubal factor, endometriosis or previous stimulation cycle were excluded. We defined diminished ovarian reserve as women ≤38 years with an AMH ≤1.1 ng/mL or antral follicular count ≤7.

RESULTS:

Among 59 IVF/ICSI cycles (40% IVF/60% ICSI), the pregnancy rate was 17% (10/59) and live birth rate 8.5% (5/59). Miscarriage rate was 50%. Baseline characteristics and IVF outcomes of the pregnant and not pregnant women were compared. No differences in age, antral follicular count, AMH, protocol used or number of harvested oocytes were found between the groups. A higher gonadotropin starting dose in the pregnancy group (397.5±87 IU vs. 314.8±103 IU; P=0.02) and a trend to a higher total dose received (4720±1349 IU vs. 3871±1367 IU; P=0.07) were noted.

CONCLUSIONS:

The present study confirms that women with diminished ovarian reserve have low live birth rates after a first IVF-ICSI cycle and that a higher gonadotropin starting dose might be associated with better outcomes.

 

 

Genet Mol Res. 2016 Dec 19;15(4).

Association between CYP19A1, GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 genetic polymorphisms and the development of endometriosis in a Chinese population.

Tuo YHe JYYan WJYang J1.

 

Abstract

Endometriosis is a common, complicated, and highly heterogeneous endocrine disease. Many genetic factors could affect the development of endometriosis. We performed a case-control study to evaluate the association between polymorphisms in CYP19A1 rs2899470, GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 rs1695 and the development of endometriosis in a Chinese population. Between March 2014 and October 2015, 262 endometriosis patients and 275 control subjects were recruited from the Inner Mongolia Medical University. Genotyping was conducted using polymerase chain reaction-coupled with restriction fragment length polymorphism. Individuals carrying the TT genotype of CYP19A1 rs2899470 expressed a higher risk of endometriosis than those carrying the GG genotype, and the adjusted ORs (95%CI) was 2.33 (1.27-4.33). Moreover, those with the TG + TT genotype were correlated with an elevated risk of endometriosis, compared to those with the GG genotype (OR = 1.48, 95%CI = 1.03-2.13). However, GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 rs1695 polymorphisms did not affect the pathogenesis of endometriosis. In conclusion, our results suggested that CYP19A1 rs2899470 polymorphism is associated with risk for endometriosis in the Chinese population.

 

 

Semin Reprod Med. 2017 Jan;35(1):38-53.

Medical Management of Endometriosis in Patients with Chronic Pelvic Pain.

Bedaiwy MA1Allaire C1Yong P1Alfaraj S1.

 

Abstract

Endometriosis is a common cause of pelvic pain in women of reproductive age. Traditional medical therapies are hormonal in nature, including estrogen-progestin contraceptives, progestins, and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists. Other hormonal options are androgens and aromatase inhibitors, with research also suggesting a possible role for GnRH antagonists and selective progesterone receptor modulators. Other than nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories, further work is required for nonhormonal therapies such as antiangiogenic and immune-modulating drugs. Medical treatment of endometriosis can be complex, and requires consideration of side effects, the anatomic type of endometriosis, role of surgery, current infertility or future fertility desires, and other contributors to pain (e.g., central sensitization). These factors should be discussed for each patient, to ensure personalized treatment and optimal outcomes.

 

 

BMJ Open. 2016 Dec 21;6(12):e013998.

Protocol for developing, disseminating and implementing a core outcome set for endometriosis.

Hirsch M1Duffy JM2Barker C3Hummelshoj L4,5Johnson NP4,6Mol B6Khan KS1Farquhar C7International Collaboration to Harmonize Outcomes and Measures for Endometriosis (iHOME).

 

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

Endometriosis is a common gynaecological disease characterised by pain and subfertility. Randomised controlled trials evaluating treatments for endometriosis have reported many different outcomes and outcome measures. This variation restricts effective data synthesis limiting the usefulness of research to inform clinical practice. To address these methodological concerns, we aim to develop, disseminate and implement a core outcome set for endometriosis engaging with key stakeholders, including healthcare professionals, researchers and women with endometriosis.

METHODS AND ANALYSIS:

An international steering group has been established, including healthcare professionals, researchers and patient representatives. Potential outcomes identified from a systematic review of the literature will be entered into a modified Delphi method. Key stakeholders will be invited to participate including healthcare professionals, researchers and women with endometriosis. Participants will be invited to score individual outcomes on a nine-point Likert scale anchored between 1 (not important) and 9 (critical). Repeated reflection and rescoring should promote whole and individual stakeholder group converge towards consensus, ‘core’, outcomes. High-quality outcome measures will be associated with core outcomes.

ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:

The implementation of a core outcome set for endometriosis within future clinical trials, systematic reviews and clinical guidelines will enhance the availability of comparable data to facilitate evidence-based patient care. This study was prospectively registered with Core Outcome Measures in Effectiveness Trials Initiative; number: 691.

 

 

Gynecol Surg. 2016;13(4):435-444

Deep infiltrating endometriosis affecting the urinary tract-surgical treatment and fertility outcomes in 2004-2013.

Saavalainen L1Heikinheimo O1Tiitinen A1Härkki P1.

 

Abstract

Urinary tract endometriosis (UTE) is a rare form of deep infiltrating endometriosis. We studied the operative treatment of UTE and evaluated postoperative recurrences and fertility outcomes. This is a retrospective cohort study of 53 women who underwent operative treatment for UTE in 2004-2013 at Helsinki University Hospital, and were followed-up until the end of 2014. The data were gathered from the hospital’s electronic database. The main outcome measures were complications, reoperations, postoperative pregnancies, and deliveries. Preoperative diagnosis was accurate in 72 % with bladder endometriosis and in 93 % with ureteral disease. Thirty-one (58 %) of the 53 operations were performed via laparoscopy. Postoperative complications requiring re-intervention occurred in five cases (9 %). Five reoperations were performed in four cases due to endometriosis recurrence, only two due to recurrence of UTE (4 %). Twenty-eight women wished for pregnancy; 18 (64 %) of them conceived. Infertility treatment was needed in 20 (71 %) cases. Twelve (75 %) women delivered via cesarean section; intraoperative difficulties occurred in ten (83 %). The complication rate with UTE operations is acceptable and recurrences are rare. Infertility is common, but 57 % of those who wished for a child succeeded. A majority of the deliveries involved unplanned and complicated cesarean section.

 

 

Abdom Radiol (NY). 2017 May;42(5):1517-1523.

Abdominal wall endometriosis: differentiation from other masses using CT features.

Yarmish G1Sala E2Goldman DA3Lakhman Y2Soslow RA4Hricak H2Gardner GJ5Vargas HA2.

 

Abstract

PURPOSE:

To assess the utility of morphologic and quantitative CT features in differentiating abdominal wall endometriosis (AWE) from other masses of the abdominal wall.

METHODS:

Retrospective IRB-approved study of 105 consecutive women from two institutions who underwent CT and biopsy/resection of abdominal wall masses. CTs were independently reviewed by two radiologists blinded to final histopathologic diagnoses. Associations between CT features and pathology were tested using Fisher’s Exact Test. Sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive values were calculated. P values were adjusted for multiple variable testing.

RESULTS:

24.8% (26/105) of patients had histologically proven abdominal wall endometriosis. The other most common diagnoses included adenocarcinoma NOS (21%; 22/105), desmoid (14.3%; 15/105), and leiomyosarcoma (8.6%; 9/105). CT features significantly associated with endometriosis for both readers were location below the umbilicus (P = 0.0188), homogeneous density (P = 0.0188), and presence of linear infiltration irradiating peripherally from a central soft tissue nodule (i.e., “gorgon” sign) (P < 0.0001). The highest combined sensitivity (0.69, 95% CI: 0.48-0.86) and specificity (0.97, 95% CI: 0.91-1.00) for both readers occurred for patients having all three of these features present. Border type (P = 0.0199) was only significant for R2, peritoneal extension (P = 0.0188) was only significantly for R1, and the remainder of features were insignificant (P = 0.06-60). There was overlap in Hounsfield units on non-contrast CT (N = 26) between AWE (median: 45HU, range: 39-54) and other abdominal wall masses (median: 38.5HU, range: 15-58).

CONCLUSION:

CT features are helpful in differentiating AWE from other abdominal wall soft tissue masses. Such differentiation may assist decisions regarding possible biopsy and treatment planning.

 

 

Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2017 Feb;295(2):503-510.

The association between interleukin-10 (IL-10) -592C/A, -819T/C, -1082G/A promoter polymorphisms and endometriosis.

Malutan AM1Drugan C2Walch K3Drugan T4Ciortea R1Mihu D1.

 

Abstract

PURPOSE:

Endometriosis has an incidence reaching up to 50% in infertile women. Cytokine-mediated immune responses seem to play an important role in endometriosis pathogenesis, but still the etiology and pathophysiology remain unclear. In the current study we tried to investigate whether there is a relationship between IL-10 genetic polymorphism, serum levels of IL-10 and the presence of advanced endometriosis.

METHODS:

The presence of IL-10 592C/A, 819T/C, 1082G/A promoter polymorphisms and IL-10 serum levels were investigated in advanced endometriosis patients compared to healthy controls. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes and further analyzed by PCR.

RESULTS:

IL-10 serum levels were higher in endometriosis group compared to controls (1.48, 0.68, p < 0.001). We have observed an association between IL-10 592C/C and 819C/C genotypes, presence of C alleles and an increased risk of endometriosis. No difference was observed in IL-10 serum levels corresponding to different alleles or genotypes.

CONCLUSION:

Our results suggest that IL-10 592A/C and 819T/C promoter polymorphisms confer susceptibility to advanced endometriosis. No associations were found between the IL-10 1082A/G polymorphism and susceptibility to advanced endometriosis.

 

 

 

 

Rev Esp Enferm Dig. 2017 Jan;109(1):81-82.

Anisakiasis and intestinal endometriosis: under-recognized conditions in the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen.

Sánchez Justicia C1Granero Peiró L2Arabe Paredes JA3.

 

Abstract

Anisakiasis and endometriosis is rare cause of intestinal obstruction and even perforation, the latter being extremely rare. We report the case of a patient with intestinal obstruction that progress to perforation and whose differential diagnosis is complex. The interest in this clinical case lies in the unexpected histology of the surgical specimen after the intervention of the patient, because the intestinal endometriosis as intestinal anisakiasis are rare entities that make diagnosis difficult.

 

 

PLoS One. 2016 Dec 22;11(12):e0168476.

Obstetrical Complications in Women with Endometriosis: A Cohort Study in Japan.

Harada T1Taniguchi F1Onishi K2Kurozawa Y2Hayashi K3Harada T1Japan Environment & Children’s Study Group.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Endometriosis, which occurs in approximately 10% of women of reproductive age, is defined as the presence of endometrial tissue outside the uterus. Women with endometriosis are more likely to have difficulty conceiving and tend to receive infertility treatment, including assisted reproductive technology (ART) therapy. There has not yet been a prospective cohort study examining the effects of endometriosis on pregnancy outcome in pregnant Japanese women.

METHODOLOGY:

This was a prospective cohort study of the incidence of obstetrical complications in women with endometriosis using data of the Japan Environment & Children’s Study (JECS). Included in this study were 9,186 pregnant women in the JECS with or without a history of endometriosis who gave birth or stillbirth or whose pregnancy was terminated with abortion between February and December 2011.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:

The effects of endometriosis on pregnancy outcome.

RESULTS:

Of the 9,186 pregnant women in the JECS, 4,119 (44.8%) had obstetrical complications; 330 participants reported a diagnosis of endometriosis before pregnancy, and these women were at higher risk for complications of pregnancy than those without a history of endometriosis (odds ratio (OR) = 1.50; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.20 to 1.87). Logistic regression analyses showed that the adjusted OR for obstetrical complications of pregnant women who conceived naturally and had a history of endometriosis was 1.45 (CI 1.11 to 1.90). Among pregnant women with endometriosis, the ORs of preterm premature rupture of the membranes (PROM) and placenta previa were significantly higher compared with women never diagnosed with endometriosis who conceived naturally or conceived after infertility treatment, except for ART therapy (OR 2.14, CI 1.03-4.45 and OR 3.37, CI 1.32-8.65).

CONCLUSIONS:

This study showed that endometriosis significantly increased the incidence of preterm PROM and placenta previa after adjusting for confounding of the data by ART therapy.

 

 

J Minim Invasive Gynecol. 2017 Jul – Aug;24(5):715-716.

Rectovaginal Splenosis: An Unexpected Cause of Dyspareunia Approached by Laparoscopy.

Ferreira H1Maciel C2Morgado A3Pereira A3.

 

Abstract

STUDY OBJECTIVE:

To demonstrate the technique of laparoscopic approach in a rare case of rectovaginal splenosis with severe dyspareunia and dyschesia.

DESIGN:

A step-by-step explanation of the patient’s condition, diagnosis, surgical technique, and postoperative results (Canadian Task Force classification II-3).

SETTING:

Splenosis consists of ectopic functioning splenic tissue that can be located anywhere within the abdomen or pelvis. Fragments are often multiple and range in diameter from a few millimeters to a few centimeters. They are reddish-blue and are sessile or pedunculated. Their appearance can mimic that of neoplasms or endometriosis, which are the main differential diagnoses. Trauma and subsequent splenectomy is the cause in most cases. Splenosis is a benign condition usually found incidentally and is usually asymptomatic. The need for therapy is controversial, and treatment is suggested only in symptomatic cases, primarily those related to pelvic or abdominal lesions, as in our patient. The diagnosis of splenosis in a woman complaining of pelvic pain may present diagnostic difficulties. The splenic tissue has the macroscopic appearance of endometriosis, and its position in the pelvis also may suggest this diagnosis. Where excision of splenosis is considered necessary, the approach should be laparoscopic, unless this is considered too risky owing to the proximity of vital structures.

INTERVENTION:

A 40-year-old woman was referred to our department for severe dyspareunia and dyschezia. The gynecologic examination revealed a painfull nodularity on the posterior vaginal cul de sac. Further evaluation with 2- and 3-dimensional ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging revealed several soft tissue nodules in the pouch of Douglas (POD), which were enhanced on contrast administration. She had undergone a splenectomy 15 years earlier after a car accident. A laparoscopic approach to a rectovaginal nodularity was performed. Under general anesthesia, the patient was placed in the dorsal decubitus position with her arms alongside her body and her legs in abduction. Pneumoperitoneum was achieved using a Veres needle placed at the umbilicus. Four trocars were placed: a 10-mm trocar at the umbilicus for the 0-degree laparoscope; a 5-mm trocar at the right anterosuperior iliac spine; a 5-mm trocar in the midline between the umbilicus and the pubic symphysis, approximately 8 to 10 cm inferior to the umbilical trocar; and a 5-mm trocar at the left anterosuperior iliac spine. The entire pelvis was inspected for endometriotic lesions. In the pelvis, hypervascular and bluish nodules were visible with extension from the POD into the deep rectovaginal space. The macroscopic appearance was atypical for endometriotic implants. The nodularities were carefully dissected and excised, and histological assessment revealed splenic tissue. At the time of this report, the patient had been asymptomatic for 6 months after surgery.

CONCLUSION:

Rectovaginal splenosis may mimic endometriosis. The laparoscopic approach to rectovaginal splenosis avoids an abdominal incision, with its associated pain and possible adhesion formation. It also provides a better view for dissection. In this patient, the splenosis was removed by laparoscopy, with no postoperative dyspareunia or dyschesia.

 

 

Int J Reprod Biomed (Yazd). 2016 Nov;14(11):713-718.

Correlation of CA-125 serum level and clinico-pathological characteristic of patients with endometriosis.

Karimi-Zarchi M1Dehshiri-Zadeh N2Sekhavat L2Nosouhi F3.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Cancer antigen 125 (CA-125) is a glycoprotein biomarker that is used in women with pelvic masses such as endometriosis and maybe is useful in practice of patients suspicious to endometriosis.

OBJECTIVE:

The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between preoperative serum CA-125 levels and clinic pathological characteristic in women with endometriosis, and find out the best serum CA-125 levels cut-off in pre and post menopause women.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Serum CA-125 levels in 87 women aged 21-54 years suspected to endometriosis with pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea, or dyspareunia were measured preoperatively. Also the association between clinic pathological characteristic and serum CA-125 level were analyzed.

RESULTS:

The mean age of women was 32.22±6.91. The mean serum CA-125 level was 49.93±4.30 U/mL. There was a significant correlation between the endometriosis stage, lesion size, adhesion score and preoperative CA-125 plasma concentration. However, we did not found significant differences in age, marital status, patient’s complaints, and pelvic pain associated to Ca125 serum level. The suggested preoperative serum cut-off levels in premenopausal and postmenopausal patients were 37 U/ml and 35 U/ml, respectively.

CONCLUSION:

According to the results, preoperative serum CA-125 is an important predictor for patients with endometriosis and it should be taken into consideration when surgical management is suspected, especially if stage of disease, lesion size and adhesion score are undertaken.

 

 

J Minim Invasive Gynecol. 2017 Mar – Apr;24(3):494-500.

Enhanced Endometriosis Archiving Software (ENEAS): An Application for Storing, Retrieving, Comparing, and Sharing Data of Patients Affected by Endometriosis Integrated in the Daily Practice.

Centini G1Zannoni L2Lazzeri L1Buiarelli P1Limatola G1Petraglia F1Seracchioli R2Zupi E3.

 

Abstract

Endometriosis is a chronic benign disease affecting women of fertile age, associated with pelvic pain and subfertility, often with negative impacts on quality of life. Meetings involving 5 gynecologists skilled in endometriosis management and 2 informatics technology consultants competent in data management and website administration were enlisted to create an endometriosis databank known as ENEAS (Enhanced Endometriosis Archiving Software). This processing system allows users to store, retrieve, compare, and correlate all data collected in conjunction with different Italian endometriosis centers, with the collective objective of obtaining homogeneous data for a large population sample. ENEAS is a web-oriented application that can be based on any open-source database that can be installed locally on a server, allowing collection of data on approximately 700 items, providing standardized and homogeneous data for comparison and analysis. ENEAS is capable of generating a sheet incorporating all data on the management of endometriosis that is both accurate and suitable for each individual patient. ENEAS is an effective and universal web application that encourages providers in the field of endometriosis to use a common language and share data to standardize medical and surgical treatment, with the main benefits being improved patient satisfaction and quality of life.

 

Folia Med Cracov. 2016;56(2):17-23.

Tubal telocytes: factor infertility reason?

Aleksandrovych V1Sajewicz MWalocha JAGil K.

 

Abstract

Infertility is actually widespread pathological condition, which affected one in every four couples in developing countries. Approximately one third of all cases are connected with tubal factor infertility, o en accompanies by endometriosis, acute salpingitis, urogenital infections etc. The newly identified telocytes (TCs) have multiple potential bio-functions and might participate in the fertility problems. They influence on structural and functional integrity of oviduct tissue. Despite recent discovery, TCs involvement in the majority of physiological and pathological processes is still unclear and require significant increasing of deep observations and data analysis. Focusing on female reproductive system help better understands the main reasons of infertility, while evaluation of TCs impact on Fallopian tube and uterus contractility might be a key point of its correction. The article summarizes the main features of telocytes in Fallopian tubes, emphasizing their involvement in pathophysiological processes and tubal factor infertility.

 

 

J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2017 Jun;30(3):422-424.

Hepatic Adenomas in Adolescents and Young Women with Endometriosis Treated with Norethindrone Acetate.

Brady PC1Missmer SA2Laufer MR3.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Endometriosis-ectopic implantation of endometrial-like tissue-affects 10% of female adolescents and adults. First-line treatment includes progesterone only (such as norethindrone acetate [NET-A]) or combined estrogen/progestin oral contraceptive pills. Estrogen-containing contraceptives confer increased risk of hepatic adenomas, whereas the association with NET-A is very rarely reported.

CASE:

Three adolescents with stage I to II endometriosis managed with NET-A (up to 15 mg/d for 28-78 months) were diagnosed with hepatic adenomas at ages 17-22 years. They previously received estrogen-containing medications, which were stopped 24 months or longer before diagnosis of hepatic adenoma.

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION:

NET-A in a dose greater than 10 mg/d might be associated with increased risk for hepatic adenomas, likely due to peripheral conversion to ethinyl estradiol. Use of NET-A might not be advisable in patients with known hepatic adenomas.

 

 

Ann Agric Environ Med. 2016 Dec 23;23(4):649-653.

Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), MMP-9, tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMP-1) and transforming growth factor-β2 (TGF-β2) expression in eutopic endometrium of women with peritoneal endometriosis.

Szymanowski K1Mikołajczyk M2Wirstlein P2Dera-Szymanowska A3.

 

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

The prevalence of endometriosis among reproductive age women is 7-17%; however, these figures reach 20-50% in patients suffering from infertility. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) activity is thought to be particularly essential in the early phases of endometriosis development. Any changes in the equilibrium between MMPs activity and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs) could be potentially harmful, promoting endometriosis development. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1 or TGF-B2 expression in eutopic endometrium from women with early endometriosis differ when compared with healthy subjects. The results were referred to the serum progesterone levels.

MATERIALS AND METHOD:

Endometrial biopsy was taken from 42 patients (18 in the study group, 22 in thecontrol group) at the time of hysteroscopy for routine histology and for RT-PCR procedures. Comparison of the quantity of gene products was performed with a programme for densitometry and compared to GADPH product, which was a reference value.

RESULTS:

The obtained results did not reveal any statistical difference in endometrial expression of MMP-2, MMp-9, TIMP-1, and TGF-β2 or serum progesterone level between women with endometriosis and without visible signs of this illness.

CONCLUSION:

Despite the lack of statistical differences, it was observed that both examined metalloproteinases expressed a tendency to higher gene expression in the eutopic endometrium of women with endometriosis. However, both TIMP-1 and TGF-β2 expressions had the same tendency – higher values in endometriosis patients.

 

Ann Agric Environ Med. 2016 Dec 23;23(4):671-676.

The role of vitamin D in reproductive dysfunction in women – a systematic review.

Skowrońska P1Pastuszek E2Kuczyński W3Jaszczoł M4Kuć P3Jakiel G5Wocławek-Potocka I6Łukaszuk K7.

 

Abstract

Vitamin D is essential for the proper functioning of the human body. There is also evidence of its strong association with fertility problems in women. This review aims to evaluate the relationship between vitamin D and diseases affecting women’s fertility (polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), uterine leiomyomas and endometriosis), and in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcome. A systematic review of the literature was conducted in Scopus and PubMed for relevant English language publications since 1989. Vitamin D influences the functioning of the reproductive system in women and has been associated with PCOS, uterine leiomyomas, endometriosis and in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcome. However, further studies on larger groups of patients are needed to establish what role vitamin D plays in the treatment of female infertility.

 

 

J Nutr. 2017 Feb;147(2):227-234.

Urinary Phytoestrogen Concentrations Are Not Associated with Incident Endometriosis in Premenopausal Women.

Mumford SL1Weck J2Kannan K3Buck Louis GM2.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Phytoestrogens have been associated with subtle hormonal changes, but their effects on endometriosis are largely unknown.

OBJECTIVE:

We assessed the association between urinary concentrations of phytoestrogens and incident endometriosis.

METHODS:

We included an operative sample of 495 premenopausal women aged 18-44 y undergoing laparoscopies and laparotomies at 14 clinical sites between 2007 and 2009 and a general population sample of 131 women from the same geographic area who were matched on age and menstruation status. Endometriosis in the surgical sample was assessed by surgical visualization (clinical gold standard), whereas disease in the general population sample was assessed with the use of a pelvic MRI. Urine concentrations of genistein, daidzen, O-desmethylangolensin, equol, enterodiol, and enterolactone were measured at baseline. Poisson regression with robust error variance was used to estimate the risk of an endometriosis diagnosis for each sample after adjusting for age and body mass index (in kg/m2). Separate models were run for each phytoestrogen.

RESULTS:

Overall geometric mean urine concentrations of phytoestrogens were as follows: genistein [88 nmol/L (95% CI: 72, 108 nmol/L)], daidzein [194 nmol/L (95% CI: 160, 236 nmol/L)], O-desmethylangolensin [4 nmol/L (95% CI: 3, 6 nmol/L)], equol [4 nmol/L (95% CI: 4, 6 nmol/L)], enterodiol [29 nmol/L (95% CI: 22, 38 nmol/L)], and enterolactone [355 nmol/L (95% CI: 395, 544 nmol/L)]. Geometric mean concentrations of phytoestrogens did not significantly differ by endometriosis status in either sample. Adjusted RRs for endometriosis ranged from 0.87 to 1.09 for the 6 phytoestrogens measured, with all CIs including a value ≥1. Phytoestrogens were not associated with the severity of endometriosis when restricting the analysis to women with moderate-to-severe disease per the revised American Society for Reproductive Medicine criteria. Furthermore, no associations were observed between self-reported high soy intake and endometriosis.

CONCLUSIONS:

Despite endometriosis being an estrogen-dependent disease, we found no evidence that urinary phytoestrogens were associated with a higher risk of an endometriosis diagnosis in either a sample of premenopausal women or in a surgical sample.

 

 

Int J Cancer. 2017 Apr 15;140(8):1860-1869.

KRAS mutation coupled with p53 loss is sufficient to induce ovarian carcinosarcomas in mice.

Tang FH1,2Hsieh TH2,3Hsu CY2,3Lin HY2Long CY2Cheng KH4,5Tsai EM2,3,5,6,7.

 

Abstract

Ovarian carcinosarcoma cancer is the most lethal form of gynecological malignancy, but the pathogenesis and biological function for this ovarian cancer remain unknown. We establishment the transgenic mouse model of K-rasG12D p53loxP/loxP and found that K-ras mutation and p53 deletion within the ovarian surface epithelium gave rise to ovarian lesions with a hyperproliferation and endometrioid glandular morphology. Furthermore, double mutant ovaries formed ovarian carcinosarcomas that were high grade and poorly differentiated. Induction was widely metastatic and spread to abdominal organs including liver, spleen, and kidney at 4 wk. We also confirmed the role of K-rasG12D in ovarian cancer cell lines MCAS and PA-1 and showed that K-rasG12D overexpression strongly induced cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. The ovarian cancer model we developed recapitulates the specific tumor histomorphology and the probable mechanism of malignant transformation in endometriosis.

 

 

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol. 2016 Dec;55(6):786-790.

A mixture of St. John’s wort and sea buckthorn oils regresses endometriotic implants and affects the levels of inflammatory mediators in peritoneal fluid of the rat: A surgically induced endometriosis model.

İlhan M1Süntar İ1Demirel MA2Yeşilada E3Keleş H4Küpeli Akkol E5.

 

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) and St. John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum L.) are used as an emmenagog and for the treatment of other gynecological disorders including uterus inflammation and endometriosis. The aim of the present study is to investigate the potential of a mixture of sea buckthorn and St. John’s wort oils (HrHp oil) in the treatment of endometriosis.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

The activity was assessed in surgically induced endometriosis in rats. A 15-mm piece of endometrium was sutured into the abdominal wall. Twenty-eight days later, a second laparotomy was performed to calculate the endometrial foci areas and to score intra-abdominal adhesions. The rats were treated with either vehicle, HrHp oil formulation, or the reference (buserelin acetate). At the end of the experiment all rats were sacrificed and endometriotic foci areas and intra-abdominal adhesions were re-evaluated. The tissue sections were analyzed histopathologically. Peritoneal fluids of the experimental animals were collected in order to detect the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, vascular endothelial growth factor, and interleukin-6, which might be involved in the etiology of endometriosis.

RESULTS:

In the HrHp oil-treated group, the volumes of endometriotic implants were found to be significantly decreased (from 50.8 mm3 to 18.6 mm3, p<0.001) without any adhesion (0.0±0.0, p<0.001) when compared to the control group (3.1±0.9). The levels of tumor necrosis factor-α decreased from 7.02±1.33 pg/mL to 4.78±1.02 pg/mL (p<0.01); vascular endothelial growth factor from 17.39±8.52 pg/mL to 9.67±5.04 pg/mL (p<0.01); and interleukin-6 from 50.95±22.84 pg/mL to 29.11±7.45 pg/mL (p<0.01), respectively, after HrHp oil treatment.

CONCLUSION:

HrHp oil may be a promising alternative for the treatment of endometriosis.

 

 

 

Social psychogenic stress promotes the development of endometriosis in mouse.

Guo SW1Zhang Q2Liu X3.

 

Abstract

Exposure to chronic stress before and well after the induction of endometriosis is reported to increase lesion sizes in rats, but it is unclear whether stress, exposed shortly after the induction of endometriosis, would also promote the development of endometriosis, nor is it clear what the underlying possible molecular mechanism is. This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that chronic stress can promote the development of endometriosis. A prospective randomized mouse experiment was conducted that subjected mice with induced endometriosis to predator stress. In addition, a cross-sectional immunohistochemistry study was performed in ectopic and eutopic endometrial tissue samples from age- and roughly menstrual phase-matched women with ovarian endometriomas. It was found that the chronic psychogenic stress induced epigenetic changes in the hippocampus in mouse independent of endometriosis. It was also found that chronic psychogenic stress induced epigenetic changes in the hippocampus of mice with endometriosis, and seemingly activated the adrenergic signalling in ectopic endometrium, resulting in increased angiogenesis and accelerated growth of endometriotic lesions. Thus, chronic psychogenic stress promotes endometriosis development, raising the possibility that the use of anti-depressants in cases of prolonged and intense stress might forestall the negative impact of stress on the development of endometriosis.

 

 

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol. 2016 Dec;55(6):835-839.

Efficacies of vitamin D and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on experimental endometriosis.

Akyol A1Şimşek M2İlhan R2Can B2Baspinar M2Akyol H3Gül HF4Gürsu F4Kavak B2Akın M5.

 

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin-D3 (vitamin D) and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 PUFA) on experimentally induced endometriosis in a rat model.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

A prospective, single-blind, randomized, controlled experimental study was performed on 30 Wistar female rats. Endometriosis was surgically induced by implanting endometrial tissue on the abdominal peritoneum. Four weeks later, a second laparotomy was performed to assess pre-treatment implant volumes and cytokine levels. The rats were randomized into three groups: vitamin D group (42 μg/kg/day), omega-3 PUFA group (450 mg/kg/day), and control group (saline 0.1 mL/rat/day). These treatments were administered for 4 weeks. At the end of treatment, a third laparotomy was performed for the assessment of cytokine levels, implant volumes (post-treatment) and implants were totally excised for histopathologic examination. Pre- and post-treatment volumes, cytokine levels within the groups, as well as stromal and glandular tissues between the groups were compared.

RESULTS:

The mean post-treatment volume was statistically significantly reduced in the omega-3 PUFA group (p=0.02) and the level of the interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the peritoneal fluid were significantly decreased at the end of treatment in the omega-3 PUFA group (p=0.02, p=0.03, and p=0.03, respectively). In the vitamin D group, only IL-6 levels were significantly decreased. In the histopathologic examination, the glandular tissue and stromal tissue scores of the implants were significant lower in the omega-3 PUFA group (p=0.03 and p=0.02).

CONCLUSION:

Omega-3 PUFA caused significant regression of endometriotic implants. Vitamin D has not been as effective as omega-3 PUFA on endometriosis.

 

 

Eur Urol. 2017 May;71(5):790-807.

Bladder Endometriosis: A Systematic Review of Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, Treatment, Impact on Fertility, and Risk of Malignant Transformation.

Leone Roberti Maggiore U1Ferrero S2Candiani M3Somigliana E4Viganò P5Vercellini P4.

 

Abstract

CONTEXT:

The bladder is the most common site affected in urinary tract endometriosis. There is controversy regarding the pathogenesis, clinical management (diagnosis and treatment), impact on fertility, and risk of malignant transformation of bladder endometriosis (BE).

OBJECTIVE:

To systematically evaluate evidence regarding the pathogenesis, diagnosis, medical and surgical treatment, impact on female fertility, and risk of malignant transformation of BE.

EVIDENCE ACQUISITION:

A systematic review of PubMed/Medline from inception until October 2016 was performed in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) statement and was registered in the PROSPERO registry (www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero; CRD42016039281). Eighty-seven articles were selected for inclusion in this analysis.

EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS:

BE is defined as the presence of endometrial glands and stroma in the detrusor muscle. Ultrasonography is the first-line technique for assessment of BE owing to its accuracy, safety, and cost. Clinical management can be conservative, using hormonal therapies, or surgical. When conservative treatment is preferred, estrogen-progestogen combinations and progestogens should be chosen because of their favorable profile that allows long-term therapy. Surgery should guarantee complete removal of the bladder nodule to minimize recurrence, so transurethral surgery alone should be avoided in favor of segmental bladder resection. There is not a strong rationale for hypothesizing a detrimental impact of BE per se on fertility. Furthermore, current evidence does not support the removal of bladder endometriotic lesions because of the potential risk of malignant transformation since this phenomenon is exceedingly rare.

CONCLUSIONS:

BE is a challenging condition, and the common coexistence of other types of endometriosis means that clinical management of BE should involve collaboration between gynecologists and urologists.

PATIENT SUMMARY:

In this article we review available knowledge on bladder endometriosis. The review provides a useful tool to guide physicians in the management of this complex condition.

 

 

Cell J. 2017 Winter;18(4):582-587.

Oxidative Stress Statues in Serum and Follicular Fluid of Women with Endometriosis.

Nasiri N1Moini A2Eftekhari-Yazdi P1Karimian L1Salman-Yazdi R3Arabipoor A4.

 

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

This study aimed to evaluate the levels of two oxidative stress (OS) markers including lipid peroxide (LPO) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in both serum and follicular fluid (FF) of women with endometriosis after puncture.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

In this cross-sectional study, a total number of sixty-three women younger than 40 years old with laparoscopy (gold standard for endometriosis diagnosis) indication underwent in vitro fertilization (IVF) program in the Royan Institute, Tehran, Iran from September 2013 to October 2014. About forty-three patients were diagnosed with endometriosis after laparoscopy. Blood and FF from the leading follicle in each stimulated ovary were obtained at the time of egg retrieval; samples were centrifuged and frozen until assessment. At the time of sample assessment, serum and FF samples were evaluated for the levels of LPO and TAC on spectrophotometery.

RESULTS:

We observed that women with endometriosis had significantly higher LPO and lower TAC levels in the serum and FF as compared with the control group (P<0.05).

CONCLUSION:

It has observed that FF of women with endometriosis, regardless of disease stage, increases the proliferation power of endometrial cells in vitro, we presume that inflammatory reactions-induced OS in ovary may be responsible for proliferation induction ability in FF obtained from women with endometriosis.

 

 

Semin Reprod Med. 2017 Jan;35(1):88-97.

Relating Chronic Pelvic Pain and Endometriosis to Signs of Sensitization and Myofascial Pain and Dysfunction.

Aredo JV1Heyrana KJ2Karp BI1Shah JP3Stratton P1.

 

Abstract

Chronic pelvic pain is a frustrating symptom for patients with endometriosis and is frequently refractory to hormonal and surgical management. While these therapies target ectopic endometrial lesions, they do not directly address pain due to central sensitization of the nervous system and myofascial dysfunction, which can continue to generate pain from myofascial trigger points even after traditional treatments are optimized. This article provides a background for understanding how endometriosis facilitates remodeling of neural networks, contributing to sensitization and generation of myofascial trigger points. A framework for evaluating such sensitization and myofascial trigger points in a clinical setting is presented. Treatments that specifically address myofascial pain secondary to spontaneously painful myofascial trigger points and their putative mechanisms of action are also reviewed, including physical therapy, dry needling, anesthetic injections, and botulinum toxin injections.

 

 

Semin Reprod Med. 2017 Jan;35(1):54-64

Surgical Management of Endometriosis in Patients with Chronic Pelvic Pain.

Flyckt R1Kim S2Falcone T3.

 

Abstract

Surgical approaches to endometriosis patients with chronic pelvic pain are multimodal and require individualization. Laparoscopic approaches are preferred over laparotomy when conservatively treating endometriosis via excision or ablation/fulguration of lesions. The available data support cystectomy over fenestration or fulguration for endometriomas; however, there may be associated decreases in ovarian reserve with endometrioma treatment. Presacral neurectomy may be useful in patients with midline pain and LUNA is not effective for the treatment of pelvic pain related to endometriosis. Appendectomy may be considered prophylactically at the time of the surgery for pelvic pain, although more studies are needed. For deep infiltrating endometriosis, the risks of aggressive bowel surgery must be weighed against the benefits of clear pain reduction. Postoperative medical suppressive therapy is strongly recommended to prolong symptom-free intervals of this chronic disease. As definitive therapy, hysterectomy can be helpful especially when combined with endometriosis excision. When performing hysterectomy, bilateral oophorectomy should be given careful consideration, as this procedure leads to premature surgical menopause and may not decrease the possibility of reoperation and persistence of symptoms in patients aged 30 to 39 years with chronic pain.

 

 

Semin Reprod Med. 2017 Jan;35(1):110-116

Cancer Implications for Patients with Endometriosis.

Wilbur MA1Shih IM2Segars JH3Fader AN1.

 

Abstract

Endometriosis is defined as the presence of viable endometrial glands and stroma outside of the uterus. It is a common disease, occurring in 5 to 15% of all women. Endometriosis is associated with chronic pelvic pain and infertility and often requires surgical intervention for definitive treatment. Although it is a benign gynecologic condition, endometriosis shares pathophysiologic features with cancer. In recent years, both histologic and epidemiologic evidence has accumulated, suggesting that ovarian endometriosis may give rise to malignant ovarian tumors, primarily those that are epithelial in origin, known as endometriosis-associated ovarian carcinoma (EAOC) including ovarian clear cell carcinoma, endometrioid carcinoma, and the least common, seromucinous tumors. Women with endometriosis have a two- to threefold increase in absolute risk of developing epithelial ovarian cancer, especially clear cell and endometrioid subtypes. Somatic mutations, such as ARID1A, PIK3CA, and PTEN, may promote the progression of benign endometriosis to carcinoma. Endometriosis has been implicated in the development of other malignancies, including endometrial and breast cancer. In this review, we critically appraise the data regarding the association between endometriosis and ovarian cancer and the potential correlation of endometriosis with other cancers.

 

 

Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2017 Jan 3;15(1):1.

The abnormal expression of oxytocin receptors in the uterine junctional zone in women with endometriosis.

Huang M1,2Li X1Guo P1Yu Z2Xu Y1Wei Z3,4.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The junctional zone (JZ), also called as the endometrial-myometrial junction, is related to peristaltic-like movements in the non-pregnant uterus. Hyperperistalsis and dysperistalsis of uterus constructions might underlie many important disorders such as dysmenorrhea, infertility, endometriosis, implantation failure. The major proteins for uterine contraction of the non-pregnant uterus may be Oxytocin (OT) and oxytocin receptor (OTR). The objective of this study was to inspect the expression of OTR in isthmic and mid-fundal parts of the uterine junctional zone at different stages of the follicular cycle in patients with and without endometriosis.

METHODS:

Uterine biopsies containing endometrium and junctional zone were collected from the isthmic and mid-fundal parts of the anterior wall after hysterectomy. The OTR expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry.

RESULTS:

In the control uterus, OTR expression in the isthmic region was significantly higher than in the fundal region in the proliferative phase (p < 0.05) but significantly lower in the secretory phase (p < 0.05). And the expression of OTR in the proliferative phase was significantly higher than that in the secretory phase in both isthmic and fundal regions (p = 0.000 and 0.049, respectively). However, in endometriosis uteri, OTR expression in the isthmic region showed no significant difference with that in the fundal region in both proliferative and secretory phases (p = 0.597 and 0.736, respectively). In both isthmic and fundal regions, OTR expression was not significantly different between the proliferative phase and secretory phase (p = 0.084 and 0.222, respectively). OTR expression in fundal regions of revised ASRM I and II endometriosis were lower than that of revised ASRM III and IV (p = 0.049). In the fundal region of JZ, the expression of OTR in ovarian endometriosis was significantly lower than that in deep infiltrating endometriosis (p = 0.046). The expression level of OTR in the funds region is positively associated with the severity of dysmenorrhea in endometriosis group (r = 0.870, p < 0.05). Comparing to normal uteri, the expression of OTR in the secretory phase was significantly higher in the endometriosis uteri (p < 0.05). In the fundus of endometriosis uteri, OTR expression was significantly higher in both the proliferative and secretory phases (p = 0.045 and 0.028, respectively).

CONCLUSION:

OTR expression in the JZ of women with endometriosis changes significantly, which may result in abnormal uterine contractile activity, reducing the endometriosis-related fertility and dysmenorrhea.

 

 

Cancer Causes Control. 2017 May;28(5):459-468.

Predictors of pretreatment CA125 at ovarian cancer diagnosis: a pooled analysis in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium.

Babic A1Cramer DW2,3Kelemen LE4Köbel M5Steed H6Webb PM7,8Johnatty SE9deFazio A10,11Lambrechts D12,13Goodman MT14,15Heitz F16,17Matsuo K18Hosono S19Karlan BY20Jensen A21Kjær SK21,22Goode EL23Pejovic T24,25Moffitt M24,25Høgdall E21,26Høgdall C27McNeish I28Terry KL29,30.

 

Abstract

PURPOSE:

Cancer antigen 125 (CA125) is a glycoprotein expressed by epithelial cells of several normal tissue types and overexpressed by several epithelial cancers. Serum CA125 levels are mostly used as an aid in the diagnosis of ovarian cancer patients, to monitor response to treatment and detect cancer recurrence. Besides tumor characteristics, CA125 levels are also influenced by several epidemiologic factors, such as age, parity, and oral contraceptive use. Identifying factors that influence CA125 levels in ovarian cancer patients could aid in the interpretation of CA125 values for individuals.

METHODS:

We evaluated predictors of pretreatment CA125 in 13 studies participating in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium. This analysis included a total of 5,091 women with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer with pretreatment CA125 measurements. We used probit scores to account for variability in CA125 between studies and linear regression to estimate the association between epidemiologic factors and tumor characteristics and pretreatment CA125 levels.

RESULTS:

In age-adjusted models, older age, history of pregnancy, history of tubal ligation, family history of breast cancer, and family history of ovarian cancer were associated with higher CA125 levels while endometriosis was associated with lower CA125 levels. After adjusting for tumor-related characteristics (stage, histology, grade), body mass index (BMI) higher than 30 kg/m2 was associated with 10% (95% CI 2, 19%) higher CA125 levels, while race (non-white vs. white) was associated with 15% (95% CI 4, 27%) higher CA125 levels.

CONCLUSION:

Our results suggest that high BMI and race may influence CA125 levels independent of tumor characteristics. Validation is needed in studies that use a single assay for CA125 measurement and have a diverse study population.

 

 

Pol J Radiol. 2016 Aug 24;81:395-400.

The Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich Syndrome – A Case Report with Radiological Review.

Khaladkar SM1Kamal V1Kamal A1Kondapavuluri SK1.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

HWW syndrome is a very rare congenital anomaly of urogenital tract involving Mullerian ducts and mesonephric ducts. It is characterised by a triad of symptoms – uterus didelphys, obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal agenesis. It can be classified based on a completely or incompletely obstructed hemivagina. It presents soon after menarche or shows delayed presentation depending on the type. It can exhibit acute pelvic pain shortly after menarche and may show non-specific and variable symptoms with resultant delay in diagnosis. The most common presentation is pain and dysmenorrhea, and pain and abdominal mass in the lower abdomen secondary to haematocolpos and/or haematometra.

CASE REPORT:

Presentation of a clinical case of a 13-year-old patient with HWW syndrome presenting with regular menses, dysmenorrhea and painful lump in hypogastric region on the left side of midline. We described the role of imaging modalities in diagnosis of the Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome with a review of literature. USG and MRI showed left renal agenesis with compensatory hypertrophy of the right kidney, uterus didelphys with haematometra and haematocervix in the left uterus with evidence of blood in a dilated retort-shaped left fallopian tube and a normal right uterus. The unique feature of our case is haematometra and haematocervix with cervical and vaginal atresia found on the left side (classification 1.2) with associated left renal agenesis.

CONCLUSIONS:

HWW syndrome can present early or late, depending on the type. In patients with uterine and vaginal abnormalities, a work-up for associated renal anomalies should be performed. Early intervention is needed to reduce the risk of endometriosis and infertility.

 

 

J Reprod Immunol. 2017 Feb;119:44-48.

Drospirenone reduces inflammatory cytokines, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) expression in human endometriotic stromal cells.

Makabe T1Koga K2Miyashita M1Takeuchi A1Sue F1Taguchi A1Urata Y1Izumi G1Takamura M1Harada M1Hirata T1Hirota Y1Wada-Hiraike O1Fujii T1Osuga Y1.

 

Abstract

Drospirenone has been used as a progestin in oral contraceptives with ethinyl estradiol (DRSP/EE) and is expected to regulate endometriosis, however, the direct effects of drospirenone on endometriosis have not been clarified. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic and anti-neurogenic effects of drospirenone on endometriotic stromal cells (ESC). ESC isolated from endometriotic tissues were obtained from patients during laparoscopic surgery for ovarian endometriosis. ESC were exposed to IL-1β and cultured in the absence or presence of drospirenone. mRNA expression was evaluated using quantitative RT-PCR, and protein was measured using ELISAs. To evaluate the effect of drospirenone on progesterone receptor (PR) and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), ESC were transfected with siRNA against PR (siPR) and MR (siMR), and cultured in the presence or absence of drospirenone. Drospirenone significantly decreased IL-6, IL-8, VEGF and NGF mRNA expression by ESC. Drospirenone (10-5M) significantly decreased IL-6 secretion and 10-7M drospirenone decreased IL-8 and VEGF secretion. Knockdown of PR, but not MR, negated the effects of drospirenone. In summary, this study demonstrates that drospirenone has anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic and anti-neurogenic effects on ESC and these effects are mediated by PR. These drospirenone effects may contribute to the regulatory effects of drospirenone-containing oral contraceptives on endometriosis.

 

 

J Pak Med Assoc. 2017 Jan;67(1):140-142

Scar endometriosis: an entity not to be forgotten.

Fatima K1Khanani S1.

 

Abstract

Scar endometriosis is an uncommon but well-described condition. It is caused by the dissemination of endometrial tissue in the wound at the time of surgery. The deposits can involve uterine scar, abdominal musculature or subcutaneous tissue, with the latter being the most common. It usually presents as a palpable mass at the scar site with or without cyclical pain. We report three cases of scar endometriosis which presented with cyclical pain and swelling at the abdominal wall scar following uterine surgery. The patients underwent imaging which revealed abnormal findings at the scar site suggesting scar endometriosis. In the presence of strong clinical suspicion and supportive imaging, all three of them underwent local excision of the lesion. The diagnosis of endometriosis was confirmed on histopathology.

 

 

J Minim Invasive Gynecol. 2017 Mar – Apr;24(3):461-465.

Thoracic Endometriosis Syndrome: Association With Pelvic Endometriosisand Fertility Status.

Ottolina J1De Stefano F2Viganò P3Ciriaco P4Zannini P4Candiani M2.

 

Abstract

STUDY OBJECTIVE:

To evaluate associations among catamenial pneumothorax, pelvic endometriosis, and fertility status.

DESIGN:

Retrospective study (Canadian Task Force classification II-2).

SETTING:

Departments of Thoracic Surgery and Obstetrics and Gynecology, San Raffaele Hospital, Milan, Italy.

PATIENTS:

Sixteen females referred to the Department of Thoracic Surgery for treatment of spontaneous pneumothorax between January 2001 and January 2014 and referred to the outpatient clinic for gynecologic follow-up.

INTERVENTIONS:

Thoracoscopy for catamenial pneumothorax and laparoscopy for pelvic endometriosis.

MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:

Characteristics of the patients, the presence of endometriosis, and their fertility status were statistically analyzed. Pelvic endometriosis was diagnosed in 9 patients (56.3%), but 6 patients did not undergo a laparoscopic procedure to confirm or exclude the disease. Seven of the affected patients (77.8%) had stage III-IV endometriosis. Two-thirds of the patients with pelvic endometriosis who attempted conception conceived spontaneously, as did all of the patients without histopathological confirmation of endometriosis.

CONCLUSION:

Thoracic endometriosis syndrome, characterized mainly by catamenial pneumothorax, is a relevant condition in patients affected by endometriosis. However, few previous studies have analyzed this condition from a gynecologic standpoint, in terms of characteristics of endometriosis and fertility status of affected women. Our findings support the presence of a strong association between catamenial pneumothorax and pelvic endometriosis, as well as a minimal effect of catamenial pneumothorax on fertility status, even in the presence of pelvic endometriosis.

 

 

 

 

Cell Prolif. 2017 Jun;50(3).

Co-culture with macrophages enhances the clonogenic and invasion activity of endometriotic stromal cells.

Chan RWS1,2Lee CL1,2Ng EHY1,2Yeung WSB1,2.

 

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To study the effect on endometrial and endometriotic cells after co-culture with macrophages, using clonogenic, invasion and self-renewal assays.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Peripheral blood samples, endometrium and endometriotic tissues were collected. Autologous macrophages were co-cultured with endometrial and endometriotic cells. The number of colony-forming units (CFU), invasiveness and self-renewal activity after co-culture with macrophages were determined. The cytokine level of colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) from macrophages with and without endometriosis was compared.

RESULTS:

Co-culture with macrophages significantly increased the clonogenic and invasion ability of endometriotic stromal cells in vitro. Colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) was up-regulated in endometriotic macrophages conditioned medium when compared to those without the disease.

CONCLUSIONS:

These data suggest that macrophages may increase the proliferation and invasion activity of stromal clonogenic cells in women with endometriosis.

 

 

Arch Ital Urol Androl. 2016 Dec 30;88(4):266-269.

Different patterns of pelvic ureteral endometriosis. What is the best treatment? Results of a retrospective analysis.

Butticè S1Laganà ASMucciardi GMarson FTefik TNetsch CVitale SGSener EPappalardo RMagno C.

 

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Endometriosis is an estrogendependent disease. The incidence of urinary tract endometriosis (UE) increased during the last few years and, nowadays, it ranges from 0.3 to 12% of all women affected by the disease. The ureter is the second most common site affected. The ureteral endometriosis is classified in extrinsic and intrinsic. The aim of this study is to individuate the best treatments for each subset of ureteral endometriosis.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

32 patients diagnosed with surgically treated UE were retrospectively reviewed. The patients were divided into 3 subsets (intrinsic UE, extrinsic UE with and without obstruction). The patients with intrinsic UE (n = 10) were treated with laser endoureterotomy. The patients with extrinsic UE (n = 22) were divided in two subsets with (n = 16) and without (n = 6) hydronephrosis. All the patients underwent ureteral stenting, and resection and reimplantation was performed in the first group, and when the mass was &gt; 2.5 cm (n = 3) Boari flap was performed. Laparoscopic ureterolysis (shaving) was performed in the second group.

RESULTS:

In the extrinsic subset of UE, we obtained an high therapeutic success (84%). Conversely, in the intrinsic subset there was a recurrence rate of the disease in 6/10 of the patients (60%).

CONCLUSIONS:

Ureterolysis seems to be a good treatment in extrinsic UE without obstruction. Resection and reimplantation allows excellent results in the extrinsic UE with obstruction. In the intrinsic subset, the endoureterotomy approach is inadequate.

 

 

J Assist Reprod Genet. 2017 Mar;34(3):357-364.

Intrafollicular inflammatory cytokines but not steroid hormone concentrations are increased in naturally matured follicles of women with proven endometriosis.

Wu G1,2Bersinger NA1Mueller MD1von Wolff M3.

 

Abstract

PURPOSE:

The aim of this study was to assess whether the intrafollicular cytokine profile in naturally developed follicles is different in women with endometriosis, possibly explaining the lower reproductive outcome in endometriosis patients.

METHODS:

A matched case-control study was conducted at a university-based infertility and endometriosiscentre. The study population included 17 patients with laparoscopically and histologically confirmed endometriosis (rAFS stages II-IV), each undergoing one natural cycle IVF (NC-IVF) treatment cycle between 2013 and 2015, and 17 age-matched NC-IVF women without diagnosed endometriosis (control group). Follicular fluid and serum was collected at the time of follicle aspiration. The concentrations of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-15, IL-18, TNF-α) and hormones (testosterone, estradiol, AMH) were determined in follicular fluid and serum by single or multiplexed immunoassay and compared between both groups.

RESULTS:

In the follicular fluid, IL-1β and IL-6 showed significantly (P < 0.001 and 0.01, respectively) higher median concentrations in the endometriosis group than in the control group and a tendency towards endometriosis severity (rAFS stage) dependence. The levels of the interleukins detectable in follicular fluid were significantly higher than those in the serum (P < 0.01). Follicular estradiol concentration was lower in severe endometriosis patients than in the control group (P = 0.036). Follicular fluid IL-1β and IL-6 levels were not correlated with estradiol in the same compartment in neither patient group.

CONCLUSIONS:

In women with moderate and severe endometrioses, some intrafollicular inflammatory cytokines are upregulated and not correlated with intrafollicular hormone concentrations. This might be due to the inflammatory microenvironment in endometriosis women, affecting follicular function and thereby possibly contributing to the reproductive dysfunction in endometriosis.

 

 

J Assist Reprod Genet. 2017 Mar;34(3):409-415.

Aberrant endometrial DNA methylome of homeobox A10 and catechol-O-methyltransferase in endometriosis.

Ji F1Yang X2He Y1Wang H3Aili A4Ding Y5.

 

Abstract

PURPOSE:

Differential methylation of both HOXA10 and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) has been reported in different endometrium disorders, and the two genes are linked through the estrogen pathway. The current study investigates the DNA methylation of HOXA10 and COMT in ectopic and eutopic endometrial tissues and its correlation with and the occurrence of endometriosis in women from Xinjiang province in China.

METHODS:

In the current study, 120 patients with endometriosis were recruited from our hospital between January 2011 and June 2014. The DNA methylation sites of HOXA10 and COMT were detected using a DNA methylation array. The methylation levels of specific sites were compared between ectopic and eutopic endometrial tissues via pyrosequencing.

RESULTS:

Five differentially expressed CpGs were localized in the promoter region of the COMT gene and expressed significantly higher in the ectopic endometrium than the eutopic endometrium (P < 0.001). Two out of the five differentially expressed CpGs in the HOXA10 gene located in the promoter region were both significantly lower (nearly half) in the ectopic endometrium than the eutopic endometrium (P < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS:

To summarize, significant differential methylation of HOXA10 and COMT promoter regions was found between the ectopic and eutopic endometrial tissues. This is the first study investigating the methylation of HOXA10 and COMT genes and their linkage to endometriosis in Chinese patients.

 

 

Mol Med Rep. 2017 Mar;15(3):1279-1285.

Effects of S100A6 gene silencing on the biological features of eutopic endometrial stromal cells and β‑catenin expression.

Zhang X1Liu Z2Chen M1Cao Q3Huang D1.

 

Abstract

Protein expression levels of S100 calcium binding protein A6 (S100A6) are increased in various malignancies and are associated with tumor behavior; however, the association between S100A6 and endometriosis remains to be elucidated. In order to investigate the influence of S100A6 protein, recombinant lentivirus siS100A6 was used to transfect the eutopic endometrial stromal cells. CCK‑8 assay was performed to identify the proliferation ability of cell and the cell migration was detected by Transwell assay. Flow cytometry was performed to detect cell apoptosis, and western blotting and reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction were performed to identify the expression of β‑catenin. The present study investigated the role of S100A6 in endometriosis and its interaction with β‑catenin by transfecting eutopic endometrial stromal cells with a recombinant lentivirus containing S100A6‑specific small interfering RNA. Inhibition of S100A6 expression had a significant antiproliferative effect and reduced the migratory ability of eutopic endometrial stromal cells, and induced their apoptosis. In addition, inhibition of S100A6 expression suppressed β‑catenin expression. These results suggested that inhibition of S100A6 may represent a promising novel approach for the targeted therapy of endometriosis.

 

 

Semin Reprod Med. 2017 Jan;35(1):5-24.

Ultrasound Imaging for Ovarian and Deep Infiltrating Endometriosis.

Exacoustos C1Zupi E1Piccione E1.

 

Abstract

The main challenges of imaging for endometriosis are the detection of nonovarian disease and the evaluation of the extension of the disease into pelvic structures. Transvaginal ultrasonography (TVS) has been proposed as the first-line imaging technique because it allows extensive exploration of the pelvis. The “typical” endometrioma is a unilocular cyst with homogeneous low-level echogenicity (ground glass echogenicity) of the cyst fluid. The use of color Doppler helps avoid classifying malignancies as endometriomas, defining the presence of vascular flow in papillations. The real-time dynamic TVS examination of adhesions and pouch of Douglas (POD) obliteration, using the sliding sign technique, seems to be useful in the identification of women at increased risk for bowel endometriosis. Transvaginal ultrasound allows an accurate assessment of the vagina, particularly the areas of the posterior and lateral vaginal fornixes, the retrocervical area with torus uterinum and uterosacral ligaments, and the rectovaginal septum. The slightly filled bladder permits an evaluation of the bladder walls and the presence of endometriotic nodules which appear as hypoechoic linear or spherical lesions bulging toward the lumen, involving the serosa, muscularis, or (sub)mucosa of the bladder. Deep nodules of the rectum appear as hypoechoic lesions, linear or nodular retroperitoneal thickening with irregular borders, penetrating into the intestinal wall distorting its normal structure with the presence of few vessels observed with power Doppler evaluation. Adenomyosis can be observed with the two-dimensional (2D) TVS showing the typical myometrial features and 3D evaluation of the junctional zone. Although the sensitivity and specificity of TVS in the prediction of deeply infiltrating endometriosis and adenomyosis is high, their assessment by TVS is difficult and needs a great expertise.

 

 

Gynecol Endocrinol. 2017 Mar;33(3):173-178.

Promoting awareness of neonatal menstruation.

Bianchi P1Benagiano G2Brosens I3.

 

Abstract

Neonatal uterine bleeding (NUB) has been carefully studied in the past through case reports, small series, clinical cohort studies, pathology investigations of fetal and neonatal. Following a historical recount, this review summarizes biological mechanisms conditioning NUB, starting from the persistence till birth of an ‘ontogenetic progesterone resistance’ (OPR), causing decreased responsiveness of target tissues to bioavailable progesterone. Several pregnancy-related conditions, such as preeclampsia, fetal growth restriction, prematurity, post-maturity and even Rhesus or ABO incompatibility, influence the occurrence of NUB. It seems therefore that the phenomenon is precipitated by chronic fetal distress. When present, OPR may persists until telarche; as a consequence, if pregnancy occurs in early teenage, the disorder known as “defective deep placentation” may ensue, increasing the risk of obstetrical syndromes. In the presence of NUB, retrograde shedding into the peritoneal cavity of endometrial stem/progenitor and niche cells may occur. There, given the right environment, these cells can survive and become activated at the time of telarche, causing the specific phenotype of early-onset endometriosis. In conclusion, neonatal menstruation is a fetal distress indicator and can alter the incidence of a variety of pathological conditions later in life. For this reason, it should be carefully recorded and the parents informed.

 

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