Fertil Steril. 2016 Aug;106(2):410-5.

Risks of tubo-ovarian abscess in cases of endometrioma and assisted reproductive technologies are both under- and overreported.

Villette C1Bourret A1Santulli P2Gayet V1Chapron C2de Ziegler D3.

 

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To study possible associations among endometriosis, pelvic infectious disease, and ART.

DESIGN:

Retrospective cohort analysis over 4 consecutive years, based on medical records and insurance coding in a tertiary endometriosis reference center.

SETTING:

Tertiary university-based reference center for endometriosis.

PATIENT(S):

We retrieved all charts carrying the diagnoses infectious process and endometriosis in 2009-2012. Each chart was individually analyzed for categorization of the infectious episode and determining whether ART had been performed.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S):

Hospitalization for acute infection in women with known endometriosis and possible past ART.

INTERVENTION:

Retrospective insurance codes-triggered chart analysis.

RESULT(S):

Ten patients were admitted for an acute infection with fever, acute abdomen syndrome, elevated white blood cell count, and adnexal mass. Three women had oocyte retrieval, and an endometrioma was present 16, 57, and 102 days earlier. In one patient, the complication occurred 37 days after a cesarean section without prior ART. In the remaining six cases tubo-ovarian abscesses (TOAs) occurred spontaneously in endometriosis women who never had ART. Medical treatment succeeded in only two patients, and the remaining eight needed laparoscopic drainage. In 6 out of those 8 cases, laparoscopic drainage was a second-stage measure justified by failure to respond to antibiotic therapy.

CONCLUSION(S):

Our data indicate that some putative complications of ART and endometrioma may actually not be linked to ART, but rather constitute sporadic occurrences in endometriosis. Furthermore, TOAs occurring in women with endometriosis are best treated by early surgical drainage together with intravenous antibiotics.

 

 

Fertil Steril. 2016 Aug;106(2):402-9.

Serum microRNAs as diagnostic markers of endometriosis: a comprehensive array-based analysis.

Cosar E1Mamillapalli R2Ersoy GS1Cho S1Seifer B1Taylor HS1.

 

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To investigate serum microRNAs (miRNAs) in women with endometriosis.

DESIGN:

Case-control study.

SETTING:

University hospital.

PATIENT(S):

Women with (n = 24) and without (n = 24) endometriosis.

INTERVENTION(S):

Serum samples were obtained from surgically diagnosed subjects.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S):

miRNA from women with without endometriosis were used for microarray profiling and confirmed by means of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed on differentially expressed miRNAs.

RESULT(S):

miR-3613-5p, miR-6755-3p were down-regulated and miR-125b-5p, miR-150-5p, miR-342-3p, miR-143-3p, miR-145-5p, miR-500a-3p, miR-451a, miR-18a-5p were up-regulated more than 10-fold in the microarray. These results were confirmed with the use of qRT-PCR. Among the differentially expressed miRNAs, miR-125b-5p expression levels had the highest area under the ROC curve (AUC). The maximum AUC score of 1.000 was achieved when combining miR-125b-5p, miR-451a, and miR-3613-5p with the use of a logistic regression model.

CONCLUSION(S):

We identified several miRNAs in serum that distinguished subjects with endometriosis from those without. miR-125b-5p had the greatest potential as a single diagnostic biomarker. A combination of that miRNA with miR-451a and miR-3613-5p further improved diagnostic performance.

 

 

 

Clin Nucl Med. 2016 Aug;41(8):648-9.

Endometriosis Mimicking an Advanced Malignant Tumor.

Wang T1Xing YZhao J.

 

Abstract

A 27-year-old woman with swelling left leg, groin pain, and increased serum CA125 level underwent FDG PET/CT to evaluate a pelvic mass revealed by an MRI performed from an outside hospital. A large hypermetabolic solid mass in the left pelvic wall and several lymph nodes with elevated FDG activity were noted, which indicated malignancy. However, histopathological examination demonstrated endometriosis.

 

 

BMC Complement Altern Med. 2016 May 18;16:129.

The use of complementary and alternative medicine by 7427 Australian women with cyclic perimenstrual pain and discomfort: a cross-sectional study.

Fisher C1Adams J1Hickman L1Sibbritt D2.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

To assess the prevalence of cyclic perimenstrual pain and discomfort and to detail the pattern of complementary and alternative (CAM) use adopted by women for the treatment of these symptoms.

METHODS:

Data from the 2012 national Australian Longitudinal Study of Women’s Health (ALSWH) cross-sectional survey of 7427 women aged 34-39 years were analysed to estimate the prevalence of endometriosis, premenstrual syndrome (PMS), irregular or heavy periods and severe dysmenorrhoea and to examine the association between their symptoms and their visits to CAM practitioners as well as their use of CAM therapies and products in the previous 12 months.

RESULTS:

The prevalence of endometriosis was 3.7 % and of the perimenstrual symptoms assessed, PMS was most prevalent at 41.2 % whilst irregular bleeding (22.2 %), heavy periods (29.8 %) and severe period pain (24.1 %) were reported at lower levels. Women with endometriosis were more likely than non-sufferers to have consulted with a massage therapist or acupuncturist and to have used vitamins/minerals, yoga/meditation or Chinese medicines (p < 0.05). PMS sufferers were more likely to consult with an osteopath, massage therapist, naturopath/herbalist or alternative health practitioner and to have used all forms of CAM therapies except Chinese medicines than women who had infrequent PMS (all p < 0.05). Women with irregular periods did not have different patterns of CAM use from non-sufferers and those with heavy periods did not favour any form of CAM but were less likely to visit a massage therapist or use yoga/meditation than non-sufferers (p < 0.05). For women with severe dysmenorrhoea there was no difference in their visits to CAM practitioners compared to non-sufferers but they were more likely to use aromatherapy oils (p < 0.05) and for more frequent dysmenorrhoea also herbal medicines, Chinese medicines and other alternative therapies compared to non-sufferers (all p < 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS:

There is a high prevalence of cyclic perimenstrual pain and discomfort amongst women in this age group. Women were using CAM differentially when they had specific symptoms of cyclic perimenstrual pain and discomfort. The use of CAM needs to be properly assessed to ensure their safe, effective use and to ascertain their significance as a treatment option enabling women with menstrual problems and their care providers to improve their quality of life.

 

 

Reproduction. 2016 Aug;152(2):151-60.

IL15 promotes growth and invasion of endometrial stromal cells and inhibits killing activity of NK cells in endometriosis.

Yu JJ1Sun HT2Zhang ZF2Shi RX3Liu LB2Shang WQ4Wei CY4Chang KK4Shao J4Wang MY4Li MQ5.

 

Abstract

Endometriosis (EMS) is associated with an abnormal immune response to endometrial cells, which can facilitate the implantation and proliferation of ectopic endometrial tissues. It has been reported that human endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) express interleukin (IL)15. The aim of our study was to elucidate whether or not IL15 regulates the cross talk between ESCs and natural killer (NK) cells in the endometriotic milieu and, if so, how this regulation occurs. The ESC behaviors in vitro were verified by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8), Annexin/PI, and Matrigel invasion assays, respectively. To imitate the local immune microenvironment, the co-culture system between ESCs and NK cells was constructed. The effect of IL15 on NK cells in the co-culture unit was investigated by flow cytometry (FCM). In this study, we found that ectopic endometrium from patients with EMS highly expressed IL15. Rapamycin, an autophagy inducer, decreased the level of IL15 receptors (i.e. IL15Rα and IL2Rβ). IL15 inhibits apoptosis and promotes the invasiveness, viability, and proliferation of ESCs. Meanwhile, a co-culture with ESCs led to a decrease in CD16 on NK cells. In the co-culture system, IL15 treatment downregulated the levels of Granzyme B and IFN-γ in CD16(+)NK cells, NKG2D in CD56(dim)CD16(-)NK cells, and NKP44 in CD56(bright)CD16(-)NK cells. On the one hand, these results indicated that IL15 derived from ESCs directly stimulates the growth and invasion of ESCs. On the other hand, IL15 may help the immune escape of ESCs by suppressing the cytotoxic activity of NK cells in the ectopic milieu, thereby facilitating the progression of EMS.

 

 

J Clin Diagn Res. 2016 Apr;10(4):PD21-2

Anastomotic Leakage in a Patient with Acute Intestinal Obstruction Secondary to Appendiceal and Ileal Endometriosis: A Case Report.

Arer IM1Yabanoglu H2Hasbay B3.

 

Abstract

Endometriosis is a commonly encountered problem in women of reproductive age. It usually causes chronic abdominal pain. However, it rarely causes complications such as intestinal obstruction. The most commonly performed procedure for these patients is bowel resection and anastomosis. Unless it is complicated with anastomotic leakage. We present a 39-year-old woman presented with intestinal obstruction due to appendiceal and ileal endometriosis complicated with anastomotic leakage after surgery.

 

 

J Clin Diagn Res. 2016 Apr;10(4):QR04-8.

Thoracic Endometriosis Syndrome: A Veritable Pandora’s Box.

Nair SS1Nayar J2.

 

Abstract

Thoracic endometriosis syndrome is a rare disorder characterised by the presence of functioning endometrial tissue in pleura, lung parenchyma, airways, and/or encompasses mainly four clinical entities-catamenial pneumothorax, catamenial haemothorax, catamenial haemoptysis and lung nodules. The cases were studied retrospectively by reviewing the records at Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences, for duration of five years i.e., form March 2010-2014 and analysed for the clinical presentation and management of thoracic endometriosis syndrome. Catamenial breathlessness was the main symptom. Pneumothorax and pleural effusion were the findings on investigations. Histopathology report of endometriosis was present in three cases (50%). Conditions with excess oestrogen like endometriosis, fibroid, adenomyosis were diagnosed in these patients by pelvic scan. After the initial supportive treatment with hormones, pleurodesis, hysterectomy and lung decortication were the treatment modalities. Two cases that had multiple recurrences were diagnosed as disseminated TES. They underwent combined treatment of surgery and hormones.

 

 

J Clin Diagn Res. 2016 Apr;10(4):TD01-2.

Thoracic Endometriosis-A Rare Cause of Haemoptysis.

Alwadhi S1Kohli S2Chaudhary B3Gehlot K3.

 

Abstract

Thoracic endometriosis is a rare condition and occurs in females of reproductive age due to the presence of active endometrial tissue in tracheobronchial tree, lung parenchyma and lung pleura. A typical history of haemoptysis during menstrual periods and strong suspicion of the disease entity is important for the diagnosis and management of the case. Diagnosis of the disease is usually delayed. Serial CT thorax during menstrual period and in non-menstrual period supports the diagnosis. We present here a case of catamenial haemoptysis. The diagnosis was missed initially but later a detailed clinical history revealed the same. Serial computed tomography of thorax taken during menstrual and after menstrual period supported the diagnosis. Though bronchoscopy was able to reveal hyperemic tissue in the tracheobronchial tree, bronchial washing was inconclusive. The patient was treated successfully with danazol.

 

 

Biomed Res Int. 2016;2016:2857161.

The Serum Levels of the Soluble Factors sCD40L and CXCL1 Are Not Indicative of Endometriosis.

Pateisky P1Pils D1Kuessel L1Szabo L1Walch K1Obwegeser R1Wenzl R1Yotova I1.

 

Abstract

Endometriosis is a benign but troublesome gynecological condition, characterized by endometrial-like tissue outside the uterine cavity. Lately, the discovery and validation of noninvasive diagnostic biomarkers for endometriosis is one of the main priorities in the field. As the disease elicits a chronic inflammatory reaction, we focused our interest on two factors well known to be involved in inflammation and neoplastic processes, namely, soluble CD40 Ligand and CXCL1, and asked whether differences in the serum levels of sCD40L and CXCL1 in endometriosis patients versus controls can serve as noninvasive disease markers. A total of n = 60 women were included in the study, 31 endometriosis patients and 29 controls, and the serum levels of sCD40L and CXCL1 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Overall, there were no statistically significant differences in the levels of expression of both sCD40L and CXCL1 between patients and controls. This study adds useful clinical data showing that the serum levels of the soluble factors sCD40L and CXCL1 are not associated with endometriosis and are not suitable as biomarkers for disease diagnosis. However, we found a trend toward lower levels of sCD40L in the deep infiltrating endometriosis subgroup making it a potentially interesting target worth further investigation.

 

 

Sci Rep. 2016 May 19;6:26117.

Limited value of pro-inflammatory oxylipins and cytokines as circulating biomarkers in endometriosis – a targeted ‘omics study.

Lee YH1Cui L2Fang J3Chern BS4Tan HH5Chan JK1,5,6.

 

Abstract

Endometriosis is a common, complex gynecologic disorder characterized by the presence of endometrial-like tissues at extrauterine sites. Elevation in protein and lipid mediators of inflammation including oxylipins and cytokines within the peritoneum characterize the inflamed pelvic region and may contribute to the survival and growth of displaced endometrial tissues. The presence of a clinically silent but molecularly detectable systemic inflammation in endometriosis has been proposed. Thus, we examined serum oxylipin and immunomodulatory protein levels in 103 women undergoing laparoscopy to evaluate systematically any involvement in systemic pathophysiological inflammation in endometriosis. Oxylipin levels were similar between women with and without endometriosis. Stratification by menstrual phase or severity did not offer any difference. Women with ovarian endometriosis had significantly lower 12-HETE relative to peritoneal endometriosis (-50.7%). Serum oxylipin levels were not associated with pre-operative pain symptoms. Changes to immunomodulatory proteins were minimal, with IL-12(p70), IL-13 and VEGF significantly lower in mild endometriotic women compared to non-endometriotic women (-39%, -54% and -76% respectively). Verification using C-reactive protein as a non-specific marker of inflammation further showed similar levels between groups. The implications of our work suggest pro-inflammatory mediators in the classes studied may have potentially limited value as circulating biomarkers for endometriosis, suggesting of potentially tenuous systemic inflammation in endometriosis.

 

 

Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet. 2016 May;38(5):218-24.

Endometriosis, Ovarian Reserve and Live Birth Rate Following In Vitro Fertilization/Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection.

Coelho Neto MA1Martins Wde P1Luz CM1Jianini BT1Ferriani RA1Navarro PA1.

 

Abstract

Purpose To evaluate whether women with endometriosis have different ovarian reserves and reproductive outcomes when compared with women without this diagnosis undergoing in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI), and to compare the reproductive outcomes between women with and without the diagnosis considering the ovarian reserve assessed by antral follicle count (AFC). Methods This retrospective cohort study evaluated all women who underwent IVF/ICSI in a university hospital in Brazil between January 2011 and December 2012. All patients were followed up until a negative pregnancy test or until the end of the pregnancy. The primary outcomes assessed were number of retrieved oocytes and live birth. Women were divided into two groups according to the diagnosis of endometriosis, and each group was divided again into a group that had AFC ≤ 6 (poor ovarian reserve) and another that had AFC ≥ 7 (normal ovarian reserve). Continuous variables with normal distribution were compared using unpaired t-test, and those without normal distribution, using Mann-Whitney test. Binary data were compared using either Fisher’s exact test or Chi-square (χ(2)) test. The significance level was set as p < 0.05. Results 787 women underwent IVF/ICSI (241 of which had endometriosis). Although the mean age has been similar between women with and without the diagnosis of endometriosis (33.8 ± 4 versus 33.7 ± 4.4 years, respectively), poor ovarian reserves were much more common in women with endometriosis (39.8 versus 22.7%). The chance of achieving live birth was similar between women with the diagnosis of endometriosisand those without it (19.1 versus 22.5%), and also when considering only women with a poor ovarian reserve (9.4 versus 8.9%) and only those with a normal ovarian reserve (25.5 versus 26.5%). Conclusions Women diagnosed with endometriosis are more likely to have a poor ovarian reserve; however, their chance of conceiving by IVF/ICSI is similar to the one observed in patients without endometriosis and with a comparable ovarian reserve.

 

 

Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2017 Feb;209:72-76.

Love is a pain? Quality of sex life after surgical resection of endometriosis: a review.

Fritzer N1Hudelist G2.

 

Abstract

Dyspareunia, a common symptom of endometriosis and may severely affect quality of sex life in affected patients. The objective of the present work was to review the effect of surgical resection of endometriosis on pain intensity and quality of sex life. MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched for papers investigating the outcome after surgical endometriosis resection on dyspareunia and quality of sex life measured via VAS/NAS respectively via standardized measuring instruments. However, data did not permit a meaningful meta-analysis according to current standards. However, out of 69 papers, four studies fulfilled the predefined inclusion criteria involving 321 patients with endometriosis and dyspareunia preoperatively. All included studies showed a significant postoperative reduction of dyspareunia after a follow-up period of 10 up to 60 months. Sex life as well as predominantly evaluated parameters like quality of life and mental health improved significantly. We therefore conclude that surgical excision of endometriosis is a feasible and good treatment option for pain relief and improvement of quality of sex life in symptomatic women with endometriosis.

 

 

J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2016 Apr;38(4):362-5.

Parasitic Myomas and an Adenomyoma Obstructing the Ureter After Power Morcellation of Myomas and Endometriotic Nodule Resection.

Urman B1Ata B1Arslan T2Aksu S2Taskiran C1.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The use of power morcellation (PM) in abdominal and pelvic surgery has been discouraged and even banned in some institutions because of the risk of spreading malignant cells, although some authorities maintain that PM can be an appropriate tool for selected patients deemed to be at low risk of malignancy.

CASE:

A 42-year-old woman developed parasitic myomas and an adenomyoma obstructing the right ureter after laparoscopic excision of multiple myomas and deep infiltrating endometriosis using PM. Laparoscopic excision of the parasitic myomas and removal of the adenomyoma relieved the obstruction of the ureter.

CONCLUSION:

Although there is reasonable concern about the use of PM spreading malignant disease, benign disease can also be spread by PM and can cause significant complications. Use of PM should be restricted as much as possible.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sci Rep. 2016 May 23;6:26170.

Conditional Disease Development extracted from Longitudinal Health Care Cohort Data using Layered Network Construction.

Kannan V1,2Swartz F1,2,3Kiani NA1,2Silberberg G1,2Tsipras G1,2Gomez-Cabrero D1,2Alexanderson K3Tegnèr J1,2,4,5.

 

Abstract

Health care data holds great promise to be used in clinical decision support systems. However, frequent near-synonymous diagnoses recorded separately, as well as the sheer magnitude and complexity of the disease data makes it challenging to extract non-trivial conclusions beyond confirmatory associations from such a web of interactions. Here we present a systematic methodology to derive statistically valid conditional development of diseases. To this end we utilize a cohort of 5,512,469 individuals followed over 13 years at inpatient care, including data on disability pension and cause of death. By introducing a causal information fraction measure and taking advantage of the composite structure in the ICD codes, we extract an effective directed lower dimensional network representation (100 nodes and 130 edges) of our cohort. Unpacking composite nodes into bipartite graphs retrieves, for example, that individuals with behavioral disorders are more likely to be followed by prescription drug poisoning episodes, whereas women with leiomyoma were more likely to subsequently experience endometriosis. The conditional disease development represent putative causal relations, indicating possible novel clinical relationships and pathophysiological associations that have not been explored yet.

 

 

Int J Surg. 2016 Jul;31:5-9.

Rates, trends, and short-term outcomes of colorectal resections for endometriosis: An ACS-NSQIP review.

Thiels CA1Shenoy CC2Ubl DS3Habermann EB3Kelley SR4Mathis KL4.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

There is a paucity of literature regarding rates, trends, and outcomes of women with endometriosis undergoing elective colorectal resections in the United States. It was been suggested that endometriosis requiring colorectal resection is well suited for minimally invasive surgery.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Project (ACS-NSQIP) database was searched from 2005 to 2014 for all elective colorectal resections performed for endometriosis. The proportion of resections was compared over time using a Cochran-Armitage test for trend. Univariate comparisons were made between patients with laparoscopic vs open resections.

RESULTS:

A total of 101,686 women underwent elective colorectal resections, of which 268 (0.26%) were performed for endometriosis. The proportion of endometriosis as the indication for resection increased over time (R(2) = 0.77). Mean age was 42.9 ± 8.4 years with 72.8% non-Hispanic white. Median body mass index was 25.8 [interquartile range: 23.0, 31.5]. Overall, patients were healthy (82.8% American Society of Anesthesiologists classification I or II). Median length of stay was 4 [3, 6] days and 14.2% suffered any complication, with 9.0% having a minor complication and 7.1% having a major complication. There were no 30-day mortalities. The majority of cases (97.4%) were performed by a general/colorectal surgeon and the remainder by gynecologists. Forty-five (16.8%) underwent concurrent hysterectomy. Comparing open (n = 124) to laparoscopic approaches (n = 144) revealed no differences other than a longer length of stay (5 vs 4 days, p < 0.001) and operative time (180.5 vs 138.5 min, p = 0.02) in the open group.

CONCLUSIONS:

Endometriosis is a rare but increasing indication for elective colorectal resection at participating hospitals. The short-term outcomes after colorectal resection in this young and healthy population are acceptable and our data suggests that minimally invasive surgery should be considered in these patients.

 

 

 

Obstet Gynecol. 2016 Jun;127(6):1187-8.

Committee Opinion No. 663 Summary: Aromatase Inhibitors in Gynecologic Practice.

Abstract

Aromatase inhibitors have been used for the treatment of breast cancer, ovulation induction, endometriosis, and other estrogen-modulated conditions. For women with breast cancer, bone mineral density screening is recommended with long-term aromatase inhibitor use because of risk of osteoporosis due to estrogen deficiency. Based on long-term adverse effects and complication safety data, when compared with tamoxifen, aromatase inhibitors are associated with a reduced incidence of thrombosis, endometrial cancer, and vaginal bleeding. For women with polycystic ovary syndrome and a body mass index greater than 30, letrozole should be considered as first-line therapy for ovulation induction because of the increased live birth rate compared with clomiphene citrate. Lifestyle changes that result in weight loss should be strongly encouraged. Aromatase inhibitors are a promising therapeutic option that may be helpful for the management of endometriosis-associated pain in combination therapy with progestins.

 

Expert Opin Ther Pat. 2016 Jul;26(7):843-56.

Cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) agonists and antagonists: a patent update.

Morales P1Hernandez-Folgado L1Goya P1Jagerovic N1.

 

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

Modulation of the CB2 receptor is an interesting approach for pain and inflammation, arthritis, addictions, neuroprotection, and cancer, among other possible therapeutic applications, and is devoid of central side effects.

AREAS COVERED:

This review highlights the novel scaffolds for CB2 ligands and the diverse therapeutic applications for CB2 modulators disclosed in patents published since 2012.

EXPERT OPINION:

Structural diversity of CB2 modulator scaffolds characterized the patent literature. Several CB2 agonists reached clinical Phase II for pain management and inflammation. Other therapeutic applications need to be explored such as neuroprotection and/or neurodegeneration.

 

 

Gynecol Obstet Fertil. 2016 Jun;44(6):363-7

Psychology and sexology are essential, from diagnosis to comprehensive care of endometriosis.

Leroy A1Azaïs H2Garabedian C2Bregegere S3Rubod C2Collier F4.

 

Abstract

Endometriosis, defined by the presence of endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity, is a common but often under diagnosed pathology. The clinical manifestations are varied (chronic pelvic pain, urinary or gastrointestinal symptoms) and can sometimes be very frustrated, delaying the diagnosis. This delay in diagnosis can be a high source of stress responsible for an important psychological impact in these patients, having a sense of misunderstanding and neglect of the medical profession. This climate of stress and anxiety can cause alteration of behavior including sexual disorders. In addition, endometriosis can be revealed as part of an infertility evaluation, and the patient and the couple can already be affected by this situation. The clinical and psychological impact of endometriosis inevitably leads to an impairment of patient’s quality of life and sexuality. The objective of this article is to show the psychological consequences of endometriosis and its impact on sexuality, in order to highlight this essential aspect for a comprehensive care of patients.

 

 

Gynecol Obstet Fertil. 2016 Jun;44(6):322-8.

Deep infiltrating endometriosis: Should rectal and vaginal opacification be systematically used in MR imaging?

Uyttenhove F1Langlois C2Collinet P3Rubod C3Verpillat P4Bigot J4Kerdraon O5Faye N4.

 

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

To evaluate the interest of rectal and vaginal filling in vaginal and recto-sigmoid endometriosis with MR imaging. To compare the results between a senior and a junior radiologist review.

METHODS:

Sixty-seven patients with clinically suspected deep infiltrating endometriosis were included in our MRI protocol consisting of repeated T2-weigthed sequences (axial and sagittal) before and after rectal and vaginal marking with ultrasonography gel. Vaginal and recto-sigmoid endometriosis lesions were analyzed before and after opacification. The inter-reader agreement between senior and junior scores was studied.

RESULTS:

Concerning vaginal and muscularis and beyond colonic involvement, no significant difference (P=0.32) was observed and the inter-reader agreement was excellent (K=0.96 and 0.97 respectively). Concerning serosa colonic lesions, a significant difference was observed (P=0.01) and the inter-reader agreement was poor (K=0).

CONCLUSIONS:

Rectal and vaginal filling in endometriosis staging with MRI is not necessary no matter the reader experiment.

 

 

Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2017 Feb;209:3-7.

Epidemiology of endometriosis and its comorbidities.

Parazzini F1Esposito G2Tozzi L3Noli S2Bianchi S4.

 

Abstract

Genetic profile, inflammation, hormonal activity, menstrual cyclicity, organochlorine burden, prostaglandin metabolism and immunological factors have been suggested to play a role in the establishment and development of endometriosis. From the epidemiological perspective, several risk factors have been studied to suggest or support the different aetiological hypotheses. Social class and family history apart, the factors most consistently associated with endometriosis are early age at menarche and long and heavy menstrual cycles. These menstrual characteristics (together with nulliparity) reflect increased exposure to menstruation. The other main risk factors are pigmentary traits and sun habits, alcohol intake, use of oral contraceptives, and environmental factors such as exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxin. All of these factors support a potential role of hormonal mileau and inflammation in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. There is a clear association between endometriosis and gastrointestinal and immunological diseases, ovarian cancer and other gynaecological cancers, and thyroid cancer.

 

 

Reprod Sci. 2016 May 23.

Disrupting Y-Box-Binding Protein 1 Function Using OSU-03012 Prevents Endometriosis Progression in In Vitro and In Vivo Models.

Silveira CG1Marschner G1Canny GO2Klocke S1Hunold P3Köster F1Ahrens T1Rody A1Hornung D4.

 

Abstract

The objective of the present study was to test the ability of OSU-03012 (2-amino-N-[4-[5-phenanthren-2-yl-3-(trifluoromethyl)pyrazol-1-yl]phenyl]acetamide), a novel and potent celecoxib-derivative, to impair endometriosisprogression in in vitro and in vivo models based on its ability to indirectly block Y-box-binding protein 1 (YB-1) function. 12Z human endometriotic epithelial cells and sexually mature female C57BL/6J mice were treated with OSU-03012. Cellular proliferation was quantified by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromid assay. Expression of YB-1 and phosphorylated YB-1 in 12Z cells and endometriotic lesions was evaluated by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry (IHC). The IHC for proliferating cell nuclear antigen was performed. OSU-03012 treatment resulted in decreased YB-1 and its phosphorylated form in both in vitro and in vivo models. Endometriotic lesion size was significantly reduced in OSU-03012-treated mice (27.6 ± 4.0 mm3) compared to those from the control group (50.5 ± 6.9 mm3, P < .0001). A significant reduction in endometriotic epithelial cell proliferation was observed in endometriotic lesions exposed to OSU-03012 treatment (P = .0346). In conclusion, targeting YB-1 via OSU-03012 showed a potent antiproliferative effect on endometriotic epithelial cells in vitro and in a mouse model of disease.

 

 

 

Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet. 2016 May;38(5):253-62.

Common Dysregulated Genes in Endometriosis and Malignancies.

Dentillo DB1Meola J1Ferriani RA2Rosa-E-Silva JC3.

 

Abstract

Several authors have investigated the malignant transformation of endometriosis, which supports the hypothesis of the pre-neoplastic state of endometriotic lesions, but there are few data about the pathways and molecular events related to this phenomenon. This review provides current data about deregulated genes that may function as key factors in the malignant transition of endometriotic lesions. In order to do so, we first searched for studies that have screened differential gene expression between endometriotic tissues and normal endometrial tissue of women without endometriosis, and found only two articles with 139 deregulated genes. Further, using the PubMed database, we crossed the symbol of each gene with the terms related to malignancies, such as cancer and tumor, and obtained 9,619 articles, among which 444 were studies about gene expression associated with specific types of tumor. This revealed that more than 68% of the analyzed genes are also deregulated in cancer. We have also found genes functioning as tumor suppressors and an oncogene. In this study, we present a list of 95 informative genes in order to understand the genetic components that may be responsible for endometriosis’ malignant transformation. However, future studies should be conducted to confirm these findings.

 

 

Reprod Sci. 2016 Sep;23(9):1234-41

Endometrial BCL6 Overexpression in Eutopic Endometrium of Women With Endometriosis.

Evans-Hoeker E1Lessey BA2Jeong JW3Savaris RF4Palomino WA5Yuan L6Schammel DP7Young SL8.

 

Abstract

The objective of this study was to examine B-cell CLL/lymphoma 6 (BCL6) expression in human eutopic endometrium across the menstrual cycle in women with and without endometriosis and to establish a cutoff for future studies. This design was a series of case-control studies in tertiary University teaching hospitals. We examined BCL6 expression by messenger RNA and immunohistochemically in prospectively collected samples in both the proliferative (P) and the secretory phases. BCL6 is minimally increased in the mid-secretory phase of the menstrual cycle compared to the P phase in normal patients. BCL6 protein expression was significantly higher in the secretory phase of patients with endometriosis (n = 29) versus fertile controls without endometriosis at laparoscopy (n = 20; P < .0001). Normal fertile controls (n = 28) recruited for endometrial biopsy also had low levels of secretory phase BCL6 expression compared to women with unexplained infertility (UI; n = 119). A receiving-operator characteristic analysis of these data revealed an area under the curve of 94% (95% confidence interval 85%-100%; P < .0001) with an HSCORE cutoff of 1.4 to differentiate cases with and without endometriosis. Using this cutoff value, BCL6 was positive in 88% of cases with UI. Laparoscopic examination of a subset of 65 patients confirmed abnormalities in 98% of cases; 61 (93.8%) were found to have endometriosis, 3 (4.6%) with hydrosalpinx, and 1 (1.5%) with a normal pelvis. These data suggest that BCL6 is a promising candidate as a single diagnostic biomarker for detection of endometriosis in women with otherwise UI and may be associated with endometrial dysfunction, including progesterone resistance.

 

 

Reprod Sci. 2016 May 24

PRL-3 Is Involved in Estrogen- and IL-6-Induced Migration of Endometrial Stromal Cells From Ectopic Endometrium.

Ren S1Zhou Y2Fang X3She X4Wu Y3Wu X5.

 

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To investigate the role of phosphatase of regenerating liver-3 (PRL-3) in the 17β-estradiol (E2)- and interleukin 6 (IL-6)-induced migration of endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) from ectopic endometrium.

METHODS:

Ectopic endometrial tissues were collected from patients with endometriosis, and PRL-3 expression in ectopic and eutopic endometrium was examined by immunohistochemistry. Endometrial stromal cells isolated from ectopic endometrium were treated with E2, progesterone (P), IL-6, or sodium orthovanadate (Sov) to inhibit PRL-3. Total RNA and protein were extracted from ESCs after treatment for quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analyses. Cell migration was assessed using a scratch wound assay.

RESULTS:

Phosphatase of regenerating liver 3 protein was highly expressed in the endometrial glandular cells (EGCs) and ESCs in ectopic endometrium, whereas its weak expression was observed only in EGCs in eutopic endometrium. Both E2 and IL-6 treatment significantly increased PRL-3 messenger RNA and protein expression, and P treatment significantly inhibited PRL-3 expression. However, E2-induced PRL-3 expression in ESCs from ectopic endometrium was significantly blocked by IL-6 antibody. Moreover, E2- and IL-6-enhanced cell migration was completely abrogated by Sov treatment. Furthermore, Sov treatment could significantly promote PTEN expression but inhibit E2- and IL-6-induced p-AKT activation.

CONCLUSION:

Phosphatase of regenerating liver 3 plays a key role in the E2- and IL-6-induced migration of ESCs from ectopic endometrium, a process that is involved in the PTEN-AKT signaling pathway.

 

 

J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2016 Jul;101(7):2905-14.

Functional Expression of FSH Receptor in Endometriotic Lesions.

Ponikwicka-Tyszko D1Chrusciel M1Stelmaszewska J1Bernaczyk P1Sztachelska M1Sidorkiewicz I1Doroszko M1Tomaszewski J1Tapanainen JS1Huhtaniemi I1Wolczynski S1Rahman NA1.

 

Abstract

CONTEXT:

FSH receptor (FSHR), besides being expressed in gonads, is also expressed in some extragonadal tissues at low levels.

OBJECTIVE:

We examined the functional expression of FSHR in different types of endometriotic lesions.

DESIGN:

Extensive studies were carried out to detect functional FSHR expression and FSH-stimulated estrogen production in ovarian endometriomas and recto-vaginal endometriotic nodules (RVEN). Normal endometrium, ovary, and myometrium tissues from nonpregnant cycling women served as controls.

SETTINGS:

This laboratory-based study was carried out on tissue specimens from patients with endometriosis and healthy donors.

RESULTS:

Endometriotic lesions and normal secretory-phase endometrium showed FSHR expression at both mRNA and protein level. RVEN and ovarian endometrioma demonstrated up-regulated CYP19A1, dependent on the activation of CYP19A1 proximal promoter II. Estrogen receptor-β (ESR2) expression was significantly increased in RVEN vs normal endometrium. Recombinant human FSH stimulation of RVEN explants significantly increased estradiol production and CYP19A1 and ESR2 expression. FSHR was up-regulated in recombinant human FSH-stimulated endometrial and decidualized stromal cells with increased CYP19A1 expression.

CONCLUSIONS:

We described a novel functional FSHR expression, where FSH-stimulated CYP19A1 expression and estrogen production in RVEN are demonstrated. This locally FSH-induced estrogen production may contribute to the pathology, development, progression, and severity of RVEN.

 

 

 

J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2016 Sep;42(9):1152-8.

Dienogest compared with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist after conservative surgery for endometriosis.

Takaesu Y1,2Nishi H3Kojima J1Sasaki T1Nagamitsu Y1Kato R1Isaka K1.

 

Abstract

AIM:

Although there are various hormone therapies, including gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist, danazol, levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system, dienogest, and low-dose estrogen progestin, no consensus opinion has been reached in terms of which medication should be used and for how long it should be administered. We aimed to determine whether dienogest or goserelin is the better postoperative therapy to prevent recurrence of endometriosis.

METHODS:

A prospective cohort randomized study were conducted, including 198 patients diagnosed as having endometriosis. A total of 111 patients were randomly assigned into two groups: the dienogest-administered group (n = 56) and the goserelin-administered group (n = 55). Patients were followed for 24 months after laparoscopic surgery. Those who gave consent but desired no postoperative therapy were assigned to the non-treatment group (n = 79). Recurrence, side-effects, degrees of menstrual pain and chronic pelvic pain measured by the Visual Analogue Scale were compared among the three groups: the dienogest, goserelin, and non-treatment groups.

RESULTS:

No significant difference was observed in the postoperative recurrence rate between the dienogest and goserelin groups. No significant difference was found in the recurrence rate between the goserelin group and non-treatment group; however, a significant difference was found in the recurrence rate between the dienogest group and the non-treatment group (P = 0.027). Menstrual pain and chronic pelvic pain were significantly improved in both treatment groups. Side-effects were markedly observed in the goserelin group as compared with the dienogest group.

CONCLUSION:

Dienogest is available for prolonged administration of more than 6 months, so it is more useful than goserelin, which is available only for short-term administration.

 

 

Agri. 2016 Jan;28(1):46-8.

Sciatic neuropathy developed after injection during curettage.

Altıntaş A1Gündüz A2Kantarcı F3Gözübatık Çelik G1Koçer N3Kızıltan ME1.

 

Abstract

Intramuscular injections are likely the most common cause of sciatic nerve injury in developing countries. Less common causes include piriformis syndrome, primary tumors of the sciatic nerve, metastatic tumors invading or compressing the nerve, endometriosis, vascular malformations, and prolonged immobilization or positioning. While the most reliable diagnostic and prognostic methods include nerve conduction studies and electromyography, magnetic resonance imaging has been suggested as an alternative method of determining type of lesion, establishing location, and investigating level of nerve involvement. A case of sciatic neuropathy that developed after intramuscular injection, with patient in prolonged lithotomy position and under sedation, is described.

 

 

Biol Reprod. 2016 Jul;95(1):11

Protein Inhibitor of Activated STAT3 (PIAS3) Is Down-Regulated in Eutopic Endometrium of Women with Endometriosis.

Yoo JY1Jeong JW1Fazleabas AT1Tayade C2Young SL3Lessey BA4.

 

Abstract

Endometriosis is a major cause of chronic pelvic pain and infertility. Activation of STAT3 appears central to the inflammatory phenotype of eutopic endometrium in women with endometriosis. However, the molecular mechanism by which this occurs remains unknown. Our objective is to determine how STAT3 activity is regulated in endometriosis. Protein inhibitor of activated STAT3 (PIAS3) is a negative regulator of STAT3 activity. We examined the levels of PIAS3 in endometrium from women with and without endometriosis using Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. Levels of PIAS3 are significantly lower, in contrast with phosphorylation of STAT3, in women with endometriosis compared to women without endometriosis. Furthermore, induction of endometriosis in the baboon showed a significant reduction of PIAS3 expression during the progression of the disease. Interferon-γ (INFγ) reduces PIAS3 protein levels and increases phospho-STAT3 levels through CXCL10 in endometrial cells, Ishikawa, and 12Z cells. These results suggest that attenuation of PIAS3 causes aberrant activation of STAT3 in endometriosis, leading to inflammatory changes that may impair fertility or cause pain.

 

 

 

Chin Med J (Engl). 2016 Jun 5;129(11):1305-10.

Single Port Transumbilical Laparoscopic Surgery versus Conventional Laparoscopic Surgery for Benign Adnexal Masses: A Retrospective Study of Feasibility and Safety.

Wang SY1Yin L1Guan XM2Xiao BB1Zhang Y1Delgado A2.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Single port laparoscopic surgery (SPLS) is an innovative approach that is rapidly gaining recognition worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility and safety of SPLS compared to conventional laparoscopic surgery for the treatment of benign adnexal masses.

METHODS:

In total, 99 patients who underwent SPLS for benign adnexal masses between December 2013 and March 2015 were compared to a nonrandomized control group comprising 104 conventional laparoscopic adnexal surgeries that were performed during the same period. We retrospectively analyzed multiple clinical characteristics and operative outcomes of all the patients, including age, body mass index, size and pathological type of ovarian mass, operative time, estimated blood loss (EBL), duration of postoperative hospital stay, etc.

RESULTS:

No significant difference was observed between the two groups regarding preoperative baseline characteristics. However, the pathological results between the two groups were found to be slightly different. The most common pathological type in the SPLS group was mature cystic teratoma, whereas endometrioma was more commonly seen in the control group. Otherwise, the two groups had comparable surgical outcomes, including the median operation time (51 min vs. 52 min, P = 0.909), the median decreased level of hemoglobin from preoperation to postoperation day 3 (10 g/L vs. 10 g/L, P = 0.795), and the median duration of postoperative hospital stay (3 days vs. 3 days, P = 0.168). In SPLS groups, the median EBL and the anal exsufflation time were significantly less than those of the conventional group (5 ml vs. 10 ml, P < 0.001; 10 h vs. 22 h, P < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS:

SPLS is a feasible and safe approach for the treatment of benign adnexal masses. Further study is required to better determine whether SPLS has significant benefits compared to conventional techniques.

 

 

 

Reprod Sci. 2016 Oct;23(10):1289-303.

Global Transcriptome Abnormalities of the Eutopic Endometrium From Women With Adenomyosis.

Herndon CN1Aghajanova L1Balayan S1Erikson D2Barragan F1Goldfien G1Vo KC1Hawkins S3Giudice LC4.

 

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Adenomyosis is a clinical disorder defined by the presence of endometrial glands and stroma within the myometrium, the pathogenesis of which is poorly understood. We postulate that dysregulation of genes and pathways in eutopic endometrium may predispose to ectopic implantation. No study, to our knowledge, has examined the global transcriptome of isolated eutopic endometrium from women with clinically significant adenomyosis.

DESIGN:

Laboratory-based study with full institutional review board approval and consents.

MATERIAL AND METHODS:

Endometrial sampling was performed on hysterectomy specimens (proliferative phase) from symptomatic women with pathologically confirmed diffuse adenomyosis (n = 3). Controls (n = 5) were normo-ovulatory patients without adenomyosis. All patients were free from leiomyoma, endometriosis, and hormonal exposures. Isolated purified total RNA was subjected to microarray analysis using the Gene 1.0 ST Affymetrix platform. Data were analyzed with GeneSpring and Ingenuity Pathway analysis. Validation of several genes was undertaken by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction.

RESULTS:

Comparison of transcriptomes of proliferative endometrium from women with and without adenomyosis revealed 140 upregulated and 884 downregulated genes in samples from women with adenomyosis compared to controls. Highly differentially expressed genes include those involved in regulation of apoptosis, steroid hormone responsiveness, and proteins involved in extracellular matrix remodeling as well as microRNAs of unknown significance. Affected canonical pathways included eukaryotic initiation factor 2 signaling, oxidative phosphorylation, mitochondrial dysfunction, estrogen receptor signaling, and mammalian target of rapamycin signaling.

CONCLUSION:

The eutopic endometrium in patients with adenomyosis has fundamental abnormalities that may predispose to invasion and survival beyond the myometrial interface.

 

 

Reprod Sci. 2016 May 27.

Association of Endometriosis-Associated Genetic Polymorphisms From Genome-Wide Association Studies With Ovarian Endometriosis in a Chinese Population.

Li Y1Hao N2Wang YX2Kang S3.

 

Abstract

Endometriosis is a common multifactorial disease caused by an interaction between multiple gene loci and environment. Four genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of endometriosis have identified several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with endometriosis. However, results from independent replication studies with different populations are inconsistent. The present study aims to evaluate whether the GWAS-derived susceptibility loci are correlated with the risk of the development of ovarian endometriosis in North Chinese women. This case-control study comprised 580 patients with ovarian endometriosis and 606 matched control women. Three SNPs were selected for this association study including rs10965235 in CDKN2BAS, rs2235529 located in LINC00339-WNT4, and rs12700667 in an intergenic region on 7p15.2. The results show that the G/A genotype of rs12700667 can significantly increase the risk of developing ovarian endometriosis when compared with the G/G genotype (odds ratio [OR] = 1.57, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.23-2.00). Similarly, the carriers with A allele showed a higher risk of ovarian endometriosis than those with G allele (OR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.12-1.68). The study suggests that the endometriosis-associated genetic polymorphisms (rs12700667) from GWAS be associated with the risk of developing ovarian endometriosis in North Chinese women.

 

 

Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2016 Aug;203:20-4.

STAT4 single nucleotide gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to endometriosis-related infertility.

Zamani MR1Salmaninejad A2Akbari Asbagh F3Masoud A4Rezaei N5.

 

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

Endometriosis is a multifactorial benign gynecologic disorder, characterized by the ectopic growth of misplaced endometrial cells with complex genetic inheritance and changing of some immune based factors and also shares some autoimmune characteristics. However, it is not clear yet that how and when these immunological factors affect the initiation or progression of the disease. It has been shown that STAT4 is a predisposing gene in the development of some autoimmune diseases.

METHOD:

The study group comprised 114 patients with endometriosis and 92 sex-, age-, and ethnicity-matched healthy controls of Iranian ancestry. Four SNPs (rs7574865, rs7601754, rs7582694 and rs11889341) were genotyped using the MGB TaqMan.

RESULTS:

A significant association in rs7582694 between C allele (P=0.002, OR=1.986, 95% CI: 1.262-3.126) and endometriosis was found in our study, while the G allele (P=0.002, OR=0.0503, 95% CI: 0.319-0.792) was significantly decreased in the patients population. The GC genotype (P=0.004, OR=2.234, 95% CI: 1.301-4.150) was also significantly overrepresented in the patients with endometriosis, while the frequency of GG genotype was significantly lower in the patient group, compared to the controls (P=0.007, OR=0.457, 95% CI: 0.256-0.813).

CONCLUSIONS:

Our results for the first time showed a significant association between rs7582694 alleles and genotypes and susceptibility to endometriosis in a population.

 

 

Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2016 Sep;134(3):247-51.

Interleukin-6, intracellular adhesion molecule-1, and glycodelin A levels in serum and peritoneal fluid as biomarkers for endometriosis.

Mosbah A1Nabiel Y2Khashaba E3.

 

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To compare levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and glycodelin A in serum and peritoneal fluid of patients with and without endometriosis, and to correlate levels with disease stage.

METHODS:

An observational study was undertaken at Mansoura University Hospital, Egypt, between March 2014 and June 2015. Patients aged 21-48 years laparoscopically diagnosed with endometriosis and those without endometriosis who underwent laparoscopy for tubal ligation were included. Levels of IL-6, ICAM-1, and glycodelin A were measured in samples of serum and peritoneal fluid. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to evaluate diagnostic accuracy.

RESULTS:

Forty-eight women with endometriosis and 20 without the disorder were included. IL-6 and glycodelin A levels in serum and peritoneal fluid were higher in the endometriosis group than in the control group (P<0.001 for all); ICAM-1 levels did not differ. The sensitivity and specificity values were 93.8% and 80.0% for serum IL-6, 58.3% and 60.0% for serum ICAM-1, and 91.7% and 75.0% for serum glycodelin A. The corresponding values for peritoneal fluid markers were 85.4% and 89.0%, 60.4% and 50.0%, and 89.6% and 90.0%, respectively. IL-6 and glycodelin A levels in serum and peritoneal fluid increased with disease stage (P<0.001 for all).

CONCLUSION:

IL-6 and glycodelin A, but not ICAM-1, are potential biomarkers for endometriosis and are positively correlated with the disease stage.

 

 

Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2016 Aug;203:49-55.

Biological differences between functionalis and basalis endometria in women with and without adenomyosis.

Khan KN1Fujishita A2Kitajima M3Masuzaki H3Nakashima M4Kitawaki J5.

 

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Endometriosis is commonly believed to originate from functionalis endometrium and adenomyosis from basalis endometrium. Due to the lack of enough information, we investigated the biological differences between these two layers of endometrium in women with and without adenomyosis.

STUDY DESIGN:

This was a case-controlled study with 12 control women and 17 women with adenomyosis undergoing hysterectomy. Full thickness (extending from the endometrium to the myometrium) biopsy specimens were obtained after the hysterectomy. Based on the phases of the menstrual cycle, the expression patterns of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), Ki-67, and activated Caspase-3 were analyzed by immunohistochemistry in the functionalis and basalis endometria. Apoptotic cells were evaluated by TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assay.

RESULTS:

A similar pattern of ER and PR expression was found in the functionalis and basalis endometria during the proliferative phase. In contrast, a significantly lower ER and PR expression was found in the basalis endometria than in the functionalis endometria during the secretory phase and the menstrual phase. This was equally observed in control women and in women with adenomyosis. Except Ki-67 indices, TUNEL-positive cells, and expression of activated Caspase-3 were significantly lower in the basalis endometria than in the functionalis endometria during the secretory phase.

CONCLUSION:

A significant biological difference was found between the functionalis and the basalis endometria derived from women with adenomyosis.

 

 

 

Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2016 Aug;203:56-60.

Evaluation of risk factors for the recurrence of ovarian endometriomas.

Selcuk S1Cam C2Koc N3Kucukbas M4Ozkaya E5Eser A6Karateke A7.

 

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

To evaluate the risk factors for the recurrence of ovarian endometrioma after laparoscopic cystectomy.

STUDY DESIGN:

Reproductive aged patients who underwent laparoscopic ovarian endometriotic cystectomy and with histopathologically confirmed diagnosis of ovarian endometrioma were evaluated retrospectively. Histopathologic specimens were reevaluated and histopathologic characteristics of ovarian endometriotic cysts (thickness of cyst wall, thickness of fibrosis [ToF], thickness of ovarian tissue, the number of follicles per cyst, the depth of penetration [DoP] of endometrial tissue into the cyst wall) were determined. Along the determined histopathologic findings, demographic characteristics (age at surgery, number of pregnancies), clinical symptoms (dysmenorrhea, infertility), intraoperative findings (revised American Society for Reproductive Medicine [rASRM] stage), imaging features (bilaterality, cyst diameter), and biochemical parameters (Ca125, Ca19.9, Ca15.3) were evaluated as possible risk factors for the recurrence of endometrioma. The variables with p<0.2 in univariate analysis were introduced into regression analysis to determine the risk factors for recurrence.

RESULTS:

There were statistically significant differences in age group (≤35 years and >35 years), the ToF and DoP between patients with recurrence and those with no recurrence. In Cox regression analysis, age ≤35 years and DoP were significant risk factors for presence of recurrence. DoP, ToF, preoperative cyst diameters in ultrasonographic examination were inversely correlated with recurrence interval. In multivariate regression analysis, the DoP was found the only significant risk factor for the recurrence interval. 1.2mm of DoP was found as the optimum cut off value for presence of recurrence according to Youden index criteria in ROC curve analyze. The sensitivity (62.9%), specificity (75%) were obtained at the cut off value of 1.2mm for DoP.

CONCLUSION:

Histopathological features of ovarian endometriotic cyst may have important roles on predicting the recurrence of the endometrioma. Predicting the recurrence risk of particular patient is very important in future management of the disease. Knowing the recurrence risk of an endometrioma will help in deciding the optimal treatment modalities for each individual patient. High risk patients should be offered appropriate treatments according to the clinical status without delay and low risk patients should be protected from overtreatment.

 

Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2016 Apr;41(4):405-10.

Analysis of relevant factors for recurrence of ovarian endometriosis after conservative laparoscopic surgery.

Guo H1Shen A1Xu S1Yang J1.

 

Abstract

in EnglishChinese

OBJECTIVE:

To analyze relevant factors for recurrence of ovarian endometriosis after conservative surgery.

METHODS:

A cohort study was performed on 310 patients who had performed conservative surgery for ovarian endometriosis. All patients underwent clinical interview. The relevant factors included: age at surgery, clinical symptom and signs, medical history, gynecologic examination, preoperative gravidity, complication, adenomyosis, American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) scores, post-operative drug therapy, post-operative gravidity and so on. The logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the predictive factors for recurrence of endometriosis.

RESULTS:

The relevant factors by univariate analysis were determined. The history of endometriosis surgery, history of intrauterine operation, tenderness nodule at cal-de-sal, bilateral endometrioma, multilocular cyst, intraoperative ASRM scores, complication of adenomyosis and operation time were the risk factors; whereas pre- and post-operative gravidity, post-operative drug therapy, and age at surgery were the protective factors. Meanwhile, the relevant factors by multivariate analysis were also confirmed. The history of endometriosis surgery, history of intrauterine operation, tenderness nodule at cal-de-sal, bilateral endometrioma, multilocular cyst, and intraoperative ASRM scores were the risk factors; whereas post-operative gravidity, post-operative drug therapy, pre-operative gravidity, and age at surgery were the protective factors.

CONCLUSION:

The risk factors for recurrence of ovarian endometriosis are history of endometriosis surgery, history of intrauterine operation, tenderness nodule at cal-de-sal, bilateral endometrioma, multilocular cyst, intraoperative ASRM scores, whereas the protective factors are pre- and post-operative gravidity, post-operative drug therapy and age at surgery.

 

 

 

Case Rep Obstet Gynecol. 2016;2016:9302376.

Primary Umbilical Endometriosis: Unusual and Rare Clinical Presentation.

Taniguchi F1Hirakawa E1Azuma Y1Uejima C2Ashida K2Harada T1.

 

Abstract

Primary umbilical endometriosis is a rare disorder and is defined as the presence of ectopic endometrial tissue within the umbilicus. A patient with painful mass in the umbilicus during menstrual period is studied in this paper. The possibility of subcutaneous endometriosis should be considered when an umbilical mass is detected despite the absence of previous surgery. In this case, urachal cancer, urachal remnant, umbilical endometriosis, and its malignant transformation were among the diseases considered in the differential diagnosis. Complete excision and histology are necessary to obtain a definitive diagnosis and optimal treatment for umbilical subcutaneous endometriosis.

 

 

Front Public Health. 2016 May 9;4:85

Deep Retraction Pockets, Endometriosis, and Quality of Life.

Yeung PP Jr1Logan I2Gavard JA3.

 

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

The purpose of this study was to examine if deep retraction pockets (DRPs) in the posterior cul-de-sac and uterosacral ligaments could be a manifestation of endometriosis and if excision of these pockets improves pain symptoms and quality of life.

STUDY DESIGN:

Prospective cohort study Canadian Task Force Classification, II-3.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Preoperative data, operative data, and follow-up data were collected prospectively at the Center for Endometriosis at Saint Louis University, a referral center for the surgical management of endometriosis.

RESULTS:

The 107 consecutive patients who presented with preoperative deep dyspareunia were included in the study, and the median postoperative follow-up was 13 months. Endometriosis was confirmed histologically in any location excised in 88/107 (82.2%) of the women, and 31 DRPs were excised from 25 women with DRPs in the posterior cul-de-sac or uterosacral ligaments, of which 15/31 (48.4%) had endometriosis. Of the 10 DRPs without visible surface lesions, 3 (30.0%) had endometriosis on histology. Pain symptoms and quality of life significantly improved after excision surgery, whether or not DRPs were present. Women who had endometriosis in their DRP also had significant improvement in deep dyspareunia and chronic pelvic pain and quality of life. Results did not differ when patients who took postoperative hormonal suppression were removed from the analyses.

CONCLUSION:

Patients had significantly improved pain symptoms and quality of life after excision surgery, whether or not DRPs were present. This study demonstrated that a DRP may be a manifestation of endometriosis(even with a clear surface of the pocket), so that DRPs should be excised to achieve optimal excision of endometriosis.

 

 

Biomed Res Int. 2016;2016:1460793.

Demographic and Clinical Features of Endometrial Polyps in Patients with Endometriosis.

Wang N1Zhang Y2Liu B1.

 

Abstract

Aims. To compare the clinical features of endometrial polyps (EPs) between patients with endometriosis (EM) (EM group) and without EM (non-EM group). Methods and Results. Seventy-six cases in the EM group and 133 cases in the non-EM group underwent laparotomy or hysteroscopy and laparoscopy; later, it was confirmed that the results by pathology from July 2002 to April 2008 in the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics at the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University. The recurrence of EPs was followed up after the surgery until 2013. The following parameters were assessed: age, gravidity, parity, infertility, and menstrual cycle changes, as well as polyps diameters, locations, number, association with the revised American Fertility Society (r-AFS) classification, and their recurrence. On review, 76 EPs cases of EM group histologically resembled EPs but the majority of EPs with EM occurred in primary infertility cases and in fewer pregnancy rate women who had stable and smaller EPs without association with the AFS stage. The recurrence rate of EPs in EM group was higher than that in non-EM group. Conclusion. It is important to identify whether infertile patients with EM are also having EPs. Removing any coexisting EPs via hysteroscopy would be clinically helpful in treating endometriosis-related infertility in these patients.

 

 

 

J Proteome Res. 2016 Aug 5;15(8):2626-33.

Metabolomics Reveals Altered Lipid Metabolism in a Mouse Model of Endometriosis.

Dutta M1Anitha MSmith PBChiaro CRMaan M2Chaudhury K1Patterson AD.

 

Abstract

Endometriosis is a common chronic estrogen-dependent gynecological disease affecting 10% of women in their reproductive age. It is characterized by proliferation of functional endometrial glands and stroma outside the uterine cavity. In the present study, we used mass spectrometry-based lipidomics to investigate the alterations in serum lipid profiles of mice induced with endometriosis. We identified several dysregulated lipids such as phosphatidylcholines, sphingomyelins, phosphatidylethanolamines, and triglycerides and show that triglycerides may be due to a general inflammatory condition in the peritoneum. We also show that in addition to phosphatidylcholine alteration, there is also an effect in the ratio of phosphatidylcholine/phosphatidylethanolamine in serum of mice induced with the disease and that this change may be due to increased expression of the phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase gene. The study provides new insight into the etiology of endometriosis.

 

 

Case Rep Surg. 2016;2016:9453450.

Resection and Abdominal Wall Reconstruction of a Desmoid Tumor with Endometrioma Features.

Majors J1Stoikes NF1Nejati R2Deneve JL1.

 

Abstract

Desmoid tumors are rare, musculoaponeurotic mesenchymal origin tumors arising from the proliferation of well-differentiated fibroblasts. Desmoid tumors may arise from any location with the abdominal cavity, abdominal wall and extremity locations being most frequent. We present the case of a 35-year-old female with a history of endometriosis who presented palpable abdominal mass and cyclic abdominal pain. Resection was performed for a presumed desmoid soft tissue tumor. Final pathology demonstrated desmoid histology admixed with abdominal wall endometriosis (endometrioma). This unique pathologic finding has only been rarely reported and is discussed with a brief review of the literature.

 

 

 

Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book. 2016;35:e247-57.

Paradigm Shift in the Management Strategy for Epithelial Ovarian Cancer.

Fujiwara K1McAlpine JN1Lheureux S1Matsumura N1Oza AM1.

 

Abstract

The hypothesis on the pathogenesis of epithelial ovarian cancer continues to evolve. Although epithelial ovarian cancer had been assumed to arise from the coelomic epithelium of the ovarian surface, it is now becoming clearer that the majority of serous carcinomas arise from epithelium of the distal fallopian tube, whereas clear cell and endometrioid cancers arise from endometriosis. Molecular and genomic characteristics of epithelial ovarian cancer have been extensively investigated. Our understanding of pathogenesis of the various histologic types of ovarian cancer have begun to inform changes to the strategies for management of epithelial ovarian cancer, which represent a paradigm shift not only for treatment but also for prevention, which previously had not been considered achievable. In this article, we will discuss novel attempts at the prevention of high-grade serous ovarian cancer and treatment strategies for two distinct entities in epithelial ovarian cancer: low-grade serous and clear cell ovarian carcinomas, which are relatively rare and resistant to conventional chemotherapy.

 

 

Cell Tissue Res. 2016 Oct;366(1):231-42.

Increased concentration of 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine in follicular fluid of infertile women with endometriosis.

Da Broi MG1de Albuquerque FO2de Andrade AZ2Cardoso RL2Jordão Junior AA3Navarro PA2.

 

Abstract

Impaired oocyte quality and oxidative stress might be involved in the pathogenesis of endometriosis-related infertility. To improve our understanding of the role of oxidative stress in this condition, we compare eight oxidative stress markers from each stage, including the simultaneous analysis of lipids, proteins and DNA damage, in the serum and follicular fluid of infertile women with endometriosis and infertile controls undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation for intracytoplasmic sperm injection. In total, 87 serum samples (43 with endometriosis, 44 controls) and 61 follicular fluid samples (29 with endometriosis, 32 controls) free of blood contamination upon visual inspection and presenting granulosa cells alone or granulosa cells plus a retrieved mature oocyte were collected on the day of oocyte retrieval. Total hydroperoxides, malondialdehyde, advanced oxidation protein products, glutathione, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were determined by spectrophotometry, vitamin E by high-performance liquid chromatography and 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8OHdG) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The endometriosis group showed higher serum concentrations of glutathione and SOD, lower serum concentrations of TAC and higher follicular concentrations of 8OHdG and vitamin E compared with infertile controls. These data indicate both systemic and follicular oxidative stress in infertile patients with endometriosis. For the first time, we demonstrate the presence of oxidative DNA damage, represented by higher 8OHdG concentrations in the follicular microenvironment of these patients, possibly related to compromised oocyte quality and associated with the pathogenesis of endometriosis-related infertility.

 

 

Gynecol Endocrinol. 2016 Nov;32(11):900-903.

Elevated periostin in serum and peritoneal washing fluids as potential biomarkers for endometriosis.

Zheng Q1Lu J1Li R1Hu C1Liu P1.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

To identify the level of periostin in serum and peritoneal washing fluids (PWF) from women with and without endometriosis, as well as to explore the potential of periostin as a biomarker of endometriosis.

METHODS:

Samples were obtained from 184 women with and without endometriosis. Concentrations of periostin in PWF and blood were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

RESULTS:

Levels of periostin both in serum and PWF were notably elevated in women with endometriosis in both the proliferative and secretory phase. Combined with dysmenorrhea and infertility, two potential covariates, the serum periostin had a sensitivity of 75.00%, specificity of 65.00%, and area under the curve (AUC) of 0.774, whereas the PWF periostin had a sensitivity of 94.23%, specificity of 90.00%, and AUC of 0.967 for the diagnosis of endometriosis.

CONCLUSION:

Serum and PWF periostin concentrations may be new potential biomarkers for endometriosis, especially when combined with dysmenorrhea and infertility.

 

 

 

Gynecol Endocrinol. 2016 Nov;32(11):912-915.

The role and significance of endomorphin-1 and μ-opioid receptor in rats with endometriosis.

Duan L1Wang J2Sun X1Yang X1Shan L1Liu Y1Wang H1.

 

Abstract

Endomorphin-1 (EM-1) was reported to have very high affinity and selectivity for μ-opioid receptor (MOR). However, it remained unclear whether EM-1 and MOR were involved in the pathologies of endometriosis resulting in reduced fertility. In this study, RT-PCR, radioimmunoassay, immunohistochemistry, and Western blot were used, respectively. The results showed that the immune positive cells of EM-1 in hypothalamus, pituitary, and ovaries were significantly increased in endometriosis model rats, accompanied by the increase of plasma level of EM-1 and the decrease of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol (E2), and progesterone (P). Interestingly, EM-1 was negatively correlated with FSH and LH (p < 0.05). More importantly, Naloxone (MOR antagonist) can significantly reduce the levels of EM-1 in serum, hypothalamus, pituitary, and ovaries, while increased the levels of FSH and LH. In conclusion, our results suggested that EM-1 may be involved in the pathogenesis of the endometriosis-associated infertility by regulating hypothalamus-pituitary-ovarian axis, and Naloxone may be a new alternative drug for the treatment of endometriosis.

 

 

 

Physiology (Bethesda). 2016 Jul;31(4):258-69.

Aromatase: Contributions to Physiology and Disease in Women and Men.

Blakemore J1Naftolin F2.

 

Abstract

Aromatase (estrogen synthetase; EC 1.14.14.1) catalyzes the demethylation of androgens’ carbon 19, producing phenolic 18-carbon estrogens. Aromatase is most widely known for its roles in reproduction and reproductive system diseases, and as a target for inhibitor therapy in estrogen-sensitive diseases including cancer, endometriosis, and leiomyoma (141, 143). However, all tissues contain estrogen receptor-expressing cells, the majority of genes have a complete or partial estrogen response element that regulates their expression (61), and there are plentiful nonreceptor effects of estrogens (79); therefore, the effect of aromatase through the provision of estrogen is almost universal in terms of health and disease. This review will provide a brief but comprehensive overview of the enzyme, its role in steroidogenesis, the problems that arise with its functional mutations and mishaps, the roles in human physiology of aromatase and its product estrogens, its current clinical roles, and the effects of aromatase inhibitors. While much of the story is that of the consequences of the formation of its product estrogens, we also will address alternative enzymatic roles of aromatase as a demethylase or nonenzymatic actions of this versatile molecule. Although this short review is meant to be thorough, it is by no means exhaustive; rather, it is meant to reflect the cutting-edge, exciting properties and possibilities of this ancient enzyme and its products.

 

 

Physiol Rev. 2016 Jul;96(3):873-909.

Physiological Aspects of Female Fertility: Role of the Environment, Modern Lifestyle, and Genetics.

Hart RJ1.

 

Abstract

Across the Western World there is an increasing trend to postpone childbearing. Consequently, the negative influence of age on oocyte quality may lead to a difficulty in conceiving for many couples. Furthermore, lifestyle factors may exacerbate a couple’s difficulty in conceiving due mainly to the metabolic influence of obesity; however, the negative impacts of low peripheral body fat, excessive exercise, the increasing prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases, and smoking all have significant negative effects on fertility. Other factors that impede conception are the perceived increasing prevalence of the polycystic ovary syndrome, which is further exacerbated by obesity, and the presence of uterine fibroids and endometriosis (a progressive pelvic inflammatory disorder) which are more prevalent in older women. A tendency for an earlier sexual debut and to have more sexual partners has led to an increase in sexually transmitted diseases. In addition, there are several genetic influences that may limit the number of oocytes within the ovary; consequently, by postponing attempts at childbearing, a limitation of oocyte number may become evident, whereas in previous generations with earlier conception this potentially reduced reproductive life span did not manifest in infertility. Environmental influences on reproduction are under increasing scrutiny. Although firm evidence is lacking however, dioxin exposure may be linked to endometriosis, phthalate exposure may influence ovarian reserve, and bisphenol A may interfere with oocyte development and maturation. However, chemotherapy or radiotherapy is recognized to lead to ovarian damage and predispose the woman to ovarian failure.

 

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