Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2016 Sep;134(3):252-5.

Clinical characteristics of congenital cervical atresia and associated endometriosis among 96 patients.

Song X1Zhu L2Ding J1Xu T3Lang J1.

 

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To describe the anatomic variety of congenital cervical atresia and to explore the relationship between this disorder and pelvic endometriosis.

METHODS:

In a retrospective study, records were reviewed for 96 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of congenital cervical atresia treated at a center in Beijing, China, between January 1984 and October 2014. Data on demographic parameters, symptoms, anatomic features, and endometriosis were obtained and analyzed.

RESULTS:

Of the 96 patients, 54 (56%) had pelvic endometriosis, 23 (24%) had a uterine malformation, 75 (78%) had a vaginal malformation, and 12 (13%) had a urinary malformation. The patients with a delay from first symptoms to surgery of more than 1year had a higher incidence of endometriosis than did those with a delay of 1year or less (45/71 [63%] vs 7/23 [30%]; P=0.006), and this trend was not related to the severity of endometriosis (P=0.658). Among the 31 patients with unilateral endometrial cysts, 20 (65%) had left-sided cysts and 11 (35%) had right-sided cysts (P=0.005).

CONCLUSION:

More than half of patients with congenital cervical atresia had pelvic endometriosis. Early diagnosis and surgery seem to be necessary to prevent endometriosis among patients with congenital cervical atresia.

 

 

Gynecol Oncol. 2016 Aug;142(2):255-60

Endosalpingiosis: More than just an incidental finding at the time of gynecologic surgery?

Esselen KM1Terry KL2Samuel A3Elias KM3Davis M3Welch WR4Muto MG3Ng SW5Berkowitz RS3.

 

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To describe the clinical characteristics of patients with endosalpingiosis (ES) and examine its association with endometriosis and gynecologic malignancies.

METHODS:

We queried the medical record for patients who underwent gynecologic surgery (Gynecologic Surgery Cohort (GSC), n=58,161) from 1998 to 2013 at a single institution for the presence of “endosalpingiosis” (ES). Demographic and clinical characteristics were collected for patients with pathologically confirmed ES (n=838). Within GSC, we compared the frequency of endometriosis and gynecologic malignancies with and without ES. We estimated the expected distribution of ovarian cancer subtypes using cases from the New England Case Control Study (NECC). We used chi-square tests to test for significant differences in frequency distributions and unconditional logistic regression to calculate multivariate odds ratios for the association between ES and ovarian cancer subtypes.

RESULTS:

We observed concurrent endometriosis (p<0.0001), uterine cancer (p<0.0001), and ovarian cancer (p<0.0001) more frequently in women with ES. Women from the GSC with ES and ovarian cancer were more likely to have serous borderline (OR=10.2, 95% CI=5.1-20.7), clear cell (OR=3.0, 95% CI=1.1-8.0), and invasive mucinous tumors (OR=5.0, 95% CI=1.5-16.6) as compared to ovarian cancer cases from the NECC without ES, after accounting for age, race, menopausal status, parity, tubal ligation, and endometriosis.

CONCLUSION:

Women with ES are more likely to also be diagnosed with endometriosis, uterine, and ovarian cancers. Further study is needed to understand these associations so we may appropriately counsel patients with ES diagnosed at time of gynecologic surgery.

 

 

Theriogenology. 2016 Oct 1;86(6):1445-1452.

Identification of vessel degeneration and endometrosis in the equine endometrium, using narrow-band imaging hysteroscopy.

Otzen H1Sieme H2Oldenhof H3Ertmer F3Kehr A1Rode K4Klose K5Rohn K6Schoon HA5Meinecke B1.

 

Abstract

In this study, endometrosis and angiosclerosis in mares were studied. Endometrosis is a severe, progressive, and irreversible fibrotic condition that affects the endometrium, whereas angiosclerosis refers to thickening of vessel walls due to degenerative changes leading to reduced elasticity of the walls and lower perfusion. Histologic evaluations were performed on biopsies and compared with vascular features of the endometrial surface obtained via narrow-band imaging (NBI) hysteroscopy. First, it was determined if hysteroscopic evaluation of the endometrium using NBI resulted in a better visualization of the vascular pattern (i.e., vessel-versus-background contrast was increased) compared with using white light. This was found to be the case for examinations in vivo (n = 10), but not when using abattoir uteri (n = 3). In the second part of this study, it was determined if vascular densities and sizes as derived from NBI images could be used as indicators for the degree of degenerative changes of the equine endometrium and its vessels. Narrow-band imaging hysteroscopic evaluations were performed (n = 10), and endometrial biopsies (n = 32) were collected. Histologic specimens were evaluated for degree of endometrosis and angiosclerosis, and they were classified in Kenney categories. Narrow-band imaging images were analyzed for vascular pattern. Samples classified to Kenney category I, or without signs of vessel degeneration, had significantly higher vascular densities than samples from Kenney category IIa or with angiosclerosis. In conclusion, narrow-band imaging facilitates enhanced visualization of the vasculature of the equine endometrium during hysteroscopies, which has applications in detection of endometrosis and angiosclerosis.

 

 

J Mol Endocrinol. 2016 Aug;57(2):F23-7.

Reversal of fortune: estrogen receptor-β in endometriosis.

Simmen RC1Kelley AS2.

 

Abstract

Enhanced inflammation and reduced apoptosis sustain the growth of endometriotic lesions. Alterations in the expression of estrogen receptor-alpha (ERα) and estrogen receptor-beta (ERβ) accompany the conversion of resident endometrial cells within the normal uterine environment to ectopic lesions located in extrauterine sites. Recent studies highlighted in this focused review linked ERβ to dysregulation of apoptotic and inflammatory networks involving novel interacting partners in endometriosis. The elucidation of these nongenomic actions of ERβ using human cells and mouse models is an important step in understanding key regulatory pathways that are disrupted leading to disease establishment and progression.

 

 

Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 2016 Aug;28(4):316-22

Techniques in minimally invasive surgery for advanced endometriosis.

King CR1Lum D.

 

Abstract

PURPOSE OF REVIEW:

Surgery can be an important treatment option for women with symptomatic endometriosis. This review summarizes the recommended preoperative work up and techniques in minimally invasive surgery for treatment of deeply infiltrating endometriosis (DIE) involving the obliterated posterior cul-de-sac, bowel, urinary tract, and extrapelvic locations.

RECENT FINDINGS:

Surgical management of DIE can pose a challenge to the gynecologic surgeon given that an extensive dissection is usually necessary. Given the high risk of recurrence, it is vital that an adequate excision is performed. With improved imaging modalities, preoperative counseling and surgical planning can be optimized. It is essential to execute meticulous surgical technique and include a multidisciplinary surgical team when indicated for optimal results.

SUMMARY:

Advanced laparoscopic skills are often necessary to completely excise DIE. A thorough preoperative work up is essential to provide correct patient counseling and incorporation of the preferred surgical team to decrease complications and optimize surgical outcomes. Surgical management of endometriosis is aimed at ameliorating symptoms and preventing recurrence.

 

 

Vet Pathol. 2016 Nov;53(6):1252-1258.

Decidualization of Endometriosis in Macaques.

Atkins HM1Lombardini ED2Caudell DL1Appt SE1Dubois A3Cline JM4.

 

Abstract

The decidua is the superficial portion of endometrium that transforms, or decidualizes, under the influence of progesterone to nourish the early embryo during pregnancy. Deciduae outside the uterus are found in nearly 100% of human pregnancies. This condition, known as deciduosis, may mimic malignancy, resulting in additional diagnostic procedures that place the mother, baby, or both at risk. Deciduosis has been described in both Old World and New World nonhuman primates in conjunction with pregnancy and after treatment with exogenous progestins. Here the authors present 6 cases of deciduosis associated with endometriotic lesions in female rhesus and cynomolgus macaques (Macaca mulatta and Macaca fascicularis). Full diagnostic necropsies with histologic analyses were performed on all animals. Deciduae were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and by immunohistochemistry for vimentin, CD10, progesterone receptor, estrogen receptor, desmin, cytokeratin, kermix P8, chorionic gonadotropin, human placental lactogen, and calretinin. The most common clinical signs were abdominal pain (4 of 6) and anorexia (2 of 6). At necropsy, macaque uteri were often enlarged or disfigured (4 of 6) with abundant fibrous adhesions (5 of 6). Affected tissue consisted of epithelial-lined cysts and decidualized stroma with scattered gamma/delta T cells. Decidualized stromal cells were large and polyhedral with abundant cytoplasm and round vesicular nuclei. They stained positive for vimentin, CD10, progesterone, and estrogen. In summary, these cases illustrate deciduosis in 6 nonhuman primates with endometriosis. Understanding decidualization in nonhuman primates will aid in elucidating the pathophysiology of deciduosis during pregnancy or endometriosis and potentially lead to new interventions.

 

 

Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2017 Jun;49(6):793-798.

Sonographic evaluation of immobility of normal and endometriotic ovary in detection of deep endometriosis.

Gerges B1Lu C2Reid S1Chou D3Chang T4,5Condous G1,5,6.

 

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

To examine the association between ovarian immobility and presence of endometriomas and assess the diagnostic accuracy of transvaginal sonographic (TVS) ovarian immobility in the detection of deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE).

METHODS:

This was a multicenter prospective observational study of women presenting with chronic pelvic pain from January 2009 to March 2015. Women with or without history of endometriosis who were scheduled to undergo laparoscopic surgery for endometriosis gave a detailed history and underwent specialized TVS in a tertiary referral unit prior to laparoscopy. During TVS, ovarian mobility and the presence of endometriomas were assessed. The relationship between TVS ovarian mobility, with or without endometriomas, and DIE was correlated with the gold standard, diagnosis of endometriosis at laparoscopy.

RESULTS:

Included in the analysis were 265 women with preoperative TVS and laparoscopic outcomes. Ovarian immobility on TVS was significantly associated with presence of endometriomas at surgery, with a prevalence of 12.2%, 10.8% and 52.7% for fixation of the left ovary only, the right ovary only and bilateral ovaries, respectively, compared with 4.2%, 3.7% and 7.3% for normal ovaries. The sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values and positive and negative likelihood ratios of TVS ovarian immobility for diagnosis at surgery of immobility of ovaries with endometriomas in the left ovary only were 44.4%, 92.3%, 44.4%, 92.3%, 5.8, 0.6, in the right ovary only were 50.0%, 98.5%, 80.0%, 94.2%, 33.0, 0.5 and bilaterally were 74.4%, 68.6%, 72.5%, 70.6%, 2.4, 0.4, while those for diagnosis of immobility of normal ovaries were 25.0%, 87.9%, 8.3%, 96.4%, 2.1, 0.9 for left ovary only, 14.3%, 92.9%, 7.1%, 96.6%, 2.0, 0.9 for right ovary only and 35.7%, 97.2%, 50.0%, 95.0%, 12.6, 0.7 bilaterally, respectively (P < 0.05 except for normal left and right ovaries with P = 0.2 and 0.4, respectively). The sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV for performance of ovarian immobility in the prediction of DIE for all women were 58.3%, 74.1%, 60.6%, 72.2% and in the prediction of need for bowel surgery were 78.2%, 71.1%, 41.3%, 92.6%, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS:

There is a significant association between ovarian immobility and the presence of endometriomas. Ovarian immobility as a sonographic ‘soft marker’ of DIE performs better in the presence of endometriomas compared with in normal ovaries. Copyright © 2016 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

 

 

J Forensic Sci. 2016 Sep;61(5):1244-9.

Lethal Epistaxis.

Byard RW1,2.

 

Abstract

Epistaxis or nosebleed refers to bleeding from the nostrils, nasal cavity, or nasopharynx. Occasional cases may present with torrential lethal hemorrhage. Three cases are reported to demonstrate particular features: Case 1: A 51-year-old woman with lethal epistaxis with no obvious bleeding source; Case 2: A 77-year-old man with treated nasopharyngeal carcinoma who died from epistaxis arising from a markedly neovascularized tumor bed; Case 3: A 2-year-old boy with hemophilia B who died from epistaxis with airway obstruction in addition to gastrointestinal bleeding. Epistaxis may be associated with trauma, tumors, vascular malformations, bleeding diatheses, infections, pregnancy, endometriosis, and a variety of different drugs. Careful dissection of the nasal cavity is required to locate the site of hemorrhage and to identify any predisposing conditions. This may be guided by postmortem computerized tomographic angiography (PCTA). Despite careful dissection, however, a source of bleeding may never be identified.

 

 

Hum Reprod. 2016 Aug;31(8):1723-31

Age-related differences in the sonographic characteristics of endometriomas.

Guerriero S1Van Calster B2Somigliana E3Ajossa S4Froyman W5De Cock B5Coosemans A6Fischerová D7Van Holsbeke C8Alcazar JL9Testa AC10Valentin L11Bourne T12Timmerman D5.

 

Abstract

STUDY QUESTION:

Do sonographic characteristics of ovarian endometriomas vary with age in premenopausal women?

SUMMARY ANSWER:

With increasing age, multilocular cysts and cysts with papillations and other solid components become more common whereas ground glass echogenicity of cyst fluid becomes less common.

WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY:

Expectant or medical management of women with endometriomas is now accepted. Therefore, the accuracy of non-invasive diagnosis of these cysts is pivotal. A clinically relevant question is whether the sonographic characteristics of ovarian endometriomas are the same irrespective of the age of the woman.

STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION:

This is a secondary analysis of cross-sectional data in the International Ovarian Tumor Analysis (IOTA) database. The database contains clinical and ultrasound information collected pre-operatively between 1999 and 2012 from 5914 patients with adnexal masses in 24 ultrasound centres in 10 countries.

PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS:

There were 1005 histologically confirmed endometriomas in adult premenopausal patients found in the database and these were used in our analysis. The following ultrasound variables (defined using IOTA terminology) were used to describe the ultrasound appearance of the endometriomas: tender mass at ultrasound, largest diameter of lesion, tumour type (unilocular, unilocular-solid, multilocular, multilocular-solid, solid), echogenicity of cyst content, presence of papillations, number of papillations, height (mm) of largest papillation, presence and proportion of solid tissue and number of cyst locules, as well as vascularity in papillations and colour content of the tumour scan (colour score) on colour or power Doppler ultrasounds. Results are reported as median difference or odds ratio (OR) per 10 years increase in age.

MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE:

Maximal lesion diameter did not vary substantially with age (+1.3 mm difference per 10 years increase in age, 95% confidence interval (CI) -1.4 to 4.0). Tender mass at scan was less common in the older the woman (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.63-0.89), as were unilocular cysts relative to multilocular cysts (OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.57-0.85) and to lesions with solid components (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.48-0.77), and ground glass echogenicity relative to homogeneous low-level echogenicity (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.58-0.94) and other types of echogenicity of cyst contents (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.50-0.81). Papillations were more common the older the woman (OR 1.65, 95% CI 1.24-2.21), but their height and vascularization showed no clear relation to age.

LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION:

It is a limitation that we have little clinical information on the women included, e.g. previous surgery or medical treatment for endometriosis. It is important to emphasize that we do not know the age of the endometrioma itself and that our study is not longitudinal and so does not describe changes in endometriomas over time. The differences in the ultrasound appearance of endometriomas between women of different ages might be explained by previous surgery or medical treatment and might not be an effect of age per se.

WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS:

Awareness of physicians that the ultrasound appearance of endometriomas differs between women of different ages may facilitate a correct diagnosis of endometrioma.

STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTERESTS:

This study was supported in part by the Regione Autonoma della Sardegna (project code CPR-24750). B.V.C., A.C. and D.T. are supported by the Fund for Scientific Research Flanders, Belgium (FWO). The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.

 

 

Gynecol Obstet Invest. 2016;81(6):559-562.

Hemoperitoneum Following Sexual Intercourse in a Woman with Deep Infiltrating Endometriosis.

Buggio L1Aimi GVercellini P.

 

Abstract

Endometriosis is an estrogen-dependent chronic inflammatory disease, defined by the presence of endometrial glands and stroma at ectopic sites. A rare and life-threatening complication associated with endometriosis is represented by spontaneous hemoperitoneum due to the rupture of utero-ovarian vessels. Most cases of spontaneous hemoperitoneum previously described involved pregnant women affected by endometriosis; here, we present a case of acute and massive hemoperitoneum in a nulliparous woman with deep infiltrating endometriosis. When acute abdominal pain with hemoperitoneum occurs in non-gravid reproductive age women, with no positive findings for liver or spleen lesions, a possible spontaneous rupture of utero-ovarian vessels related to the presence of deep infiltrating endometriosis should be included among the possible causes of the condition.

 

 

Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2016 Sep;215(3):393.e1-3.

Anatomic vascular considerations in uterine artery ligation at its origin during laparoscopic hysterectomies.

Peters A1Stuparich MA2Mansuria SM1Lee TT1.

 

Abstract

Pelvic pathology such as fibroids, endometriosis, adhesions from previous pelvic surgeries, or ovarian remnants can distort anatomy and pose technical challenges during laparoscopic hysterectomies. Retroperitoneal dissection to ligate the uterine artery at its vascular origin can circumvent these obstacles, resulting in a safer procedure. However, detailed anatomic knowledge of the course of the uterine artery and understanding of vascular variations are essential for optimal dissection. We frequently encounter a C-shaped uterine artery variation during retroperitoneal dissection. We describe the key steps in identification and isolation of this variant, approaching the uterine artery origin either from the pararectal space or by utilizing the medial umbilical ligament coursing through the paravesical space. We also review other known uterine artery configurations. These techniques allow for safe completion of complex laparoscopic hysterectomies performed for various gynecologic diseases.

 

 

Ginecol Obstet Mex. 2016 Jan;84(1):37-45.

What is the true role of surgery in the infertility associated with endometriosis?.

Rodríguez-Purata JCervantes ELuna MSandler B.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Endometriosis is one of the most challenging clinical conditions for gynecologists. Associated pain and infertility are often difficult to manage, and current treatment strategies remain limited.

OBJECTIVE:

This review reviews the current scientific evidence for general gynecologist and provides an overview of current information regarding the treatment of patients with endometriosis-related infertility, offering strong evidence to consider a less invasive approach, and highlights potential hazards of surgery within patients desiring to achieve a pregnancy.

 

 

Biomed Res Int. 2016;2016:2916070.

Decreased Cytotoxicity of Peripheral and Peritoneal Natural Killer Cell in Endometriosis.

Jeung I1Cheon K2Kim MR3.

 

Abstract

Endometriosis causes significant chronic pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea, and infertility and affects 10% of all women. In endometriosis, ectopic endometrium surviving after retrograde menstruation exhibits an abnormal immune response characterized by increased levels of activated macrophages and inflammatory cytokines. Particularly, dysfunctional natural killer (NK) cells play an important role in the pathogenesis of the disease by either facilitating or inhibiting the survival, implantation, and proliferation of endometrial cells. NK cells in the peritoneum and peritoneal fluid exhibit reduced levels of cytotoxicity in women with endometriosis. Several cytokines and inhibitory factors in the serum and peritoneal fluid also dysregulate NK cell cytotoxicity. Additionally, increased numbers of immature peripheral NK cells and induction of NK cell apoptosis are evident in the peritoneal fluid of women with endometriosis. The high rate of endometriosis recurrence after pharmaceutical or surgical treatment, which is associated with dysfunctional NK cells, indicates that new immunomodulatory management strategies are required. A good understanding of immune dysfunction would enable improvement of current treatments for endometriosis.

 

 

Rev Med Liege. 2016 Apr;71(4):193-7.

POST-CAESAREAN ABDOMINAL WALL ENDOMETRIOSIS PREVENTION.

Poismans GTolbize NGielen FLipombi D.

 

Abstract

Abdominal wall endometriosis (AWE) is a rare type of endometriosis. Its pathophysiological pathways are still unknown. It generally occurs after surgical, mainly gynecological or obstetrical, interventions. The incidence of AWE after a caesarean section is around 0.03 to 0.04%. The symptoms are various, but the classical triad includes the presence of a mass, generally painful, associated with a cyclic variation of the symptomatology. The recommended treatment currently remains complete surgical resection of the mass. This article describes three cases of AWE. Each patient had a caesarean section. Their symptoms, however, occurred after various lengths of time and in different circumstances. We will more specifically discuss AWE secondary to cesarean sections, the diagnostic tools, treatment and prevention strategies.

 

 

Arkh Patol. 2016 May-Jun;78(3):20-25.

Morphological substrate and pathogenetic mechanisms of pelvic pain syndrome in endometriosis. Part II. Peripheral nerve tissue remodeling in the foci of endometriosis.

Kogan EA1Ovakimyan AS2Paramonova NB1Faizullina NM2Kazachenko IF2Adamyan LV2.

 

Abstract

Endometriosis (EM) is morphologically characterized by the development of extrauterine endometrioid heterotopies, the major clinical symptoms of which is chronic pelvic pain, which is a serious problem not only in modern gynecology, but also in public health as a whole.

AIM:

to investigate neurogenic markers in the foci of EM of various sites and histological structure in women with and without pain syndrome.

MATERIAL AND METHODS:

The investigation was performed using the operative material (resected segments of the intestine, bladder, rectovaginal septum, and small pelvic peritoneum) obtained from 52 women with an intraoperative and morphologically verified diagnosis of EM and (Group 1) and without (Group 2) pain syndrome. Immunohistochemical examination was made on paraffin-embedded tissue sections in accordance with the standard protocols, by using the antibodies: 1) anti-PGP 9.5 polyclonal rabbit antibodies; 2) mouse anti-human neurofilament (NF) protein monoclonal antibodies (Clone 2F1); 3) mouse anti-nerve growth factor (NGF) monoclonal antibodies; 4) monoclonal mouse anti-human NGF receptor p75 (NGFRp75) antibodies (Dako, Denmark).

RESULTS:

Our findings demonstrate differences in the expression of PGP 9.5, NFs, NGF, and NGFRp75 in the foci and adjacent tissue in painful and painless EM irrespective of the locations of heterotopies.

CONCLUSION:

The found molecular features are a manifestation of the remodeling of nerve fibers and nerve endings in the foci of EM and PGP9.5, NGF, and NGFRp75 give rise to nerve fiber neoformation and pain syndrome in EM. At the same time, the immunohistochemical phenotype of EM foci does not depend on their site and reflects the presence or absence of pain syndrome.

 

 

Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 2016 Aug;56(4):408-13.

Medium to long-term gastrointestinal outcomes following disc resection of the rectum for treatment of endometriosis using a validated scoring questionnaire.

Ng A1Yang P1,2Wong S1,2Vancaillie T3,4,2Krishnan S3,4.

 

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To assess the gastrointestinal functional outcomes and symptoms of low anterior resection syndrome after disc resection for deeply infiltrative endometriosis (DIE) using a validated scoring system.

DESIGN:

Retrospective study to assess the gastrointestinal functional outcomes after rectal disc resection for DIE using a validated scoring system.

SETTING:

University tertiary referral centre.

PATIENTS:

Women who underwent disc resection for endometriosis at Royal Hospital for Women and Prince of Wales Private Hospital between January 2012 and December 2013 were included.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE:

Low anterior resection syndrome (LARS) score using a validated questionnaire.

RESULTS:

Forty-one women met the inclusion criteria. The mean age was 40 ± 10 years (range 22-75 years). All procedures were performed laparoscopically. Eleven women (27%) underwent a hysterectomy in addition to rectal disc resection and endometriosis surgery. Mean operative time for the entire cohort was 158 ± 64 minutes, and mean length of hospital stay was 5 ± 2 days. Completed questionnaires were received from 31 women, a response rate of 76%. The mean length of follow-up was 17 ± 10 months (range 3-34 months). The LARS scores ranged from 0 to 34 (median 15, interquartile range 0-24). Eight women (26%) had a LARS score of 0. Nineteen women (61%) had a LARS score less than 21 (the threshold for LARS).

CONCLUSION:

Conservative treatment of DIE with rectal disc resection is safe and feasible and is associated with mild gastrointestinal dysfunction in the medium to long term.

 

 

Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 2016 Aug;56(4):420-5.

Recent estimates of the incidence of hysterectomy in New South Wales and trends over the past 30 years.

Yusuf F1,2Leeder S1Wilson A1.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Hysterectomy remains one of the frequently used surgical operations on women in Australia despite new therapeutic approaches for most of the common conditions for which hysterectomy is indicated.

AIMS:

To determine whether the surgical approach to hysterectomy has changed in New South Wales (NSW) over the period 1981 to 2010-2012.

DATA AND METHODS:

De-identified individual records for hysterectomy patients during the three-year period (January 2010 to December 2012) provided by the NSW Ministry of Health were used. Robotic assistance with surgery was not recorded in the hysterectomy data. Analysis largely involved the method of indirect standardisation.

RESULTS:

The average annual hysterectomy rate during 2010-2012 was 3.07 per 1000 females per annum; the majority of patients stayed an average of four days in hospital. Total abdominal and vaginal hysterectomies were the two most frequently used procedures. One-in-four procedures involved the use of laparoscopes. Principal diagnoses (in descending order) were disorders of menstruation and other abnormal bleeding, genital prolapse, leiomyoma of uterus, malignant neoplasm of genital organs and endometriosis. While declining trends in hysterectomy rates were noted since 1981, an increasing trend in the use of laparoscopy was evident.

CONCLUSIONS:

The 45% decrease in hysterectomy rates was indeed the most striking finding of our analysis. This is probably due to the development of alternative nonsurgical procedures such as oral hormone suppression of menstruation and the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system.

 

 

Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2016 Sep;294(3):647-55.

The effects of surgery for endometriosis on pregnancy outcomes following in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Rossi AC1Prefumo F2.

 

Abstract

PURPOSE:

To review the literature about the effect of endometriosis on in vitro-fertilization and embryo-transfer (IVF-ET).

METHODS:

A search in EMBASE, MEDLINE, ClinicalTrial.gov, reference lists from 2000 to 2013 was conducted. Inclusion criteria were: endometriosis confirmed with histologic examination, women undergoing IVF-ET, endometriosis treated or diagnosed by surgery. Women undergoing IVF-ET after surgical removal of endometriosic implants, or a surgical diagnosis of endometriosis without its removal, were compared to women without endometriosis. Main outcomes were clinical pregnancy and delivery rates.

RESULTS:

Thirteen studies were selected, including 980 women with endometriosis and 5934 controls. Clinical pregnancy rate was lower in women with endometriosis than in controls (OR 0.65; 95 % CI 0.44-0.96), but delivery rate was similar (OR 1.17; 95 % CI 0.69-1.98). When surgery was operative, clinical pregnancy rate after IVF-ET was lower in endometriosis than controls (OR 0.54; 95 % CI 0.34-0.85), but delivery rate was similar (OR 1.12; 95 % CI 0.60-2.07). When surgery was diagnostic, clinical pregnancy (OR 1.15; 95 % CI 0.46-2.84) and delivery rates (OR 1.65; 95 % CI 0.36-7.45) did not differ between the groups. Site of endometriosis was not related to IVF-ET outcomes. Clinical pregnancy rates were similar between stage I-II and controls (OR 0.99; 95 % CI 0.63-1.56) but lower in stage III-IV than controls (OR 0.45; 95 % CI 0.29-0.70), whereas delivery rate was not associated with stage.

CONCLUSIONS:

In the presence of endometriosis, the clinical pregnancy rate after IVF-ET is lower than in controls. The prognosis is better for mild endometriosis compared with more advanced stages. Even after surgical removal of endometriosis, IVF-ET results remain worse than in controls.

 

 

Lung. 2016 Aug;194(4):501-9.

Applications of Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Thorax in Pleural Diseases: A State-of-the-Art Review.

Pessôa FM1de Melo AS1Souza AS Jr2de Souza LS2Hochhegger B3Zanetti G4Marchiori E5.

 

Abstract

The aim of this review was to present the main aspects of pleural diseases seen with conventional and advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques. This modality is considered to be the gold standard for the evaluation of the pleural interface, characterization of complex pleural effusion, and identification of exudate and hemorrhage, as well as in the analysis of superior sulcus tumors, as it enables more accurate staging. The indication for MRI of the thorax in the identification of these conditions is increasing in comparison to computerized tomography, and it can also be used to support the diagnosis of pulmonary illnesses. This literature review describes the morphological and functional aspects of the main benign and malignant pleural diseases assessed with MRI, including mesothelioma, metastasis, lymphoma, fibroma, lipoma, endometriosis, asbestos-related pleural disease, empyema, textiloma, and splenosis.

 

 

Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 2016 Aug;28(4):267-76

New paradigms in the diagnosis and management of endometriosis.

Kavoussi SK1Lim CSSkinner BDLebovic DIAs-Sanie S.

 

Abstract

PURPOSE OF REVIEW:

Endometriosis is a common gynecologic condition estimated to affect 10-15% of reproductive-aged women, 30% of women with subfertility, and 80% of women with chronic pelvic pain. Although mainstays of diagnosis and treatment are still commonly applied, there have been various advances in the modalities of diagnosis and management of this complex condition. This article provides an updated review of novel findings regarding the diagnosis and management of this challenging disease.

RECENT FINDINGS:

Despite an abundance of studies on noninvasive diagnostic markers for endometriosis, there is no single imaging study, biomarker or panel of biomarkers that has been validated for clinical diagnosis. New technologies, such as use of indocyanine green and fluorescence, which visualize neovascularization often associated with endometriosis may improve diagnostic detection of endometriosis at the time surgery, but have not been demonstrated to improve pain outcomes after surgery. Hormone suppression remains the mainstay therapy prior to and following surgery. Although most methods demonstrate similar efficacy in reducing endometriosis-associated pain, newer pharmacologic agents that may prove advantageous include oral gonadotropin receptor antagonists, selective progesterone receptor modulators, and angiogenesis inhibitors.

SUMMARY:

Although there have been some advances in the study of noninvasive imaging and biomarkers, more investigation into effective modalities are being conducted and are needed.

 

 

Reprod Sci. 2017 Feb;24(2):285-290.

The Protective Role of Dexpanthenol on the Endometrial Implants in an Experimentally Induced Rat Endometriosis Model.

Soylu Karapinar O1Pinar N2Özgür T3Özcan O4Bayraktar HS5Kurt RK1Nural O1.

 

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Dexpanthenol (Dxp), antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent, plays an important role in the repair systems against oxidative stress and inflammatory response. The objective of this study is to determine the effect of Dxp on experimental endometriosis model.

STUDY DESIGN:

A prospective experimental study was conducted in Experimental Animal Laboratory of Mustafa Kemal University, Hatay. Twenty nonpregnant female Wistar albino rats, in which experimental model of endometriosis was surgically induced, were randomly divided into 2 groups. Group 1 was administered 500 mg/kg/d Dxp intraperitoneally for 14 days, and group 2 was given the same amount of saline solution. After 2 weeks of medication, the rats were killed and implant volumes, histopathologic scores; and levels of serum total antioxidant status, total oxidant status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) were evaluated. Plasma and peritoneal fluid levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) were analyzed.

RESULTS:

The endometriotic implant volumes, histopathologic scores, and serum TOS and OSI values were significantly decreased ( P < .05) in the Dxp group compared to the control group. Plasma and peritoneal fluid TNF-α levels were significantly decreased ( P < .05) in the Dxp group compared to the control group.

CONCLUSION:

Dexpanthenol has free radical scavenger effects, and antioxidant properties has significantly regressed endometriotic implant volumes, histopathologic scores, and serum TOS and OSI values. Serum and peritoneal fluid TNF-α levels were significantly decreased in the Dxp group. So Dxp decreased oxidative stress.

 

 

Oncol Lett. 2016 Jun;11(6):4107-4112.

Methylation status and protein expression of RASSF1A in endometriosis.

Wu YU1Zhang M2Zhang X1Xu Z1Jin W1.

 

Abstract

Ras association domain family 1A (RASSF1A) gene inactivation by promoter hypermethylation is a common event in the development of a variety of types of human cancer. Accumulated evidence has demonstrated that DNA methylation serve a critical role in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. The aim of the present study was to analyze the methylation status and protein expression of RASSF1A in endometriosis (EMS). The ectopic and corresponding eutopic endometrium tissues were collected from 45 women with EMS (EMS group) and normal endometrium tissues from 20 women without EMS (control group). The methylation status of RASSF1A was examined by methylation specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP). Immunohistochemistry was performed to measure RASSF1A protein level in endometrium tissues. In normal endometrium samples, RASSF1A protein expression was significantly higher at the secretory phase than the proliferative phase. RASSF1A protein expression in the ectopic endometrium tissues and eutopic endometrium tissues were significantly reduced than in normal endometrium (P<0.05). The frequency of aberrant methylation of RASSF1A was 55.56% in ectopic endometrium and 33.33% in paired eutopic endometrium, whereas such methylation was not detected in normal endometrium. Moreover, RASSF1A promoter hypermethylation was frequently associated with reduced expression of RASSF1A, and was common in advanced stage in ectopic endometrium of EMS. Epigenetic inactivation of RASSF1A through aberrant promoter methylation may be important in the formation and progression of EMS, and assessment of RASSF1A methylation status in eutopic endometrium may be a potentially useful biomarker to enhance the early detection of EMS.

 

 

Am J Pathol. 2016 Aug;186(8):2129-2142.

Estrogen Stimulates Homing of Endothelial Progenitor Cells to Endometriotic Lesions.

Rudzitis-Auth J1Nenicu A2Nickels RM2Menger MD2Laschke MW2.

 

Abstract

The incorporation of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) into microvessels contributes to the vascularization of endometriotic lesions. Herein, we analyzed whether this vasculogenic process is regulated by estrogen. Estrogen- and vehicle-treated human EPCs were analyzed for migration and tube formation. Endometriotic lesions were induced in irradiated FVB/N mice, which were reconstituted with bone marrow from FVB/N-TgN (Tie2/green fluorescent protein) 287 Sato mice. The animals were treated with 100 μg/kg β-estradiol 17-valerate or vehicle (control) over 7 and 28 days. Lesion growth, cyst formation, homing of green fluorescent protein(+)/Tie2(+) EPCs, vascularization, cell proliferation, and apoptosis were analyzed by high-resolution ultrasonography, caliper measurements, histology, and immunohistochemistry. Numbers of blood circulating EPCs were assessed by flow cytometry. In vitro, estrogen-treated EPCs exhibited a higher migratory and tube-forming capacity when compared with controls. In vivo, numbers of circulating EPCs were not affected by estrogen. However, estrogen significantly increased the number of EPCs incorporated into the lesions’ microvasculature, resulting in an improved early vascularization. Estrogen further stimulated the growth of lesions, which exhibited massively dilated glands with a flattened layer of stroma. This was mainly because of an increased glandular secretory activity, whereas cell proliferation and apoptosis were not markedly affected. These findings indicate that vasculogenesis in endometriotic lesions is dependent on estrogen, which adds a novel hormonally regulated mechanism to the complex pathophysiology of endometriosis.

 

 

Clin Imaging. 2016 Jul-Aug;40(4):678-90

Beyond ureterolithiasis: gamut of abnormalities affecting the ureter.

Moosavi B1Fasih N2Virmani V3Kielar A4.

 

Abstract

Nephrolithiasis is the most common condition involving the ureters. However, various other entities can affect the ureters, albeit less frequently. Imaging plays a crucial role in diagnosis, management, and follow-up of ureteral pathology. In the past decade, computed tomography urography has replaced traditional methods of ureteral imaging due to its high spatial resolution, multiplanar imaging, and rapid acquisition time. More recently, magnetic resonance urography has also been explored in evaluating ureteral abnormalities. In this review, we briefly discuss current imaging techniques used in assessment of the ureters and present a diverse group of diseases affecting the ureters. We begin with primary and secondary ureteral malignancies, followed by uncommon infectious/inflammatory diseases that can involve the ureters including tuberculosis, xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis, and graft-versus-host disease. We then discuss the imaging characteristics of endometriosis and retroperitoneal fibrosis as two important examples of pelvic and retroperitoneal processes that occasionally obstruct the ureters and present with clinical symptoms similar to that of renal stones. We end with a brief discussion of miscellaneous conditions that affect the ureters, including ureteral hemorrhage, ureteral intussusception, ureteral pseudodiverticulosis, Malacoplakia, and ureteritis cystica. Knowledge of these entities and their characteristic imaging manifestations along with patient’s clinical presentation allows accurate diagnosis and timely patient management.

 

 

Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2017 Jun;96(6):736-744.

Oocyte competence in in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection patients suffering from endometriosis and its possible association with subsequent treatment outcome: a matched case-control study.

Shebl O1Sifferlinger I2Habelsberger A1Oppelt P1Mayer RB1Petek E2Ebner T1.

 

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

Endometriosis affects up to 15% of women of reproductive age. There is an obvious lack of studies dealing with morphological parameters of oocyte morphology in endometriosis patients in assisted reproduction. One aim of the study is to describe oocyte morphology in patients undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection suffering from endometriosis. In addition, the impact of endometriosis on in vitro fertilization results is analyzed. Both in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection patients are then matched with an endometriosis-free control group for highlighting the possible association of endometriosis with pregnancy outcome.

MATERIAL AND METHODS:

Oocyte morphology of endometriosis patients was assessed in two groups. Both study group and control group consisted of 129 in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles each. Patients were matched according to anti-Müllerian hormone, female age, previous treatment cycles, and method of fertilization. Endometriosis was graded according to the revised American Society for Reproductive Medicine guidelines of 1997.

RESULTS:

Patients with endometriosis had a significantly lower rate of mature oocytes (p < 0.03) and morphologically normal oocytes (p < 0.001). In particular, brownish oocytes (p < 0.009; stage I-IV) and the presence of refractile bodies (p < 0.001; stage IV) were found to be increased. Endometriosis stage IV was associated with significantly worse-quality oocytes than stages I-III (p < 0.01). Fertilization was significantly reduced in conventional in vitro fertilization but not in intracytoplasmic sperm injection (p < 0.03). This was due to lower fertilization rates in stage III-IV endometriosis compared with stage I-II (p < 0.04). No difference was observed with respect to rates of implantation, clinical pregnancy, miscarriage, live birth, and malformation.

CONCLUSIONS:

Endometriosis patients, in particular those with severe endometriosis, present lower-quality oocytes. Once fertilized, no impairment of further preimplantation embryo development and pregnancy outcome right up to healthy live birth rate has to be expected.

 

 

Horm Mol Biol Clin Investig. 2017 Feb 1;29(2):67-69.

Primary umbilical endometriosis successfully treated with dienogest.

Chew KTNorsaadah SSuraya AHing EYAni Amelia ZNor Azlin MINur Azurah AG.

 

Abstract

Primary umbilical endometriosis (PUE) is a rare gynaecological disorder. A majority of the reported cases were treated with surgical excision as medical treatment had been found to be less successful. We reported a case of PUE successfully treated with dienogest without any profound side effects from the drug.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fertil Steril. 2016 Sep 1;106(3):673-80.

Aromatase inhibitor regulates let-7 expression and let-7f-induced cell migration in endometrial cells from women with endometriosis.

Cho S1Mutlu L2Zhou Y2Taylor HS3.

 

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To evaluate associations between aromatase inhibitor (AI) treatment and let-7-family microRNA expression in endometriosis.

DESIGN:

In vitro study with the use of Ishikawa cells and human endometrial stromal cells (HESCs) obtained from patients with endometriosis.

SETTING:

University research center.

PATIENT(S):

Women undergoing laparoscopic surgery for endometriosis.

INTERVENTION(S):

HESCs and Ishikawa cells treated with various letrozole concentrations and transfected with a mimic of let-7 subtypes of interest.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S):

MicroRNAs let-7a-f and aromatase expression were evaluated. Migration potential after transfection with a let-7f mimic were analyzed.

RESULT(S):

After letrozole treatment for 48 hours, all let-7 subtypes showed a trend toward increased expression in a dose-dependent manner in Ishikawa cells, and significant differences were found in let-7b and let-7f between the control and 20 μmol/L treatment groups. Furthermore, let-7f showed significant differences between the control group and 1.0 μmol/L treatment group, a typical therapeutic level, in HESCs. Transfection of a let-7f mimic decreased aromatase expression in both Ishikawa cells and HESCs and led to a significant decrease in number of migrating cells in both cell types.

CONCLUSION(S):

AI treatment significantly increased expression of let-7f in Ishikawa cells and HESCs from patients with endometriosis; increased let-7f expression effectively reduced the migration of endometrial cells. Modulation of microRNAs involved in the pathogenesis of endometriosis may have therapeutic potential for endometriosis.

 

Fertil Steril. 2016 Sep 1;106(3):681-691

Stanniocalcin-1 expression in normal human endometrium and dysregulation in endometriosis.

Aghajanova L1Altmäe S2Kasvandik S3Salumets A4Stavreus-Evers A5Giudice LC6.

 

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To determine expression of stanniocalcin-1 (STC1) in human endometrium with and without endometriosis and its regulation by steroid hormones.

DESIGN:

Laboratory study.

SETTING:

University.

PATIENT(S):

Nineteen women with endometriosis and 33 control women.

INTERVENTION(S):

Endometrial biopsy and fluid sampling.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S):

Analysis of early secretory (ESE) and midsecretory (MSE) endometrial secretomes from fertile women with the use of nano-liquid chromatography-dual mass spectrometry; real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemistry for STC1 and its receptor calcium-sensing receptor (CASR) mRNA and proteins in endometrium with and without endometriosis; evaluation of STC1 and CASR mRNA expression in endometrial stromal fibroblasts (eSF) from women with and without endometriosis decidualized with the use of E2P or 8-bromo-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP).

RESULT(S):

STC1 protein was strongly up-regulated in MSE versus ESE in endometrial fluid of fertile women. STC1 mRNA significantly increased in MSE from women with, but not from those without, endometriosis, compared with proliferative endometrium or ESE, with no significant difference throughout the menstrual cycle between groups. STC1 mRNA in eSF from control women increased >230-fold on decidualization with the use of cAMP versus 45-fold from women with endometriosis, which was not seen on decidualization with E2/P. CASR mRNA did not exhibit significant differences in any condition and was not expressed in isolated eSF. STC1 protein immunoexpression in eSF was significantly lower in women with endometriosis compared with control women.

CONCLUSION(S):

STC1 protein is significantly up-regulated in MSE endometrial fluid and is dysregulated in eutopic endometrial tissue from women with endometriosis. It is likely regulated by cAMP and may be involved in the pathogenesis of decidualization defects.

 

 

 

Genet Mol Res. 2016 May 25;15(2).

Genetic polymorphisms in patients with endometriosis: an analytical study in Goiânia (Central West of Brazil).

Silva KS1Moura KK2.

 

Abstract

In healthy women, intra- and extracellular controls prevent the attachment and proliferation of ectopic endometrial cells. During endometriosis, abnormalities in these control mechanisms permit the survival of endometrial cells, their subsequent attachment to the peritoneal cavity, and disease progression. These abnormal cells cause invasion of tissues and induce an inflammatory response. Several genetic, immunological, and environmental factors contribute to this complex process. In this study we examined 6 polymorphisms for 6 different genes (p53; estrogen receptor β; progesterone receptor; GSTM1; GSTT1; CYP1A1). We obtained polymorphic genotype frequencies of all genes for 50 patients and analyzed them using the Fisher exact test or G test. Initially, we analyzed the genes in groups of 2, followed by 3. We found a significant association between polymorphisms in 6 pairs of genes (p53-ERβshowed 5.9-times higher frequency in the experimental group, p53-GSTM1 showed 2.39 times higher, 65.5% patients showed p53-CYP1A1 polymorphism, ERβ-PROGINS showed 3.0-times higher frequency, while 31.25% patients showed GSTM1- PROGINS and GSTT1-CYP1A1 polymorphism). Positive results were found in 15 situations when genes were analyzed in groups of 3; the most significant result corresponded to polymorphisms of p53, ERβand GSTM1 seen in 20%; PROGINS, ERβand GSTM1 in 18%; and p53, ERβand PROGINS in 12% patients. The results indicate that the presence of polymorphisms in more than one endometriosis-related gene is associated with onset of disease and progression. Future studies should focus on these genes to understand their inter-relationships and explore the possibility of developing new diagnostic techniques based on molecular markers.

 

Genet Mol Res. 2016 Jun 3;15(2).

Microarray analysis of microRNA deregulation and angiogenesis-related proteins in endometriosis.

Yang RQ1Teng H1Xu XH1Liu SY2Wang YH1Guo FJ1Liu XJ3.

 

Abstract

We examined the aberrant microRNA (miRNA) expression profile responsible for the changes in angiogenesis observed in endometriotic lesions. This study revealed characteristic miRNA expression profiles associated with endometriosis in endometrial tissue and endometriotic lesions from the same patient, and their correlation with the most important angiogenic and fibrinolytic factors. miRNA expression was quantified using a microRNA array and reverse-transcription microRNA polymerase chain reaction. Levels of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (EGFR2), phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), and C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The endometrial tissue showed significantly lower levels of miR-200b, miR-15a-5p, miR-19b-1-5p, miR-146a-5p, and miR-200c, and higher levels of miR-16-5p, miR-106b-5p, and miR-145-5p. VEGFA was significantly upregulated, whereas EGFR2, PTEN, and CXCR4 were markedly downregulated, in the endometriotic tissues compared to that in the normal endometrial tissues. In conclusion, differences in the miRNA levels could modulate the expression of VEGFA, EGFR2, PTEN, and CXCR4, and may play an important role in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. The higher angiogenic and proteolytic activities observed in the eutopic endometrium might facilitate the implantation of endometrial cells at ectopic sites.

 

 

Harefuah. 2016 Apr;155(4):215-8, 255.

ALLEN-MASTERS SYNDROME AS A CAUSE FOR CHRONIC PELVIC PAIN: DIAGNOSIS, TREATMENT AND LONG TERM FOLLOW-UP.

Braun NMBen Shachar I.

 

Abstract

Chronic pelvic pain is one of the main causes for repeated ambulatory and hospital visits. The main findings on exploratory laparoscopy performed for these complaints are endometriosis and adhesions, while in more than 50% of cases, no cause for the pain is found. In 1955, Allen and Masters reported pain associated with traumatic labor. They reported retroverted and hyper-mobile uterus in all women and during operation, tears in the posterior serosa of the broad igament. A few therapeutic options have been discussed, including repair of the tears, but without long term follow-up and significant relief of symptoms. Tightening of the utero-sacral ligaments following peritoneal resection of the Douglas as a long effective treatment was initially suggested in France in 1972. In 1997, von Theobald showed that it could be conducted by laparoscopy with long term follow-up. We report 3 cases of women diagnosed with Allen-Masters Syndrome, the surgical treatment performed and the long follow-up of these patients. We also discuss the ways to diagnose the syndrome and the preferred modality of treatment.

 

 

 

Reprod Sci. 2017 Feb;24(2):242-251.

The Presence of Endometrial Cells in Peritoneal Fluid of Women With and Without Endometriosis.

O DF1,2Roskams T3Van den Eynde K3Vanhie A1,2Peterse DP1,2Meuleman C2Tomassetti C2Peeraer K2D’Hooghe TM1Fassbender A1,2.

 

Abstract

To reinforce Sampson’s theory of retrograde menstruation in the pathogenesis of endometriosis, proof should be provided that during menstruation endometrial cells are present in peritoneal fluid (PF). We hypothesize that the prevalence of PF samples containing endometrial cells is higher in patients with endometriosis than in controls without endometriosis during menstruation. We selected from our biobank PF samples of 17 reproductive-age women with (n = 9) or without (n = 8) endometriosis who had received a diagnostic laparoscopy for investigation of pain/infertility. Peritoneal fluid had been collected during laparoscopy in the menstrual phase of the cycle, centrifuged, and the resulting pellet was stored at -80°C. About 5-μm sections of frozen PF pellets were stained using the Dako Envision Flex system with primary antibodies against epithelial cell adhesion molecule (Ep-CAM; endometrial epithelial cells), CD10 (endometrial stromal cells), prekeratin (epithelial/mesothelial cells), vimentin (endometrial/mesothelial/immune cells), calretinin (mesothelial cells), and CD68 (macrophages). The PF cells positive for Ep-CAM were detected in 5 of 9 patients with endometriosis and 6 of 8 controls ( P = .62). CD10 stained positively in 6 of the 9 patients with endometriosis and 3 of the 8 controls ( P = .35). Calretinin and prekeratin staining showed the presence of mesothelial cells in all pellets. Vimentin stained approximately 100% of the PF cells. CD68+ macrophages represented >50% of cells in all pellets. The prevalence of PF samples containing endometrial epithelial and stromal cells was not higher in patients with endometriosis than in controls without endometriosis during menstruation. Our findings question the relevance of endometrial cells in PF for the pathogenesis of endometriosis and support the importance of other mechanisms such as immune dysfunction and/or endometrial stem cells.

 

 

J Clin Oncol. 2016 Aug 20;34(24):2888-98.

Ovarian Cancer Risk Factors by Histologic Subtype: An Analysis From the Ovarian Cancer Cohort Consortium.

Wentzensen N1Poole EM1Trabert B1White E1Arslan AA1Patel AV1Setiawan VW1Visvanathan K1Weiderpass E1Adami HO1Black A1Bernstein L1Brinton LA1Buring J1Butler LM1Chamosa S1Clendenen TV1Dossus L1Fortner R1Gapstur SM1Gaudet MM1Gram IT1Hartge P1Hoffman-Bolton J1Idahl A1Jones M1Kaaks R1Kirsh V1Koh WP1Lacey JV Jr1Lee IM1Lundin E1Merritt MA1Onland-Moret NC1Peters U1Poynter JN1Rinaldi S1Robien K1Rohan T1Sandler DP1Schairer C1Schouten LJ1Sjöholm LK1Sieri S1Swerdlow A1Tjonneland A1Travis R1Trichopoulou A1van den Brandt PA1Wilkens L1Wolk A1Yang HP1Zeleniuch-Jacquotte A1Tworoger SS1.

 

Abstract

PURPOSE:

An understanding of the etiologic heterogeneity of ovarian cancer is important for improving prevention, early detection, and therapeutic approaches. We evaluated 14 hormonal, reproductive, and lifestyle factors by histologic subtype in the Ovarian Cancer Cohort Consortium (OC3).

PATIENTS AND METHODS:

Among 1.3 million women from 21 studies, 5,584 invasive epithelial ovarian cancers were identified (3,378 serous, 606 endometrioid, 331 mucinous, 269 clear cell, 1,000 other). By using competing-risks Cox proportional hazards regression stratified by study and birth year and adjusted for age, parity, and oral contraceptive use, we assessed associations for all invasive cancers by histology. Heterogeneity was evaluated by likelihood ratio test.

RESULTS:

Most risk factors exhibited significant heterogeneity by histology. Higher parity was most strongly associated with endometrioid (relative risk [RR] per birth, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.74 to 0.83) and clear cell (RR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.61 to 0.76) carcinomas (P value for heterogeneity [P-het] < .001). Similarly, age at menopause, endometriosis, and tubal ligation were only associated with endometrioid and clear cell tumors (P-het ≤ .01). Family history of breast cancer (P-het = .008) had modest heterogeneity. Smoking was associated with an increased risk of mucinous (RR per 20 pack-years, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.08 to 1.46) but a decreased risk of clear cell (RR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.55 to 0.94) tumors (P-het = .004). Unsupervised clustering by risk factors separated endometrioid, clear cell, and low-grade serous carcinomas from high-grade serous and mucinous carcinomas.

CONCLUSION:

The heterogeneous associations of risk factors with ovarian cancer subtypes emphasize the importance of conducting etiologic studies by ovarian cancer subtypes. Most established risk factors were more strongly associated with nonserous carcinomas, which demonstrate challenges for risk prediction of serous cancers, the most fatal subtype.

 

 

Int J Reprod Biomed (Yazd). 2016 May;14(5):341-6.

Effect of granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) on IVF outcomes in infertile women: An RCT.

Eftekhar M1Hosseinisadat R2Baradaran R1Naghshineh E3.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Despite major advances in assisted reproductive techniques, the implantation rates remain relatively low. Some studies have demonstrated that intrauterine infusion of granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) improves implantation in infertile women.

OBJECTIVE:

To assess the G-CSF effects on IVF outcomes in women with normal endometrial thickness.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

In this randomized controlled clinical trial, 100 infertile women with normal endometrial thickness who were candidate for IVF were evaluated in two groups. Exclusion criteria were positive history of repeated implantation failure (RIF), endocrine disorders, severe endometriosis, congenital or acquired uterine anomaly and contraindication for G-CSF (renal disease, sickle cell disease, or malignancy). In G-CSF group (n=50), 300 µg trans cervical intrauterine of G-CSF was administered at the oocyte retrieval day. Controls (n=50) were treated with standard protocol. Chemical, clinical and ongoing pregnancy rates, implantation rate, and miscarriage rate were compared between groups.

RESULTS:

Number of total and mature oocytes (MII), two pronuclei (2PN), total embryos, transferred embryos, quality of transferred embryos, and fertilization rate did not differ significantly between two groups. So there were no significant differences between groups in chemical, clinical and ongoing pregnancy rate, implantation rate, and miscarriage rate.

CONCLUSION:

our result showed in normal IVF patients with normal endometrial thickness, the intrauterine infusion of G-CSF did not improve pregnancy outcomes.

 

 

Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol. 2016;43(3):350-3.

Effect of mifepristone in the different treatments of endometriosis.

Zhang YX.

 

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To observe the effect of small-dose mifepristone conservative treatment and laparoscopic combined with mifepristone in the treatment of endometriosis.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Sixty-five endometriosis cases were given small-dose mifepristone conservative treatment and were assessed for the effect of this treatment; 92 cases were randomly divided into control group (taking gestrinone) and observation group (mifepristone), FSH, P, PRL and E2 levels were compared before and after treatment, and pregnancy investigation and each sex hormone level monitoring were followed-up at one year after drug withdrawal.

RESULTS:

Using mifepristone, FSH, P, E2, and LH levels all significantly changed six months after treatment and recovered 12 months after drug withdrawal; when comparing the pelvic symptoms, endometrial thickness showed that mifepristone was significantly effective (p < 0.01), and the pregnancy rate was 27.69%. Comparing the two groups, none of the total effective rate, pregnancy rate one year of follow-up, and recurrence rates were significantly different; hormone levels in the both groups were significantly decreased or increased (p < 0.05) after treatment. The two groups had no significant difference (p > 0.05), but 12 months after drug withdrawal, in the control group (not in the observation group), LH level was still significantly different (p < 0.05) compared pre-treatment.

CONCLUSIONS:

In the conservative treatment, mifepristone can safely improve the hormone levels, reduce the thickness of the endometrium, alleviate symptoms. With laparoscopic minimally invasive combined drug therapy, mifepristone has a significant effect, with a more followed-up pregnancy rate, less recurrence, and no drug accumulation side-effects, hence it is worthy of clinical application.

 

 

Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol. 2016;43(3):354-7.

Endometriosis allergic or autoimmune disease: pathogenetic aspects–a case control study.

Caserta DMallozzi MPulcinelli FMMossa BMoscarini M.

 

Abstract

PURPOSE OF INVESTIGATION:

The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between endometriosis and pathologies on an immune basis for the possible involvement of the immune system in the pathogenesis of endometriosis.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

In this retrospective study, data of 304 patients with endometriosis and 318 without endometriosis were collected in a uniform manner for both groups and inserted into two databases, respectively, for patients with and without endometriosis. The authors calculated the percentages of patients with allergies, autoimmune diseases, asthma in both groups, and later statistical analysis were performed with two different chi-square tests.

RESULTS:

The results obtained have shown that patients with endometriosis have a higher prevalence of allergies (p = 0.0003) and coexistence of both allergies and autoimmune diseases (p = 0.0274), compared to those without.

CONCLUSIONS:

The present study seems to support the possible association between endometriosis and allergic diseases.

 

 

Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol. 2016;43(3):379-83.

Clinicopathological features of endometriosis in abdominal wall–clinical analysis of 151 cases.

Zhang JLiu X.

 

Abstract

Summary

OBJECTIVE:

To explore the clinicopathological features of abdominal wall endometriosis (AWE).

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

A retrospective study was made of 151 AWE patients, who were treated at Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Fudan University from 2003 to 2010.

RESULTS:

Most patients (80.1%) presented with cyclic pain and/or cyclic abdominal masses. The latent period of AWE patients was 31.48 ± 28.27 months (three to 192 months), which was not correlated with factors related to previous cesarean section (CS) (such as age at CS, incision site, gestational week at CS, baby’s birth weight, lactation period, postpartum menstruation recovery, choices of contraceptives, etc). The duration of disease was 33.07 ± 28.58 months (two to 168 months), which was negatively correlated with the latent period (r = -0.267, p = 0.043). The pre-operational ultrasonography detection rate was 97.4% (147/151 cases). The lesion size detected by preoperative ultrasonography was significantly smaller than that measured intraoperatively by palpation (21.6 ± 20.7mm vs. 30.21 ± 30.9mm p < 0.05). Moreover, only 26.5% (40/151 cases), in AWE patients the infiltration depth was revealed by preoperative ultrasonography. All patients received surgical treatment. The symptoms were relieved in 93.4% (141/151 cases) patients after surgery. The recurrence rate was 7.3% (11/151 cases) while the average recurrent time was 19.8 ± 15.99 months. The recurrence rate was significantly lower in postoperative medication group than that in non-medication one (p < 0.05). In addition, the morphologic features of AWE lesions also contributed to recurrence. The duration of disease in large scar endometrioma (LSE) group (the diameter of lesions ≥ three cm) was significantly longer than that in small scar endometrioma (SSE) group (the diameter of lesions < three cm), while SSE group had higher recurrence rate (p < 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS:

The indications of previous CS, factors related to delivery and lactation, have little effect on the exact time of AWE onset. Although ultrasonography is beneficial to preoperative diagnosis of AWE, its accuracy in evaluating lesion size and infiltration depth is limited, which should be interpreted appropriately. The morphologic features of AWE lesions may be correlated with the severity of disease. Surgery is the first-line treatment of AWE and postoperative medication might reduce recurrence.

 

 

Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol. 2016;43(3):422-6

Robot-assisted versus conventional laparoscopic surgery in the treatment of advanced stage endometriosis: a meta-analysis.

Chen SHLi ZADu XP.

 

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To evaluate the safety and efficacy of robot-assisted laparoscopy (RAL) versus conventional laparoscopy (CL) in the treatment of advanced stage endometriosis.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Utilizing electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, and Elsevier), a systematic literature review was performed between 2008 and 2015 to compare the RAL surgery with CL surgery (CLS) in the treatment of advanced stage endometriosis. According to meta-analysis criteria, two comparative clinical trials were selected. Outcome measures including length of operation, blood loss, operative complications, and the length of hospitalization, were estimated by the RevMan 5.1 software.

RESULTS:

In the meta-analysis, there were no significant differences in blood loss, complication, and hospital stay between RAL and CL surgeries in the treatment of advanced stage endometriosis. However, RAL surgery required a higher mean operating time than CL surgery (WMD: 73.85, 95% CI: 56.77-90.94; p < 0 .00001). Comparative studies demonstrated that RAL displayed no outstanding advantages.

CONCLUSIONS:

As a new minimally invasive method, RAL technology is safe and efficient alternative to CL in the treatment of advanced stage endometriosis. The latent benefits of RAL technology for the treatment of advanced stage endometriosis remain uncertain.

 

Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol. 2016;43(3):431-3.

Abdominal scar endometriosis: case report.

Miccini MGregori MFerraro DCiardi ACassibba SBiacchi D.

 

Abstract

Abdominal scar endometriosis, corresponding to the presence of an endometrial tissue near or inside an abdominal surgical incision, is a rare clinical event that can occur in women after gynecological or obstetric surgery. Generally, a triad consisting of underlying mass at the incision, cyclic menstrual scar pain, and history of previous gynecological or obstetric surgery leads to the preoperative diagnosis. In rare cases, the clinical presentation is atypical and the differential diagnosis with incarcerated incisional hernia, granuloma, abscess or other soft tissue tumors can be difficult. The authors describe the case of 39-year-old woman who underwent three previous cesarean sections, with a 20-week history of underlying palpable mass at the Pfannenstiel incision, associated to continuous pain. In this case, a surgical excision followed by the histology definitely clarified the diagnosis.

 

 

Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol. 2016;43(3):437-40

Laparoscopic excision of rectosigmoid endometriotic plaque and cul de sac obliteration in deeply infiltrating endometriosis: a case report.

Fragulidis GPOreopulu FVVezakis ASofoudis CKalambokas EKoutoulidis VVlahos NF.

 

Abstract

Endometriosis represents a main cause of infertility and pelvic pain affecting 3-43% among reproductive age women. Deep pelvic endometriosis is defined as subperitoneal infiltration of endometrial implants in the uterosacral ligaments, rectum, rectovaginal septum, vagina or bladder. The authors present a case of a 29-year-old patient who underwent laparoscopic excision of extensive endometriotic plaque in rectovaginal septum accompanied with deeply infiltrating endometriosis (DIE) and chronic pelvic pain (CPP).

 

 

Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol. 2016;43(3):455-6.

The improvement of hirsutism and the decrease of testosterone concentration in the peripheral blood serum after removing an endometrioid ovarian cyst.

Słopień RPawlak MWarenik-Szymankiewicz ASajdak S.

Abstract

The study describes the case of a patient, in which as a result of removing an endometrioid ovarian cyst, there was an improvement as regards hirsutism and the decrease of testosterone concentration in the serum of peripheral blood.

 

 

Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol. 2016;43(3):463-6.

The role of the adhesion molecule Nectin-4 in the pathogenesis of endometriosis.

Bedir RSehitoglu IBalik GKagitci MGucer HYurdakul CBagci P.

 

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Nectins are immunoglobulin-like adhesion molecules, and they play important role in cell proliferation and tumor metastasis. The objective in this study was to compare the expression of Nectin-4 in normal endometrium and in ectopic endometriotic tissues.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Nectin-4 expression was investigated in ovarian endometriosis (n = 20), peritoneal endometriosis (n = 20), endometrium of endometriosis (n = 20), and in a control group (having no endometriosis) (n = 20) by immunohistochemical method.

RESULTS:

Nectin-4 expression, when compared with control group, was higher in endometriotic lesions of patients having ovarian endometriosis and peritoneal endometriosis (p = 0.003 and p = 0.009, respectively). This difference was significant in the endometrium of patients having endometriosis (p = 0.011).

CONCLUSION:

The authors believe that Nectin-4 molecule may contribute to the pathogenesis of endometriosis. For this reason, the use of medicines developed against this molecule in the treatment of endometriosis may be useful.

 

 

J Ovarian Res. 2016 Jun 21;9(1):37.

Evaluation of factors predicting diminished ovarian reserve before and after laparoscopic cystectomy for ovarian endometriomas: a prospective cohort study.

Ozaki R1Kumakiri J2Tinelli A3Grimbizis GF4Kitade M1Takeda S1.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Ovarian endometriomas affect a substantial proportion of women of reproductive age who may have a potential risk of diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) after ovarian cystectomy. Here, we investigated the risk factors for pre-surgical DOR in patients with ovarian endometriomas and for DOR after laparoscopic ovarian cystectomy for endometriomas and evaluated the feasibility of the pre-surgical prediction of post-surgical DOR based on the Bologna criteria.

METHODS:

A total of 143 patients with ovarian endometriomas who underwent laparoscopic cystectomy from January 2009 to May 2015 at our hospital were prospectively enrolled and evaluated. Serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) concentrations were measured pre-surgically and at 3 and 6 months after surgery. In accordance with the Bologna criteria, the patients whose AMH concentrations were <1.1 ng/mL before surgery and 3 or 6 months after surgery were classified into pre- and post-surgical adverse DOR (aDOR) groups, respectively.

RESULTS:

Thirty-one (21.7 %) of 143 patients were classified as pre-surgical aDOR. Patient age and serum follicle-stimulating hormone level were significantly positively correlated with pre-surgical aDOR [odds ratios (ORs), 1.26 and 1.16; p < 0.001 and p = 0.003, respectively]. Among the remaining 112 patients, 38 patients (33.9 %) had post-surgical aDOR 3 and 6 months after surgery. Bilateral cystectomy was positively correlated with post-surgical aDOR (at 3 months: OR, 4.7; p = 0.001; at 6 months: OR, 3.71; p = 0.006); conversely, pre-surgical serum AMH concentrations were negatively correlated with post-surgical aDOR (at 3 months: OR, 0.65; p = 0.005; at 6 months: OR, 0.43; p < 0.001). The optimal cut-off point of pre-surgical AMH concentrations for predicting aDOR at 3 and 6 months in the patients undergoing unilateral cystectomy was 2.1 ng/mL. In contrast, the optimal cut-off points at 3 and 6 months in the patients undergoing bilateral cystectomy were 3.0 and 3.5 ng/mL, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS:

Our data suggest that the pre-surgical serum AMH concentrations and bilateral cystectomy are significant factors for the risk of aDOR following surgery and that predicting post-surgical aDOR according to the Bologna criteria could be feasible using pre-operative measurements of serum AMH concentrations.

 

 

 

 

 

J Minim Invasive Gynecol. 2016 Sep-Oct;23(6):962-8.

Barbed Versus Conventional Suture: A Randomized Trial for Suturing the Endometrioma Bed After Laparoscopic Excision of Ovarian Endometrioma.

Fouda UM1Elsetohy KA2Elshaer HS2.

 

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

To determine whether the unidirectional knotless barbed suture can be used to control bleeding from the endometrioma bed after laparoscopic excision of ovarian endometrioma, and to detect whether the use of the unidirectional barbed suture is associated with shorter suturing time of the endometrioma bed compared with the continuous conventional smooth suture with intracorporeal knot tying.

DESIGN:

Randomized clinical trial (Canadian Task Force classification I).

SETTING:

Tertiary hospital.

PATIENTS:

Forty patients with unilateral ovarian endometrioma (mean diameter, 3-10 cm) were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to the barbed suture group or the conventional suture group.

INTERVENTIONS:

The endometrioma bed was sutured either with unidirectional barbed suture (V-Loc 180; Covidien, Mansfield, MA) or conventional suture (Vicryl; Ethicon, Somerville, NJ). Two layers of continuous sutures were used to control bleeding from the endometrioma bed and to reapproximate the ovarian edges.

MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:

The degree of suturing difficulty was evaluated by the surgeons using a visual analog scale (VAS) ranging from 1 (least difficult suturing) to 10 (most difficult suturing). Operating time and suturing time were significantly shorter in the barbed suture group (43.3 ± 10.54 vs 52.8 ± 9.69 minutes; p = .005 and 8.85 ± 2.52 vs 15.7 ± 4.12 minutes; p < .001, respectively). Suturing with barbed suture was less difficult than suturing with conventional suture (3.68 ± 1.37 vs 4.77 ± 1.56; p = .025). Intraoperative blood loss was similar in the 2 groups. No perioperative complications were reported in either group. A nonsignificant decrease in serum anti-mullerian hormone (AMH) levels was observed after the operation in the barbed suture group and the conventional suture group (3.04 ± 1.5 vs 2.52 ± 1.31 ng/mL; p = .252 and 2.76 ± 1.48 vs 2.13 ± 1.14 ng/mL; p = .139, respectively). The rate of decline in serum AMH levels after the operation was 18.32% in the barbed suture group and 22.84% in the conventional suture group.

CONCLUSION:

The unidirectional knotless barbed suture (V-Loc) facilitates suturing of the endometrioma bed after laparoscopic excision of ovarian endometrioma. Compared with conventional smooth suture (Vicryl), the unidirectional barbed suture reduces the time needed to suture the endometrioma bed and the total operating time.

 

 

Reprod Sci. 2017 Feb;24(2):258-267

Endometriosis Leads to an Increased Trefoil Factor 3 Concentration in the Peritoneal Cavity but Does Not Alter Systemic Levels.

Henze D1Doecke WD1Hornung D2,3Agueusop I1von Ahsen O1Machens K1Schmitz AA1Gashaw I1.

 

Abstract

This study analyzed whether trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) is locally elevated and correlated with common biomarkers and inflammatory processes in endometriosis. Peritoneal fluid (PF) was obtained from 50 women and serum from 124 women with or without endometriosis. Experimental endometriosis was induced in female C57BL/6 mice by syngeneic transplantation of uterine tissue to the abdominal wall. Levels of TFF3 in PF of women with endometriosis were significantly increased ( P < .05) and correlated with local levels of known biomarkers for endometriosis: cancer antigen (CA) 125, CA-19-9, interleukin 8, monocyte chemotactic protein 1, and matrix metalloproteinase 7. Serum levels of TFF3 in women were significantly influenced by the menstrual cycle but were independent from disease state. In mice, local TFF3 levels were significantly elevated in early endometriosis (up to 4 weeks after transplantation, P < .001) and corresponded to increases in spleen weight as marker for systemic inflammation. This study provides the first evidence that TFF3 is locally elevated in the peritoneal cavity in endometriosis and might play a role in disease pathogenesis and its associated inflammatory processes. Furthermore, the results show that TFF3 is regulated through the menstrual cycle. With respect to animal models, syngeneic mouse model does reflect local TFF3 upregulation in the peritoneal cavity affected by endometriosis.

 

 

Can Urol Assoc J. 2016 Mar-Apr;10(3-4):E119-21.

Intrinsic ureteral endometriosis as a cause of unilateral obstructive uropathy.

Mason RJ1Alamri A2Gusenbauer K3Kapoor A3.

 

Abstract

Endometriosis is a common gynecological condition, but involvement of the urinary tract is rare. Ureteral endometriosis can present in a nonspecific fashion, and may mimic ureteral malignancy. This case report describes a 44-year-old woman who initially presented with chronic flank pain and was found to have left-sided renal dysfunction and a distal left ureteric mass. She was eventually diagnosed with ureteral endometriosis after undergoing nephroureterectomy for what was thought to be either a ureteral fibroepithelial polyp or transitional cell carcinoma. Ureteral endometriosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis for a woman presenting with obstructive uropathy in the presence of a ureteric mass.

 

 

Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2016 Mar 12;18(4)

Leiomyosarcoma of the Broad Ligament With Fever Presentation: A Case Report and Review of Literature.

Chaichian S1Mehdizadehkashi A2Tahermanesh K3Moazzami B4Jesmi F4Rafiee M4Goharimoghaddam K4.

 

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

Leiomyosarcoma is a rare gynecologic malignancy that accounts for less than 1% of gynecological malignancies. Leiomyosarcoma of the broad ligament is an even rarer condition. According to Gardner’s criteria, the diagnosis is made when the mass is completely separated from the uterus and adnexa. So far, 23 cases of primary leiomyosarcoma of the broad ligament have been reported in the literature published in English.

CASE PRESENTATION:

In September 2014, a 55-year-old, gravida 3, para 3 woman with a BMI of 30 and a chief complaint of fever and dizziness was admitted to the infectious-diseases ward of the Pars general hospital affiliated with Iran University of Medical Sciences in Tehran, Iran. Her symptoms had begun two weeks before. The results of a fever workup and examination for infectious, metabolic, and immunologic problems were all negative. Imaging modalities revealed an endometrial polyp, two calcified myoma in the body of the uterus, and a solid, heterogeneous 70-mm mass in the right para-cervical space, posterior to the broad ligament, and far from the ovary. After surgery, a histologic report revealed leiomyosarcoma.

CONCLUSIONS:

Although a leiomyosarcoma of the broad ligament is rare, practitioners should consider it when dealing with masses in the region of the broad ligament. If there is any suspicion of malignancy, especially in the presence of fever, it is recommended to avoid morcellation during laparoscopy.

 

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