Pag. 3

 

Gastrointest Endosc. 2012 Jun 23. [Epub ahead of print]

Unintended endoscopic appendectomy of an endometriosis-induced intussuscepted appendix presenting as a sessile cecal polyp.

Lopez-Roman O, Cruz-Corea M, Toro DH, Gonzalez-Keelan C.

Source

Department of Gastroenterology, Veterans Affairs Caribbean Health Care System, San Juan, Puerto Rico.

Fertil Steril. 2012 Jun 22. [Epub ahead of print]

Is early age at menarche a risk factor for endometriosis? A systematic review and meta-analysis of case-control studies.

Nnoaham KE, Webster P, Kumbang J, Kennedy SH, Zondervan KT.

Source

Department of Public Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom; Nuffield Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To review published studies evaluating early menarche and the risk of endometriosis.

DESIGN:

Systematic review and meta-analysis of case-control studies.

SETTING:

None.

PATIENT(S):

Eighteen case-control studies of age at menarche and risk of endometriosis including 3,805 women with endometriosis and 9,526 controls.

INTERVENTION(S):

None.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S):

Medline and Embase databases were searched from 1980 to 2011 to locate relevant studies. Results of primary studies were expressed as effect sizes of the difference in mean age at menarche of women with and without endometriosis. Effect sizes were used in random effects meta-analysis.

RESULT(S):

Eighteen of 45 articles retrieved met the inclusion criteria. The pooled effect size in meta-analysis was 0.10 (95% confidence interval -0.01-0.21), and not significantly different from zero (no effect). Results were influenced by substantial heterogeneity between studies (I(2) = 72.5%), which was eliminated by restricting meta-analysis to studies with more rigorous control of confounders; this increased the pooled effect size to 0.15 (95% confidence interval 0.08-0.22), which was significantly different from zero. This represents a probability of 55% that a woman with endometriosis had earlier menarche than one without endometriosis if both were randomly chosen from a population.

CONCLUSION(S):

There is a small increased risk of endometriosis with early menarche. The potential for disease misclassification in primary studies suggests that this risk could be higher.

Neurocirugia (Astur). 2012 Jun 22. [Epub ahead of print]

Sciatica secondary to extrapelvic endometriosis affecting the piriformis muscle. Case report.

[Article in Spanish]

Domínguez-Páez M, de Miguel-Pueyo LS, Medina-Imbroda JM, González-García L, Moreno-Ramírez V, Martín-Gallego A, Socolovsky M, Arráez-Sánchez MA.

Source

Servicio de Neurocirugía, Hospital Regional Universitario Carlos Haya, Málaga, España.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

We present a case report of symptomatic compression of the right sciatic nerve notch, secondary to piriformis muscle endometriosis, as well as a literature review.

MATERIAL AND METHODS:

We report the case of a 29-year-old woman with 2-year evolution of right chronic sciatica. During the first year, symptoms were episodic and associated with menstruation. During the second year, sciatica was constant and associated with gait disorder due to sciatic musculature weakness. Mononeuropathy was proved by a neurophysiological study, with MRI and PET studies revealing a mass in the sciatic notch and regional pathological increase in metabolic activity. Surgical treatment was performed in order to release the nerve and obtain a histological sample.

RESULTS:

The patient was treated by a transgluteal approach, with external neurolysis of the sciatic nerve and resection of an old-blood cyst at the level of the piriformis muscle. This was subsequently reported as endometriosis by histological examination. The sciatica was resolved after surgery.

CONCLUSIONS:

Extrapelvic sciatic nerve compression by adjacent endometriosis is very infrequent. Muscle denervation and lack of a histological diagnosis led to surgical exploration of the compression area in order to release the nerve, resect the cause of compression and obtain a definitive diagnosis. The procedure improved all symptoms.

Reprod Sci. 2012 Jun 22. [Epub ahead of print]

EMMPRIN Is Secreted by Human Uterine Epithelial Cells in Microvesicles and Stimulates Metalloproteinase Production by Human Uterine Fibroblast Cells.

Braundmeier AG, Dayger CA, Mehotra P, Belton RJ Jr, Nowak RA.

Abstract

Endometrial remodeling is a physiological process involved in the gynecological disease, endometriosis. Tissue remodeling is directed by uterine fibroblast production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Several MMPs are regulated directly by the protein extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) and also by proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)1-α/β. We hypothesized that human uterine epithelial cells (HESs) secrete intact EMMPRIN to stimulate MMPs. Microvesicles from HES cell-conditioned medium (CM) expressed intact EMMPRIN protein. Treatment of HES cells with estradiol or phorbyl 12-myristate-13-acetate increased the release of EMMPRIN-containing microvesicles. The HES CM stimulated MMP-1, -2, and -3 messenger RNA levels in human uterine fibroblasts (HUFs) and EMMPRIN immunodepletion from HES-cell concentrated CM reduced MMP stimulation (P < .05). Treatment of HUF cells with low concentrations of IL-1β/α stimulated MMP production (P < .05). These results indicate that HES cells regulate MMP production by HUF cells by secretion of EMMPRIN, in response to ovarian hormones, proinflammatory cytokines as well as activation of protein kinase C.

Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 2012 Jun 21. [Epub ahead of print]

Clinical outcome after laparoscopic radical excision of endometriosis and laparoscopic segmental bowel resection.

Meuleman C, Tomassetti C, D’Hooghe TM.

Source

Leuven University Fertility Center, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Abstract

PURPOSE OF REVIEW:

To present the clinical outcome after laparoscopic radical excision of deeply infiltrative endometriosis (DIE) with colorectal extension and laparoscopic segmental bowel resection.

RECENT FINDINGS:

In three different studies including mostly patients with recurrent DIE with colorectal extension, we showed that radical reconstructive CO2 laser laparoscopic resection of DIE with colorectal extension in a multidisciplinary setting resulted in a low complication rate, a low cumulative reintervention and recurrence rate and a high cumulative pregnancy rate, also when bowel resection reanastomosis was performed. In a systematic review to assess the clinical outcome of surgical treatment of DIE with colorectal involvement, data were reported in such a way that comparison of different surgical techniques was not possible. A checklist is proposed to achieve standardized reporting of presenting symptoms, preoperative tests, inclusion criteria, preoperative and postoperative care, complications, follow-up, patient-centered assessment of pain and quality of life, fertility and recurrence corrected for postoperative use of hormonal suppression or infertility treatment.

SUMMARY:

CO2 laser laparoscopic radical excision of DIE with colorectal extension and laparoscopic segmental bowel resection in centers of expertise is associated with good clinical outcome. To make real progress, international agreement is needed on terms and definitions used in surgical endometriosis research.

Gynecol Obstet Invest. 2012 Jun 21. [Epub ahead of print]

Postoperative Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate versus Continuous Oral Contraceptive Pills in the Treatment of Endometriosis-Associated Pain: A Randomized Comparative Trial.

Cheewadhanaraks S, Choksuchat C, Dhanaworavibul K, Liabsuetrakul T.

Source

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Thailand.

Abstract

Background/Aim: To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of postoperative depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) versus postoperative continuous oral contraceptive (OC) pills in the treatment of endometriosis-associated pain. Methods: After a conservative surgery, 84 patients with symptomatic endometriosis were randomized to receive either intramuscular DMPA (150 mg) every 12 weeks for 24 weeks or continuous OC pills (ethinyl estradiol 0.03 mg and gestodene 0.075 mg) daily for 24 weeks. At weeks 12 and 24 of the treatment phase, patients rated their satisfaction with treatment and reported pain improvement and adverse effects. Results: There was no significant difference in the percentages of patients who reported satisfaction between the DMPA group and the OC group at weeks 12 and 24 (92.9 vs. 90.5%, and 92.9 vs. 88.1%, respectively). The rates of withdrawal because of persistent pain or side effects in the two groups were similar. Pain scores improved significantly in both groups, but dysmenorrhea scores on a visual analog scale at week 24 were significantly higher in the OC group than in the DMPA group (p = 0.039). Conclusion: Both postoperative DMPA and postoperative OC pills for 24 weeks were found to be effective and acceptable options for treating endometriosis-associated pain.

Ann Ital Chir. 2012 Jun 20. pii: S0003469X12018891. [Epub ahead of print]

Rectus abdominis muscle endometriosis Report of two cases and review of the literature.

Calò PG, Ambu R, Medas F, Longheu A, Pisano G, Nicolosi A.

Abstract

Endometriosis involving the rectus abdominis muscle is very rare; until now, only 19 such cases have been reported in the medical literature since it was first described in 1984 by Amato and Levitt; almost all were associated with previous abdominal surgery such as cesarean section or other operations. We report two additional cases of this very rare condition presenting with an abdominal mass which was surgically excised with an accompanying margin of normal tissue. Both patients are well and without recurrence. Endometriosis pain has generally been described as cyclical and this condition usually develops in an old surgical scar. Endometriosis has no pathognomonic imaging findings on CT, MRI or sonography, as its appearance depends on the phase of the menstrual cycle, the proportion of stromal and glandular elements, the amount of bleeding and the degree of surrounding inflammatory and fibrotic response. Surgery is the treatment of choice including 5-10 mm of surrounding healthy tissue as surgical margin, to prevent recurrence. Our experience is in agreement with the data of the literature. We suggest that endometriosis must be included in the differential diagnosis of a symptomatic mass in the abdominal wall in women with and without a surgical history. Key words: Endometriosis, Rectus abdominis muscle, Surgery.

J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris). 2012 Jun 20. [Epub ahead of print]

Contribution of robot-assisted surgery in the management of female infertility.

[Article in French]

Muhlstein J, Monceau E, Lamy C, Tran N, Marchal F, Judlin P, Malartic C, Morel O.

Source

Pôle de gynécologie-obstétrique et reproduction, maternité régionale Adolphe-Pinard, 10, rue du Dr.-Heydenreich, CS 74213, 54042 Nancy cedex, France.

Abstract

Although considerable progresses were made in the field of medically assisted procreation, surgery keeps its place in the therapeutic armamentarium of female infertility. Indeed, its results are very interesting, both in its tubal, myometrial and endometriosis indications. Laparotomy is the first step in the development of any surgical technique. Laparoscopy brings benefits concerning recovery, but also in terms of fertility because of the reduction of postoperative adhesions. Nevertheless, comfort of the surgeon, so the ease of skills, are often altered, especially for complex operations such as those implicated in infertility treatment. Robot-assistance takes here all its interest. It allows indeed a quality in the realization of precise and complex skills, and results at least as interesting as standard laparoscopy can be provided. An overview of robot-assistance in surgery of female infertility is here presented. A review of world literature furnished multiple studies evaluating the tubal robotic surgery, and demonstrating its interesting results. Other indications could, according to us, emerge and be evaluated in this area, such as myomectomy and endometriosis surgery.

Am J Pathol. 2012 Jun 19. [Epub ahead of print]

Thrombospondin-1 Mimetic Peptide ABT-898 Affects Neovascularization and Survival of Human Endometriotic Lesions in a Mouse Model.

Nakamura DS, Edwards AK, Virani S, Thomas R, Tayade C.

Source

Department of Biomedical and Molecular Sciences, Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada.

Abstract

Endometriosis is a common cause of pelvic pain and infertility in women, and a common indication for hysterectomy, yet the disease remains poorly diagnosed and ineffectively treated. Because endometriotic lesions require new blood supply for survival, inhibiting angiogenesis could provide a novel therapeutic strategy. ABT-898 mimics the antiangiogenic properties of thrombospondin-1, so we hypothesized that ABT-898 will prevent neovascularization of human endometriotic lesions and that ABT-898 treatment will not affect reproductive outcomes in a mouse model. Endometriosis was induced in BALB/c-Rag2(-/-)Il2rg(-/-) mice by surgical implantation of human endometrial fragments in the peritoneal cavity. Mice received daily injections of ABT-898 for 21 days. Flow cytometry was performed to measure circulating endothelial progenitor cells (CEPCs) in peripheral blood. Cytokines were measured in plasma samples. Half of the ABT-898-treated and control mice were euthanized to assess neovascularization of endometriotic lesions, using CD31(+) immunofluorescence. The remaining mice were mated and euthanized at gestation day 12. Endometriotic lesions increased CEPCs in circulation 13 days after engraftment, relative to baseline. Endometriotic lesions from ABT-898-treated mice exhibited reduced neovascularization, compared with controls, and lesions had fewer CD31(+) microvessels. Chronic treatment with ABT-898 did not lead to any birth anomalies or affect litter size at gestation day 12, compared with controls. Our results suggest that ABT-898 inhibits neovascularization of human endometriotic lesions without affecting mouse fecundity.

Fertil Steril. 2012 Jun 19. [Epub ahead of print]

Proteomic identification of neurotrophins in the eutopic endometrium of women with endometriosis.

Browne AS, Yu J, Huang RP, Francisco AM, Sidell N, Taylor RN.

Source

Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To evaluate neurotrophin (NT) expression in the endometrium of women with and without endometriosis.

DESIGN:

Prospective, cross-sectional, translational study.

SETTING:

Academic hospital.

PATIENT(S):

Thirty-three reproductive-age women undergoing laparoscopy for infertility, pelvic pain, intramural fibroids, or tubal ligation.

INTERVENTION(S):

Endometrial biopsies, protein microarrays, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, ELISAs, and Western blotting.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S):

Neurotrophin proteins and mRNAs in eutopic endometrial biopsies.

RESULT(S):

Among seven neurotrophic proteins detected on the antibody microarrays, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis confirmed nerve growth factor, NT-4/5, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNAs in endometrial tissue. Quantitative ELISAs revealed that NT-4/5 (806 ± 701 vs. 256 ± 190 pg/100 mg protein) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (121 ± 97 vs. 14 ± 11 ng/100 mg protein) concentrations were significantly higher in women with endometriosis. Nerve growth factor (100 ± 74 vs. 93 ± 83 pg/100 mg protein) levels did not differ between cases and controls.

CONCLUSION(S):

Neurotrophins are synthesized in situ within the endometrium. NT-4/5 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor proteins were more concentrated in biopsies from endometriosis cases than controls, whereas nerve growth factor levels were similar. We hypothesize that the local production of NTs induces sensory innervation of endometrium of women with endometriosis. These NTs represent novel targets for the diagnosis and treatment of endometriosis.

Hum Reprod Update. 2012 Jun 19. [Epub ahead of print]

Anti-angiogenic treatment strategies for the therapy of endometriosis.

Laschke MW, Menger MD.

Source

Institute for Clinical & Experimental Surgery, University of Saarland, D-66421 Homburg/Saar, Germany.

Abstract

BACKGROUNDAngiogenesis, i.e. the development of new blood vessels from pre-existing ones, represents an integral part in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. During the last decade, an increasing number of studies have therefore focused on the anti-angiogenic treatment of the disease. The present review provides a systematic overview of these studies and critically discusses the future role of anti-angiogenic therapy in the multimodal management of endometriosis.METHODSLiterature searches were performed in PubMed, MEDLINE and ISI Web of Knowledge for original articles published before the end of March 2012, written in the English language and focusing on anti-angiogenic approaches for the therapy of endometriosis. The searches included both animal and human studies.RESULTSNumerous compounds of different substance groups have been shown to exert anti-angiogenic effects on endometriotic lesions under experimental in vitro and in vivo conditions. These include growth factor inhibitors, endogenous angiogenesis inhibitors, fumagillin analogues, statins, cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors, phytochemical compounds, immunomodulators, dopamine agonists, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists, progestins, danazol and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists. However, clinical evidence for their efficacy in anti-angiogenic endometriosis therapy is still lacking.CONCLUSIONSAnti-angiogenic compounds hold great promise for the future treatment of endometriosis because they may inhibit the establishment of new endometriotic lesions in early stages of the disease or after surgical treatment. Further experimental studies, controlled clinical trials in particular, are required now to clarify which compounds fulfil these expectations without inducing severe side effects in patients with endometriosis.

Endocrinology. 2012 Jun 14. [Epub ahead of print]

Role of Estrogen Receptor Signaling Required for Endometriosis-Like Lesion Establishment in a Mouse Model.

Burns KA, Rodriguez KF, Hewitt SC, Janardhan KS, Young SL, Korach KS.

Source

Receptor Biology Section (K.A.B., K.F.R., S.C.H., K.S.K.), Laboratory of Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology, and Comparative and Molecular Pathology Branch (K.S.J.), National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, and Integrated Laboratory Systems, Inc. (K.S.J.), research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709; and Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology (S.L.Y.), Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599.

Abstract

Endometriosis results from ectopic invasion of endometrial tissue within the peritoneal cavity. Aberrant levels of the estrogen receptor (ER), ERα and ERβ, and higher incidence of autoimmune disorders are observed in women with endometriosis. An immunocompetent mouse model of endometriosis was used in which minced uterine tissue from a donor was dispersed into the peritoneal cavity of a recipient. Wild-type (WT), ERα-knockout (αERKO), and βERKO mice were donors or recipients to investigate the roles of ERα, ERβ, and estradiol-mediated signaling on endometriosis-like disease. Mice were treated with vehicle or estradiol, and resulting location, number, and size of endometriosis-like lesions were assessed. In comparison with WT lesions in WT hosts, αERKO lesions in WT hosts were smaller and fewer in number. The effect of ER status and estradiol treatment on nuclear receptor status, proliferation, organization, and inflammation within lesions were examined. αERKO lesions in WT hosts did not form distal to the incision site, respond to estradiol, or proliferate but did have increased inflammation. WT lesions in αERKO hosts did respond to estradiol, proliferate, and show decreased inflammation with treatment, but surprisingly, progesterone receptor expression and localization remained unchanged. Only minor differences were observed between WT lesions in βERKO hosts and βERKO lesions in WT hosts, demonstrating the estradiol-mediated signaling responses are predominately through ERα. In sum, these results suggest ER in both endometriosis-like lesions and their environment influence lesion characteristics, and understanding these interactions may play a critical role in elucidating this enigmatic disease.

Fertil Steril. 2012 Jun 14. [Epub ahead of print]

Endometriosis and infertility: a committee opinion.

The Practice Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine.

Source

American Society for Reproductive Medicine, Birmingham, Alabama.

Abstract

Women with endometriosis typically present with pelvic pain, infertility, or an adnexal mass, and may require surgery. Treatment of endometriosis in the setting of infertility raises a number of complex clinical questions that do not have simple answers. This document replaces the 2006 ASRM Practice Committee document of the same name.

Fertil Steril. 2012 Jun 14. [Epub ahead of print]

Can we finally move away from the surgical diagnosis of endometriosis?

Moragianni VA.

Source

Division of Reproductive Endocrinology & Infertility, Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

J Assist Reprod Genet. 2012 Jun 14. [Epub ahead of print]

Ectopic pregnancy after IVF in a patient with unilateral agenesis of the fallopian tube and ovary and with endometriosis: search of the literature for these associations.

Vaiarelli A, Luk J, Patrizio P.

Source

Yale University Fertility Center, New Haven, CT, USA.

Hum Reprod. 2012 Jun 12. [Epub ahead of print]

The value of MRI in assessing parametrial involvement in endometriosis.

Bazot M, Jarboui L, Ballester M, Touboul C, Thomassin-Naggara I, Daraï E.

Source

Department of Radiology, University Hospitals, Est Parisien, Tenon Hospital, 4 rue de la Chine, Paris 75020, France.

Abstract

STUDY QUESTIONWhat is the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis of parametrial endometriosis in comparison with surgicopathological findings?SUMMARY ANSWERMRI displayed an accuracy of 96.4% in the preoperative diagnosis of parametrial involvement by deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE).WHAT IS KNOWN AND WHAT THIS PAPER ADDSMRI is the best technique for preoperative mapping of DIE. This preliminary paper shows that T2-weighted MRI is a valuable tool for the preoperative evaluation of parametrial involvement by endometriosis.DESIGNA retrospective study of an MRI database was used to identify examinations performed in women, who had a clinical suspicion of pelvic endometriosis (n = 666), between 2005 and 2009 in a university medical centre in France.PARTICIPANTS AND SETTINGExclusion criteria were previous surgery for DIE, incomplete surgical evaluation, repeat MRI examinations and incomplete MR protocol. Only symptomatic patients who underwent surgery with a pathological correlation were included (n = 83). An experienced radiologist, blind to the surgical and histological findings, evaluated sagittal, axial and thin-section oblique axial MR images obtained from the 83 patients.DATA ANALYSIS METHODDescriptive statistics and Fisher exact test were used.MAIN FINDINGSThe prevalence of DIE and parametrial endometriosis was 76/83 (91.6%) and 12/83 (14.5%), respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, accuracy and positive and negative likelihood ratios for the diagnosis of parametrial endometriosis of low signal intensity on T2-weighted MRI, pelvic wall involvement and ureteral dilatation, were 83.3%, 98.6%, 90.9%, 97.2%, 96.4%, 59.2 and 0.17, 58.3%, 98.6%, 87.5%, 93.3%, 92.8%, 41.4 and 0.42 and 16.7%, 100%, 100%, 87.7%, 88%, infinity and 0.83, respectively, with the patient as the unit of analysis.BIAS AND LIMITATIONSThe study design was retrospective, and thus prone to bias. Only one experienced reader performed the analysis, so no data are available on intra- or interobserver variability.GENERALISABILITYAt present, no consensus exists on the optimal MR protocol to be used for the evaluation of DIE, thus limiting the wider implications of this study.STUDY FUNDING AND COMPETING INTERESTSNo funding was obtained for this study. The authors have no conflict of interest.

Recent Pat Endocr Metab Immune Drug Discov. 2012 Jun 11. [Epub ahead of print]

Perspectives of New Therapies for Endometriosis.

Garmendia JV, De Sanctis JB.

Source

Instituto de Inmunología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Apartado 50109, Caracas 1050-A, Venezuela. jenny.garmendia@gmail.com; garmenj@yahoo.es.

Abstract

Endometriosis is an inflammatory disease characterized by the presence of endometrial glandular epithelial and stromal cells growing in the extra-uterine environment. The disease affects: ovarian function, oocyte quality, embryo development and implantation, and uterine function resulting in infertility or spontaneous pregnancy loss. Even though the worlds prevalence is above 10 %, an effective treatment has not yet been found. New pharmacological approaches have been designed and patented that could serve as future therapies for this disease.

Ugeskr Laeger. 2012 Jun 11;174(24):1671-1673.

Limited effect of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone analogues for patients with endometriosis.

[Article in Danish]

Seyer-Hansen M, Kruse C.

Source

Gynækologisk Afdeling Y, Aarhus Universitetshospital, Skejby, Brendstrupgårdsvej, 8000 Aarhus C. mseyer@dadlnet.dk.

Abstract

A Cochrane review concluded that gonadotrophin-releasing hormone analogues (GnRHas) are more effective at relieving endometriosis-associated pain than no treatment/placebo, while there was not found any difference in pain relief between GnRHas and danazol or between GnRHas and intrauterine levonorgestrel. A high frequency of hypoestrogenic side effects was found for GnRHas, since none of the studies included add-back therapy. This review confirmed that GnRHas can be used for endometriosis therapy, but first choice of medical treatment should be oral contraceptives or intrauterine levonorgestrel.

Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 2012 Jun 8. [Epub ahead of print]

Ovarian remnant syndrome: cause, diagnosis, treatment and impact of endometriosis.

Kho RM, Abrao MS.

Source

aDepartment of Medical and Surgical Gynecology, Mayo Clinic in Arizona, Phoenix, Arizona, USA bDivision of Endometriosis, Sao Paulo University, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Abstract

PURPOSE OF REVIEW:

Ovarian remnant syndrome (ORS), a rare condition in which remnant ovarian tissue presents as a pelvic mass and/or pain after previous oophorectomy, poses a diagnostic and treatment challenge. This study reviews the recent studies in the past 5 years on the subject.

RECENT FINDINGS:

Incomplete removal of ovarian tissue at the time of initial oophorectomy from inability to obtain adequate surgical margins or inappropriate extraction from the pelvic cavity during laparoscopy can cause ORS. Excision of ovarian remnant tissue is increasingly approached minimally invasively. Cases of malignant involvement of the remnant ovary have been reported. Endometriosis, recently suggested to increase the risk for ovarian cancer, predisposes to ORS and is associated with 50% of patients with ovarian carcinoma in ORS patients.

SUMMARY:

Surgical excision remains the treatment of choice in ORS as malignancy can be associated with the remnant tissue. In cases of endometriosis, complete excision of endometriosis and ovarian tissue at the time of initial surgery prevents recurrence of endometriosis, subsequent development of ORS and possible ovarian malignant transformation.

Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 2012 Jun 8. [Epub ahead of print]

Does minimally invasive surgery for endometriosis improve pelvic symptoms and quality of life?

Deguara CS, Pepas L, Davis C.

Source

Centre for Reproductive Medicine, St. Bartholomew’s Hospital London, UK.

Abstract

PURPOSE OF REVIEW:

Endometriosis is a common gynaecological disorder estimated to affect over 70 million women worldwide. In this review we aim to give an overview of postoperative symptoms and look at factors influencing therapeutic choices and surgical techniques.

RECENT FINDINGS:

A wide range of physical and psychological factors contribute to the symptoms of disease. Patients suffer from impaired quality of life, depression, anxiety and chronic and acute pain. Validated questionnaires have been used to assess patient response. Surgical excision of endometriosis improves dyspareunia and the quality of sex life of patients. It is superior in outcomes to medical therapy in achieving increased pregnancy rates. Catastrophizing and biopsychosocial variables are implicated in the severity of pain experienced in patients with endometriosis. Patients with endometriosis score lower on quality of life assessments and the addition of psychosomatic therapy to medical treatments has shown to improve the emotional status of patients with improved treatment outcomes.

SUMMARY:

Despite its prevalence, there is no optimal treatment for endometriosis; recurrence of disease is a common problem. Laparoscopic surgery compared with medical therapies shows improved patient satisfaction outcomes in general health, quality of life and emotional wellbeing. Management of this varied aetiology improves in the context of a multidisciplinary team.

Diagn Pathol. 2012 Jun 7;7(1):62. [Epub ahead of print]

Ileocolic intussusception due to a cecal endometriosis: Case report and review of literature.

Emmanuel R, Marciano L, Polliand C, Antonio V, Ziol M, Poncelet C, Barrat C.

Abstract

ABSTRACT: Cecal endometriosis and ileocolic intussusception due to a cecal endometriosis is extremely rare. We report a case of a woman who presented an ileocecal intussusception due to a cecal endometriosis. The patient gave two months history of chronic periombilical pain requiring regular hospital admission and analgesia. The symptoms were not related to menses. A laparotomy was performed and revealed an ileocolic intussusception. The abdominal exploration did not find any endometriosis lesion. Ileocaecal resection was performed. Microscopic examination showed a cystic component, lined by a regular cylindric epithelium. Foci of endometrial tissu were oberved in the cecal subserosa and muscularis mucosal, with irregular endometrial glands lined by cylindric epithelium without atypia immunostained with CK7, and characteristic endometrial stroma immunostained with CD10. Cecal endometriosis and ileocolic intussusception due to a cecal endometriosis is extremely rare. Diagnose of etiology remains challenging due to the absence of clinical and radiological specific characteristics. Virtual slide The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/2975867306869166.

Mol Hum Reprod. 2012 Jun 7. [Epub ahead of print]

Inhibition of IDO1 suppresses cyclooxygenase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression and decreases proliferation, adhesion and invasion of endometrial stromal cells.

Mei J, Jin LP, Ding D, Li MQ, Li DJ, Zhu XY.

Source

Laboratory for Reproductive Immunology, Hospital and Institute of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Shanghai Medical School, Fudan University, Shanghai 200011, China.

Abstract

Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO1) is an intracellular enzyme that catalyses essential amino acid tryptophan along the kynurenine pathway. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of IDO1 expression on the biological characteristic of the endometrial stromal cells (ESCs). IDO1, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in endometriotic ectopic stromal cells, endometriosis-derived eutopic stromal cells and normal ESCs (control) were detected by the in-cell Western analysis. After being treated with lipopolysaccharide, levo-1-methyl-tryptophan (L-1-MT) alone or a combination, a comparative analysis of the above protein expression was evaluated. The effects of IDO1 on ESCs proliferation, adhesion and invasion were detected through ELISA, adhesion assay and Matrigel invasion assay, respectively. The results showed that, contrary to healthy ESCs from control women, the expression of IDO1 was significantly higher in eutopic and ectopic ESCs obtained from women with endometriosis. Inhibition of IDO1 by L-1-MT suppressed the expression of COX-2 and MMP-9 in ESCs. It could also decrease the ESCs proliferation, adhesion and invasion, while stimulating ESCs decidualization. Thus, IDO1 is possibly involved in endometriosis pathogenesis via promoting COX-2 and MMP-9 expression and regulation of ESCs biological characteristics. The information may be useful for developing a new therapeutic strategy for endometriosis.

Hum Reprod. 2012 Jun 6. [Epub ahead of print]

Lesion kinetics in a non-human primate model of endometriosis.

Harirchian P, Gashaw I, Lipskind ST, Braundmeier AG, Hastings JM, Olson MR, Fazleabas AT.

Source

Global Drug Discovery, Bayer HealthCare, Berlin, Germany.

Abstract

BACKGROUNDEndometriosis is a common cause of pelvic pain and infertility in women of reproductive age. It is characterized by the presence of endometrial tissue outside the normal location, predominantly in the pelvic peritoneum causing severe abdominal pain. However, the severity of the symptoms of endometriosis does not always correlate with the anatomic severity of the disease. This lack of correlation may be due to morphological lesion variation during disease progression. This study examined lesion kinetics in a non-human primate model of endometriosis to better understand lesion dynamics.METHODSEndometriosis was experimentally induced in nine normal cycling female adult olive baboons (Papio anubis) by i.p. inoculation of autologous menstrual endometrium on Day 2 of menses for two consecutive menstrual cycles. Diagnostic laparoscopies were performed between Day 8-12 post-ovulation at 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months, followed by a necropsy at 15 months, after the second inoculation. In two animals, lesions were excised/ablated at 6 months and they were monitored for lesion recurrence and morphological changes by serial laparoscopy. Furthermore, five control animals underwent surgeries conducted at the same time points but without inoculation.RESULTSA total of 542 endometriotic lesions were observed. The location, macroscopic (different colours) and microscopic appearance confirmed distinct endometriosis pathology in line with human disease. The majority of the lesions found 1 month after tissue inoculation were red lesions, which frequently changed colour during the disease progression. In contrast, blue lesions remained consistently blue while white lesions were evident at the later stages of the disease process and often regressed. There were significantly lower numbers of powder burn, blister and multicoloured lesions observed per animal in comparison to black and blue lesions (P-value ≤ 0.05). New lesions were continually arising and persisted up to 15 months post-inoculation. Lesions reoccurred as early as 3 months after removal and 69% of lesions excised/ablated had reoccurred 9 months later. Interestingly, endometriotic lesions were also found in the non-inoculated animals, starting at the 6-month time point following multiple surgeries.CONCLUSIONSDocumentation of lesion turnover in baboons indicated that lesions changed their colour from red to white over time. Different lesion types underwent metamorphosis at different rates. A classification of lesions based on morphological appearance may help disease prognosis and examination of the effect of the lesion on disease symptoms, and provide new opportunities for targeted therapies in order to prevent or treat endometriosis. Surgical removal of endometriotic lesions resulted in a high incidence of recurrence. Spontaneous endometriosis developed in control baboons in the absence of inoculation suggesting that repetitive surgical procedures alone can induce the spontaneous evolution of the chronic disease. Although lesion excision/ablation may have short-term benefits (e.g. prior to an IVF cycle in subfertile women), for long-term relief of symptoms perhaps medical therapy is more effective than surgical therapy.

Am J Reprod Immunol. 2012 Jun 5. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0897.2012.01152.x. [Epub ahead of print]

The role of tissue factor and protease-activated receptor 2 in endometriosis.

Lin M, Weng H, Wang X, Zhou B, Yu P, Wang Y.

Source

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Third Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College, Guangzhou, China.

Abstract

PROBLEM:

Little is known about the roles of TF and PAR-2 in endometriosis. This article investigated the expression of TF and PAR-2 in ectopic and eutopic endometrium with endometriosis and their relationship with the menstrual cycle.

METHODS:

Ectopic and eutopic endometrium tissues from 42 women with ovarian endometrioma and endometrium tissues from 20 women without endometriosis were obtained. All the samples were assessed for TF and PAR-2 protein location using immunohistochemistry and for relative TF and PAR-2 mRNA expression using real-time florescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction (FQ-PCR).

RESULTS:

Total TF and PAR-2 expression were significantly higher in ectopic and eutopic endometrium of women with endometriosis when compared with controls. Moreover, TF expression in ectopic and eutopic endometrium and PAR-2 expression in ectopic endometrium were significantly increased through the whole menstrual cycle. However, in eutopic endometrium with endometriosis, PAR-2 expression only in secretory phase was higher than its cycle-matched normal controls. There is no such difference in the proliferative phase.

CONCLUSION:

The abnormal co-upregulated expression of TF and PAR-2 in eutopic and ectopic endometrium may affect the development and growth of endometriotic lesions and highlighted the pathologic role of TF and PAR-2 in eutopic endometrium in endometriosis.

Int J Urol. 2012 Jun 5. doi: 10.1111/j.1442-2042.2012.03064.x. [Epub ahead of print]

Bladder endometriosis developed after long-term estrogen therapy for prostate cancer.

Taguchi S, Enomoto Y, Homma Y.

Source

Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan, yenomoto-tky@umin.ac.jp.

Nat Med. 2012 Jun 3. doi: 10.1038/nm.2826. [Epub ahead of print]

A new isoform of steroid receptor coactivator-1 is crucial for pathogenic progression of endometriosis.

Han SJ, Hawkins SM, Begum K, Jung SY, Kovanci E, Qin J, Lydon JP, Demayo FJ, O’Malley BW.

Source

Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA.

Abstract

Endometriosis is considered to be an estrogen-dependent inflammatory disease, but its etiology is unclear. Thus far, a mechanistic role for steroid receptor coactivators (SRCs) in the progression of endometriosis has not been elucidated. An SRC-1-null mouse model reveals that the mouse SRC-1 gene has an essential role in endometriosis progression. Notably, a previously unidentified 70-kDa SRC-1 proteolytic isoform is highly elevated both in the endometriotic tissue of mice with surgically induced endometriosis and in endometriotic stromal cells biopsied from patients with endometriosis compared to normal endometrium. Tnf(-/-) and Mmp9(-/-) mice with surgically induced endometriosis showed that activation of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α)-induced matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP9) activity mediates formation of the 70-kDa SRC-1 C-terminal isoform in endometriotic mouse tissue. In contrast to full-length SRC-1, the endometriotic 70-kDa SRC-1 C-terminal fragment prevents TNF-α-mediated apoptosis in human endometrial epithelial cells and causes the epithelial-mesenchymal transition and the invasion of human endometrial cells that are hallmarks of progressive endometriosis. Collectively, the newly identified TNF-α-MMP9-SRC-1 isoform functional axis promotes pathogenic progression of endometriosis.

Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2012 Jun;91(6):692-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0412.2012.01394.x. Epub 2012 Apr 30.

Sexual functioning, quality of life and pelvic pain 12 months after endometriosis surgery including vaginal resection.

Setälä M, Härkki P, Matomäki J, Mäkinen J, Kössi J.

Source

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Päijät-Häme Central Hospital, Lahti, Finland. marjaleena.setala@fimnet.fi

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To evaluate sexual function, quality of life and pelvic pain after endometriosis surgery including vaginal resection.

DESIGN:

Prospective observational study with 12 months follow up.

SETTING:

Regional central hospital and university hospital.

POPULATION:

Twenty-two patients with deep endometriotic nodules in the posterior fornix of the vagina undergoing complete excision of endometriosis, including vaginal resection.

METHODS:

Sexual functioning was measured with the McCoy Female Sexuality Questionnaire, quality of life with a generic questionnaire (15D) and pain with a 10-point visual analog scale. Questionnaires were completed before and 12 months after the surgery. Main outcome measures. Changes in sexual function scores, quality-of-life scores and pain.

RESULTS:

Twelve months after surgery, the sexual satisfaction score was higher (p= 0.03) and the sexual problems score lower (p= 0.04) compared with baseline values. Health-related quality-of-life scores for discomfort and symptoms (p= 0.001), distress (p= 0.04), vitality (p= 0.03) and sexual activity (p= 0.001), and the overall 15D score (p < 0.001), were significantly improved. The severity of all studied types of pain was significantly decreased (p < 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS:

Complete excision of endometriosis, including vaginal resection, seems to offer a significant improvement in sexual functioning, quality of life and pelvic pain in symptomatic patients with deeply infiltrating endometriotic nodules in the posterior fornix of the vagina. This surgery may be associated with complications and adverse new-onset symptoms, and should be performed only after thorough consultation with the patient.

 

Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2012 Jun;91(6):648-57. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0412.2012.01367.x. Epub 2012 Feb 28.

Diagnosis and treatment of rectovaginal endometriosis: an overview.

Kruse C, Seyer-Hansen M, Forman A.

Source

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Aarhus University Hospital Skejby, Brendstrupgaardsvej, Aarhus, Denmark. ckruse@dadlnet.dk

Abstract

Rectovaginal endometriosis can be a cause of severe pain, dyspareunia and intestinal problems. A thorough examination is needed and should include diagnostic imaging, such as transvaginal or transrectal ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging. Medical therapies, such as oral contraceptives, progestins and levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine devices, all seem to reduce pain and should always be considered. Surgical treatment is challenging and implies a risk of severe complications. It is preferable to treat endometriotic lesions with superficial infiltration into the rectal wall by local laparoscopic excision, while segmental rectal resection is needed in the case of severe intestinal infiltration. This review describes available diagnostic tools, the possibilities for medical treatment and the alternative surgical approaches.

 

Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2012 Jun;91(6):699-703. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0412.2012.01366.x. Epub 2012 Mar 5.

Continuous low-dose oral contraceptive in the treatment of colorectal endometriosis evaluated by rectal endoscopic ultrasonography.

Ferrari S, Persico P, DI Puppo F, Vigano P, Tandoi I, Garavaglia E, Giardina P, Mezzi G, Candiani M.

Source

Obstetrics and Gynecology Unit, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Via Olgettina 60, Milan, Italy. ferrari.stefano@hsr.it

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Limited attention has been focused on the medical treatment of bowel endometriosis. This study evaluates the efficacy of administration of a continuous low-dose oral contraceptive in treating pain and other symptoms associated with colorectal endometriotic nodules, as evaluated by rectal endoscopic ultrasonography.

DESIGN:

Prospective observational study.

SETTING:

Academic Department of San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Obstetrics and Gynecology Unit.

POPULATION:

Symptomatic women of reproductive age (n=26) with colorectal nodules infiltrating at least the bowel muscularis propria and without a stenosis >50%. In 31% of the patients, endoscopic ultrasonography permitted diagnosis of nodules located more than 10 cm from the anal rim.

METHODS:

Patients received a continuous low-dose oral contraceptive containing 15 μg ethinylestradiol and 60 μg gestodene for 12 months. Subjective symptoms were prospectively evaluated, and nodule volumes were monitored using endoscopic ultrasonography.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:

Nodule measurements were performed at baseline and after 12 months of treatment. Symptoms at the start and after 12 months were evaluated.

RESULTS:

A significant improvement in the intensity of all the considered symptoms (dysmenorrhea, non-menstrual pelvic pain, deep dyspareunia and painful defecation) was seen when evaluated by a visual analog scale. A reduction in terms of both diameter (mean reduction 26%) and volume of the nodules (mean reduction 62%) was observed after a 12 month period.

CONCLUSIONS:

A continuous low-dose oral contraceptive therapy may reduce bowel endometriosis-associated symptoms. In addition, this therapy induces a significant volumetric reduction of colorectal plaques when evaluated by endoscopic ultrasonography.

Am J Reprod Immunol. 2012 Jun;67(6):491-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0897.2011.01101.x. Epub 2012 Jan 9.

Lipoxin A4 inhibits the development of endometriosis in mice: the role of anti-inflammation and anti-angiogenesis.

Xu Z, Zhao F, Lin F, Chen J, Huang Y.

Source

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 1st Affiliated Hospital, Wenzhou Medical College, Zhejiang, China.

Abstract

PROBLEM:

To evaluate the effects of the anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic roles of LXA4 on endometriosis in mice.

METHOD OF STUDY:

Endometriosis was induced in 40 mice and separated into two groups. LXA4 group was administered by LXA4 for 3 weeks. The endometriotic lesions were counted, measured, and identified by pathology. The presence of a panel of pro-inflammatory factors was assessed by real-time RT-PCR, and enzyme-linked immunoassay, the mRNA, protein levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were determined by real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry; the activity of MMPs was evaluated by gelatin zymography.

RESULTS:

Treatment with LXA4 significantly inhibited endometriotic lesion development (13.58 ± 4.01 mm(2) in LXA4 group and 23.20 ± 7.49 mm(2) , P = 0.0002), downregulated pro-inflammatory factors, suppressed the activity of MMP9, and reduced the VEGF levels associated with endometriosis in mice.

CONCLUSION:

LXA4 may inhibit the progression of endometriosis possibly by anti-inflammation and anti-angiogenesis.

 

Angiogenesis. 2012 Jun;15(2):243-52. doi: 10.1007/s10456-012-9256-2. Epub 2012 Feb 22.

Protein kinase CK2 is a regulator of angiogenesis in endometriotic lesions.

Feng D, Welker S, Körbel C, Rudzitis-Auth J, Menger MD, Montenarh M, Laschke MW.

Source

Institute for Clinical and Experimental Surgery, University of Saarland, Homburg Saar, Germany.

Abstract

Endometriosis is a frequent gynecological disease, which is crucially dependent on the process of angiogenesis. However, the underlying regulatory mechanisms of blood vessel development are still poorly understood. CK2 is a pleiotropic protein kinase, which is implicated in the regulation of various cellular processes including angiogenesis. Herein we studied for the first time the function of protein kinase CK2 in angiogenesis of endometriotic lesions. For this purpose, we analyzed the anti-angiogenic activity of the CK2 inhibitor quinalizarin in a rat aortic ring assay and its effect on the expression of individual CK2 subunits and on kinase activity in endometrial tissue. Moreover, endometriotic lesions were induced in dorsal skinfold chambers of quinalizarin- and vehicle-treated C57BL/6 mice to study their vascularization and morphology by means of repetitive intravital fluorescence microscopy and histology. Our results demonstrate that quinalizarin dose-dependently inhibits vascular sprouting. In addition, treatment of endometrial tissue with quinalizarin reduces CK2 activity without affecting the expression of the three CK2 subunits α, α’ and β. In the dorsal skinfold chamber model of endometriosis, quinalizarin inhibits the vascularization of endometriotic lesions, which exhibit a significantly decreased vascularized area and functional capillary density when compared to those of vehicle-treated controls. This is associated with a reduced lesion size and histological fraction of endometrial glands. These findings indicate that CK2 is a regulator of angiogenesis in endometriotic lesions. Accordingly, inhibition of CK2 represents a novel option in the development of anti-angiogenic strategies for the treatment of endometriosis.

Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2012 Jun;285(6):1657-61. Epub 2012 Jan 19.

p53 codon 72 polymorphism and endometriosis: a meta-analysis.

Jia S, Xu L, Chan Y, Wu X, Yang S, Yu H, Yang H, Luo Y, Tang W.

Source

Laboratory of Molecular Genetics of Aging and Tumor, Faculty of Life Science and Technology, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Chenggong Campus, 727 South Jingming Road, Kunming, 650500 Yunnan, China.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

p53 tumour suppressor gene Arg72Pro polymorphism has been associated with endometriosis. However, the current available data were inconsistent. We performed this meta-analysis to estimate the association between p53 Arg72Pro polymorphism and endometriosis.

METHODS:

Electronic screening of PubMed library was conducted to select studies. Studies containing available genotype frequencies of Arg72Pro were chosen, and pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to assess the association.

RESULTS:

Six published studies, including 749 endometriosis and 857 controls were identified. The overall results suggested that the variant genotypes were not associated with the endometriosis risk (Pro/Pro + Arg/Pro vs. Arg/Arg: OR = 1.552, 95% CI 0.916-2.632, p = 0.103). In the stratified analysis, individuals carried the Pro allele in a dominant model had increased risk of endometriosis (OR = 2.595, 95% CI 1.005-6.702, p = 0.049) in Asian subjects. The symmetric funnel plot, the Egger’s test (p = 0.602), and the Begg’s test (p = 0.167) were all suggestive of the lack of publication bias. However, the association was not significant between this polymorphism and endometriosis in Caucasian (OR = 1.005, 95% CI 0.755-1.337, p = 0.972).

CONCLUSION:

This meta-analysis suggests that p53 codon 72 Pro/Pro + Arg/Pro genotypes are associated with increased risk of endometriosis in Asian. To validate the association between p53 codon 72 polymorphism and endometriosis, further studies with larger participants worldwide are needed.

Cancer Biol Ther. 2012 Jun 1;13(8):671-80. Epub 2012 Jun 1.

Impaired CXCL4 expression in tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) of ovarian cancers arising in endometriosis.

Furuya M, Tanaka R, Miyagi E, Kami D, Nagahama K, Miyagi Y, Nagashima Y, Hirahara F, Inayama Y, Aoki I.

Source

Department of Molecular Pathology; Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine; Yokohama, Japan.

Abstract

Inflammatory cells play important roles in progression of solid neoplasms including ovarian cancers. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) contribute to angiogenesis and immune suppression by modulating microenvironment. Ovarian cancer develops occasionally on the bases of endometriosis, a chronic inflammatory disease. We have recently demonstrated differential expressions of CXCR3 variants in endometriosis and ovarian cancers. In this study, we showed impaired CXCL4 expression in TAMs of ovarian cancers arising in endometriosis. The expressions of CXCL4 and its variant CXCL4L1 were investigated among normal ovaries (n = 26), endometriosis (n = 18) and endometriosis-associated ovarian cancers (EAOCs) composed of clear cell (n = 13) and endometrioid (n = 11) types. In addition, four cases of EAOCs that contained both benign and cancer lesions contiguously in single cysts were investigated in the study. Western blot and quantitative RT-PCR analyses revealed significant downregulation of CXCL4 and CXCL4L1 in EAOCs compared with those in endometriosis. In all EAOCs coexisting with endometriosis in the single cyst, the expression levels of CXCL4 and CXCL4L1 were significantly lower in cancer lesions than in corresponding endometriosis. Histopathological study revealed that CXCL4 was strongly expressed in CD68 (+) infiltrating macrophages of endometriosis. In microscopically transitional zone between endometriosis and EAOC, CD68 (+) macrophages often demonstrated CXCL4 (-) pattern. The majority of CD68 (+) TAMs in overt cancer lesions were negative for CXCL4. Collective data indicate that that CXCL4 insufficiency may be involved in specific inflammatory microenvironment of ovarian cancers arising in endometriosis. Suppression of CXCL4 in cancer lesions is likely to be attributable to TAMs in part.

Environ Health Perspect. 2012 Jun;120(6):811-6. Epub 2012 Mar 14.

Persistent Lipophilic Environmental Chemicals and Endometriosis: The ENDO Study.

Louis GM, Chen Z, Peterson CM, Hediger ML, Croughan MS, Sundaram R, Stanford JB, Varner MW, Fujimoto VY, Giudice LC, Trumble A, Parsons PJ, Kannan K.

Source

Division of Epidemiology, Statistics and Prevention Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Health, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Rockville, Maryland, USA.

Abstract

Background: An equivocal literature exists regarding the relation between persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) and endometriosis in women, with differences attributed to methodologies.Objectives: We assessed the association between POPs and the odds of an endometriosis diagnosis and the consistency of findings by biological medium and study cohort.Methods: Using a matched cohort design, we assembled an operative cohort of women 18-44 years of age undergoing laparoscopy or laparotomy at 14 participating clinical centers from 2007 to 2009 and a population-based cohort matched on age and residence within a 50-mile catchment area of the clinical centers. Endometriosis was defined as visualized disease in the operative cohort and as diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging in the population cohort. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for each POP in relation to an endometriosis diagnosis, with separate models run for each medium (omental fat in the operative cohort, serum in both cohorts) and cohort. Adjusted models included age, body mass index, breast-feeding conditional on parity, cotinine, and lipids.Results: Concentrations were higher in omental fat than in serum for all POPs. In the operative cohort, γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (γ-HCH) was the only POP with a significant positive association with endometriosis [per 1-SD increase in log-transformed γ-HCH: adjusted OR (AOR) = 1.27; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.59]; β-HCH was the only significant predictor in the population cohort (per 1-SD increase in log-transformed β-HCH: AOR = 1.72; 95% CI: 1.09, 2.72).Conclusions: Using a matched cohort design, we found that cohort-specific and biological-medium-specific POPs were associated with endometriosis, underscoring the importance of methodological considerations when interpreting findings.

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