Pag. 18

2011 Feb 8;52(1):66-77.

Calorie restriction and aging in nonhuman primates.

Kemnitz JW.

Source

Wisconsin National Primate Research Center, 1220 Capitol Court, Madison, WI 53715-1299, USA. kemnitz@primate.wisc.edu

Abstract

In the 75 years since the seminal observation of Clive McCay that restriction of calorie intake extends the lifespan of rats, a great deal has been learned about the effects of calorie restriction (CR; reduced intake of a nutritious diet) on aging in various short-lived animal models. Studies have demonstrated many beneficial effects of CR on health, the rate of aging, and longevity. Two prospective investigations of the effects of CR on long-lived nonhuman primate (NHP) species began nearly 25 years ago and are still under way. This review presents the design, methods, and main findings of these and other important contributing studies, which have generally revealed beneficial effects of CR on physiological function and the retardation of disease consistent with studies in other species. Specifically, prolonged CR appears to extend the lifespan of rhesus monkeys, which exhibited lower body fat; slower rate of muscle loss with age; lower incidence of neoplasia, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and endometriosis; improved insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance; and no apparent adverse effect on bone health, as well as a reduction in total energy expenditure. In addition, there are no reports of deleterious effects of CR on reproductive endpoints, and brain morphology is preserved by CR. Adrenal and thyroid hormone profiles are inconsistently affected. More research is needed to delineate the mechanisms of the desirable outcomes of CR and to develop interventions that can produce similar beneficial outcomes for humans. This research offers tremendous potential for producing novel insights into aging and risk of disease.

Fertil Steril. 2011 May;95(6):2116-9. Epub 2011 Mar 16.

Histologic analysis of specimens from laparoscopic endometrioma excision performed by different surgeons: does the surgeon matter?

Muzii L, Marana R, Angioli R, Bianchi A, Cucinella G, Vignali M, Benedetti Panici P, Busacca M.

Source

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Università Campus BioMedico, Rome, Italy. l.muzii@unicampus.it

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To evaluate whether the amount of ovarian tissue inadvertently removed along with the endometrioma cyst wall at laparoscopy differs in relation to the operating surgeon’s level of expertise.

DESIGN:

Multicenter, prospective trial.

SETTING:

Four tertiary care university hospitals.

PATIENT(S):

Fifty patients, aged 25 to 40 years, with monolateral ovarian endometriomas who underwent laparoscopic excision.

INTERVENTION(S):

Operation with the stripping technique by surgeons with specific expertise in endometriosis surgery in four centers (groups A, B, C, and D) and by residents with average training in laparoscopic surgery (group E).

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S):

Histologic examination for the evaluation of the mean thickness of the cyst wall from each specimen, and the mean thickness and morphologic characteristics of any ovarian tissue removed.

RESULT(S):

No statistically significant differences were present in the rate of presence of ovarian tissue in the endometrioma wall specimens from the different groups (44%, 45%, 55%, 56%, and 60% in groups A, B, C, D, and E, respectively). For groups A+B+C+D versus group E, a statistically significant difference was found in the mean thickness of the tissue specimens (1.51 mm vs. 1.91 mm, respectively) and in the mean thickness of ovarian tissue inadvertently excised (0.49 mm vs. 0.97 mm, respectively).

CONCLUSION(S):

Level of expertise in endometriosis surgery is inversely correlated with inadvertent removal of healthy ovarian tissue along with the endometrioma capsule.

Cytotechnology. 2011 Mar;63(2):205-10. Epub 2011 Mar 16.

Lactobacillus gasseri OLL2809 inhibits development of ectopic endometrial cell in peritoneal cavity via activation of NK cells in a murine endometriosis model.

Itoh H, Sashihara T, Hosono A, Kaminogawa S, Uchida M.

Source

Food Science Institute, Division of Research and Development, Meiji Dairies Corporation, 540 Naruda, Odawara, Kanagawa, 250-0862, Japan.

Abstract

We have previously reported that peritoneal administration of interleukin-12 (IL-12) suppresses development of ectopic endometriotic lesions via activation of natural killer (NK) cells in a mouse endometriosis model. Lactobacillus gasseri OLL2809 is one of a probiotic lactobacillus that has been selected on an ability to stimulate production of IL-12 from murine splenocytes. In this study, we examined whether the oral administration of heat-killed L. gasseri OLL2809 suppressed development of endometriosis. Administration of L. gasseri OLL2809 for 21 consecutive days resulted in reduction of the development of ectopic endometriotic lesions in an extent similar to IL-12. Although obvious effects of L. gasseri OLL2809 on the peritoneal cytokine levels, population of peritoneal cells as well as cytotoxicity of splenic NK cells, gene expression analysis of the peritoneal cells revealed enhancement in the transcription of IL-2 and natural killer cell triggering receptor 1 genes. Therefore, it was suggested that L. gasseri OLL2809 suppressed development of endometriosis via activation of NK cells.

Cytotechnology. 2011 Mar;63(2):133-41. Epub 2011 Mar 15.

Interleukin-12 inhibits development of ectopic endometriotic tissues in peritoneal cavity via activation of NK cells in a murine endometriosis model.

Itoh H, Sashihara T, Hosono A, Kaminogawa S, Uchida M.

Source

Food Science Institute, Division of Research and Development, Meiji Dairies Corporation, 540 Naruda, Odawara, Kanagawa, 250-0862, Japan.

Abstract

Involvement of impaired peritoneal immunosurveillance systems has been well established in the pathology of endometriosis. On the other hand, it has been observed that peritoneal administration of IL-12 suppress development of endometriotic lesions in a mouse endometriosis model. We investigated the effect of peritoneal administration of IL-12 on the peritoneal immunosurveillance system regarding NK cells in the mouse model. Treating the endometrial-tissue challenged mice with IL-12 for 5 consecutive days, from day -2 to day 2 (implantation of the endometrial tissues was done on day 0), cytotoxicity of splenic NK cells was enhanced immediately after the administration, on day 3, and development of the endometriotic lesions was reduced on day 21. In vivo NK cell depletion by administration of anti-IL-2Rβ mAb resulted in reduction of the cytotoxicity of splenic NK cells concomitant with a significant attenuation of suppressive effect of IL-12 on development of endometriotic lesions. Therefore, it was suggested that IL-12 suppresses development of endometriotic lesions via activation of NK cells, and that NK cells are involved in the primary defense for the development of endometriotic lesions.

Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2011 Mar;1221:70-4. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2010.05933.x.

Potential cures for endometriosis.

Jacobson TZ.

Source

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Mater Mother’s Hospital, Brisbane, Australia. tal@obsgyn.co.nz

Abstract

Treatment of endometriosis usually requires highly individualized management and varies depending on the presenting symptoms and the life stage of the patient. Surgical treatment of endometriosis starts with clinical recognition of the condition that may be enhanced by narrow band imaging. Surgery is effective in pain control and enhancing fertility. Tubal ligation or salpingectomy can be considered. Robotic surgery is unlikely to create a cure, but may assist surgery. Medical treatment including aromatase inhibitors may also be effective. Tubal flushing with lipiodol increases fecundity; other immunomodulators and neuromodulators may also be effective. Complementary therapies, however, have not been subjected to randomized clinical trials. Environmental factors, diet, and lifestyle modification may be effective.

Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2011 Mar;1221:61-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2011.05951.x.

Ultrasonographic staging: a new staging system for deep endometriosis.

Coccia ME, Rizzello F.

Source

Department of Science for the Health of Woman and Child, University of Florence, Florence, Italy. cocciame@tin.it

Abstract

Modern imaging techniques allow for the noninvasive diagnosis of endometriosis. Preoperative staging of pelvic endometriosis helps the gynecologist plan therapy and offer a prognosis to patients. The challenge of creating a satisfactory classification of endometriosis remains. The ability of the current classification schemes to predict pregnancy outcome, or aid in the management of pelvic pain, is recognized to be inadequate. The study of deeply infiltrating endometriosis and adenomyosis is greatly hampered by a lack of clear terminology and the absence of a consensus classification of the lesions. A reviewed consensus classification of endometriosis in general, with a more detailed consideration on deep endometriosis, is urgently required. We suggest a new staging system for deep, infiltrating endometriosis based on ultrasonographic findings. Prospective data collection and review in large centers may provide a larger clinical base from which to derive empirical point scores and breakpoints in the classification scheme.

Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2011 Mar;1221:10-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2011.05969.x.

Stem cells in endometrium and their role in the pathogenesis of endometriosis.

Figueira PG, Abrão MS, Krikun G, Taylor HS.

Source

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sao Paulo University, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Erratum in

  • Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2011 May;1226(1):52. Taylor, Hugh [corrected to Taylor, Hugh S].

Abstract

The human endometrium is a dynamic tissue that undergoes cycles of growth and regression with each menstrual cycle. Adult progenitor stem cells are likely responsible for this remarkable regenerative capacity; these same progenitor stem cells may also have an enhanced capacity to generate endometriosis if shed in a retrograde fashion. The progenitor stem cells reside in the uterus; however, less-committed mesenchymal stem cells may also travel from other tissues such as bone marrow to repopulate the progenitor population. Mesenchymal stem cells are also involved in the pathogenesis of endometriosis and may be the principle source of endometriosis outside of the peritoneal cavity when they differentiate into endometriosis in ectopic locations. Finally, besides progenitor stem cells, recent publications have identified multipotent stem cells in the endometrium. These multipotent stem cells are a readily available source of cells that are useful in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Endometrial stem cells have been used to generate chondrocytes, myocytes, neurons, and adiposites in vitro as well as to replace dopaminergic neurons in a murine model of Parkinson’s disease.

J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2011 Jul;125(3-5):231-42. Epub 2011 Mar 21.

Novel estrogen-related genes and potential biomarkers of ovarian endometriosis identified by differential expression analysis.

Vouk K, Smuc T, Guggenberger C, Ribič-Pucelj M, Sinkovec J, Husen B, Thole H, Houba P, Thaete C, Adamski J, Rižner TL.

Source

Institute of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Vrazov trg, 2, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Abstract

In the search for novel biomarkers of endometriosis, we selected 152 genes from the GeneLogic database based on results of genome-wide expression analysis of ovarian endometriosis, plus 20 genes related to estrogen metabolism and action. We then performed low-density array analysis of these 172 genes on 11 ovarian endometriosis samples and 9 control endometrium samples. Principal component analysis of the gene expression levels showed clear separation between the endometriosis and control groups. We identified 78 genes as differentially expressed. Based on Ingenuity pathway analysis, these differentially expressed genes were arranged into groups according to biological function. These analyses revealed that 32 differentially expressed genes are estrogen related, 23 of which have not been reported previously in connection with endometriosis. Functional annotation showed that 25 and 22 genes are associated with the biological terms “secreted” and “extracellular region”, respectively. Differential expression of 4 out of 5 genes related to estrogen metabolism and action (ESR1, ESR2, PGR and BGN) was also confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Our study thus reveals differential expression of several genes that have not previously been associated with endometriosis and that encode potential novel biomarkers and drug targets.

Ginekol Pol. 2010 Dec;81(12):922-5.

Total oxidative status of peritoneal fluid in women with endometriosis.

[Article in Polish]

Polak G, Kotarski J.

Source

Katedra i Klinika Ginekologii Onkologicznej i Ginekologii Uniwersytetu Medycznego w Lublinie. polakg@yahoo.com

Abstract

Pathophysiology of endometriosis remains enigmatic despite extensive investigations. Accumulating data suggest that oxidative stress in the peritoneal cavity may be implicated in the pathogenesis of endometriosis.

AIM:

The aim of our study was to evaluate the oxidative status of peritoneal fluid (PF) in women with and without endometriosis.

MATERIAL AND METHODS:

Sixty-five women participated in the study 40 women with endometriosis constituted the study group and 25 patients with functional follicle ovarian cysts comprised the reference group. Total oxidative status of PF was determined using a commercially available colorimetric assay kit (Immundiagnostic AG, Cat. nr. KC5100).

RESULTS:

Women with endometriosis had significantly higher PF oxidative status compared to women with follicle ovarian cysts. No significant difference in the peritoneal oxidative status was found between patients with stage I/II endometriosis, and women with stage III/IV endometriotic disease.

CONCLUSIONS:

Disrupted oxidative status in the peritoneal cavity of women with endometriosis plays a role in the pathogenesis of the disease.

Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2011 Jan-Mar;54(1):232-4.

Extrauterine primary peritoneal endometriosis associated tumor of rectosigmoid.

Bhargava S, Kothari V.

Fertil Steril. 2011 May;95(6):1903-8. Epub 2011 Mar 10.

Fertility after colorectal resection for endometriosis: results of a prospective study comparing laparoscopy with open surgery.

Daraï E, Lesieur B, Dubernard G, Rouzier R, Bazot M, Ballester M.

Source

Service de Gynécologie-Obstétrique, Hôpital Tenon, Assistance Publique des Hôpitaux de Paris, CancerEst, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France. emile.darai@tnn.aphp.fr

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To determine whether the surgical route of colorectal resection for endometriosis is a determinant factor for fertility.

DESIGN:

Prospective study.

SETTING:

Tertiary-care university hospital.

PATIENT(S):

Fifty-two patients with endometriosis were randomly assigned to laparoscopic or open surgery.

INTERVENTION(S):

Laparoscopically assisted vs. open colorectal resection.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S):

Evaluation of fertility outcomes spontaneously and after assisted reproductive therapy.

RESULT(S):

The mean follow-up was 29 months. Among the 28 patients wishing to conceive, 11 (39.3%) became pregnant. Overall cumulative pregnancy rate at 52 months for these patients was 45.1%. For patients with or without infertility, the cumulative pregnancy rate was 37.6% and 55.6%, respectively, and the cumulative spontaneous pregnancy rate 13.3% and 36.5%, respectively. All the spontaneous pregnancies were observed in the laparoscopy group.

CONCLUSION(S):

This study demonstrates that spontaneous pregnancy is more frequent after laparoscopy compared with open surgery for colorectal endometriosis.

Fertil Steril. 2011 Jun 30;95(8):2477-80. Epub 2011 Mar 10.

T helper (Th)1, Th2, and Th17 interleukin pathways in infertile patients with minimal/mild endometriosis.

Andreoli CG, Genro VK, Souza CA, Michelon T, Bilibio JP, Scheffel C, Cunha-Filho JS.

Source

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Médicas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil.

Abstract

In the present study, interleukin (IL)-10, IL-12, IL-17, and IL-23 levels were measured in serum and peritoneal fluid of women with minimal or mild endometriosis and compared with levels in controls without endometriosis. Higher IL-23 levels were encountered in the peritoneal fluid of women with endometriosis, suggesting a possible role of this cytokine in these women’s infertility.

Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2011 Mar 8;9:30.

Accumulation of nerve growth factor and its receptors in the uterus and dorsal root ganglia in a mouse model of adenomyosis.

Li Y, Zhang SF, Zou SE, Xia X, Bao L.

Source

Department of Gynaecology, Obstetrics and Gynaecology Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200011, PR China.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Adenomyosis is a common gynecological disease, which is accompanied by a series of immunological and neuroendocrinological changes. Nerve growth factor (NGF) plays a critical role in producing pain, neural plasticity, immunocyte aggregation and release of inflammatory factors. This study aimed to investigate the expression of NGF and its two receptors in uteri and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) in an adenomyosis mouse model, as well as their relationship with the severity of adenomyosis.

METHODS:

Forty newborn ICR mice were randomly divided into the adenomyosis model group and control group (n = 20 in each group). Mice in the adenomyosis model group were orally dosed with 2.7 μmol/kg tamoxifen on days 2-5 after birth. Experiments were conducted to identify the expression of NGF- beta and its receptors, tyrosine kinase receptor (trkA) and p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR), in the uterus and DRG in four age groups (90+/-5 d, 140+/-5 d, 190+/-5 d and 240+/-5 d; n = 5 mice in each group) by western bolt, immunochemistry and real time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.

RESULTS:

Adenomyosis, which became more serious as age increased, was successfully induced in dosed ICR mice. NGF-beta, trkA and p75NTR protein levels in the uterus and trkA mRNA levels in DRG were higher in the older aged adenomyosis model group than those in controls (190+/-5 d and 240+/-5 d groups, P < 0.05). The expression of NGF-beta and its receptors in the uterus increased gradually as age increased for adenomyosis mice (190+/-5 d and 240+/-5 d, P < 0.05, compared with 90+/-5 d) but it showed little change in control mice. The mRNA level of trkA in DRG also increased as age increased in the adenomyosis model group (190+/-5 d and 240+/-5 d, P < 0.05, compared with 90+/-5 d) but was unchanged in controls. The mRNA level of p75NTR in DRG was not different between the adenomyosis and control groups and was stable from young to old mice.

CONCLUSIONS:

NGF- beta can be used as an indicator for the severity of adenomyosis. The gradually increasing level of NGF- beta and its receptors while the disease becomes more severe suggests an effect of NGF- beta on pathogenic mechanisms of adenomyosis.

J Endocrinol. 2011 Mar 7. [Epub ahead of print]

The role of microRNAs and FOXO transcription factors in cycling endometrium and cancer.

Lam EW, Shah K, Brosens J.

Source

E Lam, Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, London W12 0NN, United Kingdom.

Abstract

The rise and fall in ovarian estrogen and progesterone production orchestrates a series of events that are indispensable for reproduction, including ovulation, implantation, decidualisation and menstruation. In the uterus, these events involve extensive tissue remodelling, characterised by waves of endometrial cell proliferation, differentiation, recruitment of inflammatory cells, apoptosis, tissue breakdown, menstruation and regeneration. The ability of ovarian hormones to trigger such diverse physiological responses is foremost dependent upon interaction of activated steroid receptors with specific transcription factors, such FOXO proteins, involved in cell fate decisions. Furthermore, microRNAs, small non-coding RNAs that function as posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression, have emerged as a major regulator system of steroid hormone responses in the female reproductive tract. Consequently, increasing evidence shows that deregulated uterine microRNA expression underpins a spectrum of common reproductive disorders, ranging from implantation failure to endometriosis. Furthermore, by targeting FOXO transcription factors and other key regulators of tissue homeostasis, oncogenic endometrial microRNAs promote tumorigenesis and cancer progression.

J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2011 Apr;22(4):497-502. Epub 2011 Mar 5.

Uterine artery embolization for symptomatic adenomyosis: a new technical development of the 1-2-3 protocol and predictive factors of MR imaging affecting outcomes.

Kim MD, Kim YM, Kim HC, Cho JH, Kang HG, Lee C, Kim HJ, Lee JT.

Source

Department of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of a new embolization technique named the 1-2-3 protocol to achieve complete necrosis of adenomyosis after uterine artery embolization (UAE) and to determine predictive factors on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

A total of 40 patients with adenomyosis without leiomyomas diagnosed on MR imaging were prospectively enrolled. They were subdivided into three categories based on MR signal intensity (SI) of the adenomyosis on T2-weighted imaging: dark, low, and heterogeneous SI or SI equal to that of the myometrium. Nonspherical polyvinyl alcohol particles were used in all cases, beginning with 150-250-μm particles and progressively increasing to 250-355-μm and then 355-500-μm particles to the endpoint. Patients were assessed for extent of devascularization on MR imaging and for durability of symptom control.

RESULTS:

Of the 40 patients who underwent UAE for adenomyosis with the 1-2-3 protocol, 33 (82.5%) exhibited complete necrosis of adenomyosis. All six patients with dark SI of adenomyosis exhibited complete necrosis (100%). Of the 28 patients with low SI of adenomyosis, 25 (89.3%) showed complete necrosis. Among the six patients with heterogenous SI or SI equal to that of myometrium, only two (33.3%) showed complete necrosis (P < .01). Of 16 patients with complete necrosis followed up to 18 months, none reported recurrent menorrhagia. Of the five patients without necrosis, only one had no symptoms at 18 months.

CONCLUSIONS:

UAE with the 1-2-3 protocol is safe and highly effective to achieve complete necrosis of adenomyosis. Dark SI of adenomyosis is the most favorable predictive factor for UAE on MR imaging, followed by low SI. Heterogenous SI or SI equal to that of the myometrium is an unfavorable predictive factor.

Fertil Steril. 2011 Jun;95(7):2433.e5-8. Epub 2011 Mar 5.

A novel approach to cervical reconstruction using vaginal mucosa-lined polytetrafluoroethylene graft in congenital agenesis of the cervix.

Nguyen DH, Lee CL, Wu KY, Cheng MH.

Source

Division of Reconstructive Microsurgery, Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To report a novel technique for cervical reconstruction in a patient with congenital agenesis of the cervix.

DESIGN:

Case report.

SETTING:

University-based tertiary care hospital.

PATIENT(S):

A woman with congenital absence of the cervix, functional vagina, and adenomyosis uteri.

INTERVENTION(S):

Laparoscopic-assisted creation of an uterovaginal fistula followed by placement of a polytetrafluoroethylene graft lined with vaginal mucosa graft to create the neocervix.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S):

Follow-up examinations with the hysteroscope confirmed unobstructed menstrual outflow through the patent neocervix.

RESULT(S):

The neocervix was completely mucosalized on the inner surface by 12 days postoperatively. The patient had return of menstrual bleeding at 4 weeks postoperatively. She has resumed normal sexual activities and had maintained regular menstrual cycles at the 6-month clinical follow-up. There were no complications related to the graft.

CONCLUSION(S):

Prosthetic reconstruction of the cervix using vaginal mucosa-lined polytetrafluoroethylene is easy to perform and effective. It offers an alternative treatment option for patients with cervical agenesis to preserve their reproductive potential.

Steroids. 2011 May;76(6):607-15. Epub 2011 Mar 3.

Selectivity and potency of the retroprogesterone dydrogesterone in vitro.

Rižner TL, Brožič P, Doucette C, Turek-Etienne T, Müller-Vieira U, Sonneveld E, van der Burg B, Böcker C, Husen B.

Source

Institute of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Vrazov trg 2, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Abstract

Dydrogesterone is widely used for menstrual disorders, endometriosis, threatened and habitual abortion and postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy. Although progestins have a promiscuous nature, dydrogesterone does not have clinically relevant androgenic, estrogenic, glucocorticoid or mineralocorticoid activities. To date, systematic biochemical characterization of this progestin and its active main metabolite, 20α-dihydrodydrogesterone, has not been performed in comparison to progesterone. The objective of this study was to evaluate the selectivity and potential androgenic/antiandrogenic effects of dydrogesterone and its metabolite in comparison to progesterone and medroxyprogesterone acetate by analyzing their interference with AR signaling in vitro. We characterized dydrogesterone and its metabolite for their binding and transactivation of androgen and other steroid hormone receptors and for their potential inhibitory effects against androgen biosynthetic enzymes, 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase types 3 and 5 and 5α-reductase types 1 and 2. We found that dydrogesterone resembled progesterone mainly in its progestogenic effects and less in its androgenic, anti-androgenic, glucocorticoid and antiglucocorticoid effects; whereas, 20α-dihydrodydrogesterone showed reduced progestogenic potency with no androgenic, glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid effects. Effects on the androgen and glucocorticoid receptor differed depending on the technology used to investigate transactivation. Progesterone, but not dydrogesterone and 20α-dihydrodydrogesterone, exerted anti-androgenic effects at the pre-receptor level by inhibiting 5α-reductase type 2. Dydrogesterone, 20α-dihydrodydrogesterone and progesterone inhibited the biosynthesis of testosterone catalyzed by 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase types 3 and 5; however, due to their micromolar K(i) values, these activities appeared to be not of relevance at therapeutic levels. Overall, our data show that the anti-androgenic potential of dydrogesterone and 20α-dihydrodydrogesterone is less pronounced compared to progesterone.

Am Surg. 2010 Nov;76(11):E206-7.

Abdominal wall reconstruction with Alloderm® in a patient with a massive endometrioma.

Rueda S, Mohan R, Miller S, Iyer R, Armstrong M, Spector S.

Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2011 Mar 3. doi: 10.1002/uog.8985. [Epub ahead of print]

A case of polypoïd endometriosis of the bladder during pregnancy mimicking urachal carcinoma.

Lambrechts S, Van Calsteren K, Capoen A, Op de Beeck K, Joniau S, Timmerman D, Amant F.

Source

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, UZ Leuven, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Abstract

We report a case of polypoid bladder endometriosis in pregnancy. Diagnostic workup showed a vesico-uterine well-vascularised polypoid mass, suspicious for malignancy. During pregnancy, the mass was surgically resected with safe oncological margins. Pathological examination of the resected specimen revealed pseudotumoral polypoid endometriosis of the bladder. We illustrate diagnostic pitfalls in the differentiation between bladder endometriosis during pregnancy and malignancy. Due to pregnancy related decidualization of vesical endometriosis differentiation between this rare occurrence and malignant transformation is challenging. Copyright © 2011 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Br J Pharmacol. 2011 Jun;163(4):835-44. doi: 10.1111/j.1476-5381.2011.01292.x.

In vitro and in vivo evaluation of the anti-angiogenic actions of 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol.

Laschke MW, Vorsterman van Oijen AE, Scheuer C, Menger MD.

Source

Institute for Clinical & Experimental Surgery, University of Saarland, Homburg/Saar, Germany. matthias.laschke@uniklinik-saarland.de

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

4-Hydroxybenzyl alcohol (HBA) is a phenolic plant compound, which has been shown to influence many cellular mechanisms. In the present study, we analysed in vitro and in vivo the anti-angiogenic actions of this pleiotropic agent.

EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH:

Migration and protein expression of HBA- and vehicle-treated endothelial-like eEND2 cells was assessed by cell migration assay and Western blot analyses. HBA action on vascular sprouting was analysed in an aortic ring assay. In vivo anti-angiogenic actions of HBA were studied in the dorsal skinfold chamber model of endometriosis in mice.

KEY RESULTS:

Western blot analyses demonstrated that HBA inhibited proliferation of eEND2 cells, as indicated by down-regulation of proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression, and reduced expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and matrix metalloproteinase 9. HBA suppressed the migration of eEND2 cells, accompanied by inhibition of actin filament reorganization, revealed by fluorescence staining of the cytoskeleton. In addition, HBA reduced vascular sprouting in the aortic ring assay. Finally, we found, in the dorsal skinfold chamber model in vivo using intravital fluorescence microscopy, that HBA inhibited the vascularization of developing endometriotic lesions, as indicated by a decreased functional capillary density of lesions in HBA-treated mice and a reduced lesion size, compared with control animals.

CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:

HBA targets several angiogenic mechanisms and therefore represents a promising anti-angiogenic agent for the treatment of angiogenic diseases, such as endometriosis.

 

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