J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2009 Jun 22. [Epub ahead of print]

Endometriosis-related pneumothorax after in vitro fertilization embryo transfer procedure: A case report.

Baisi A, Raveglia F, De Simone M, Calati AM, Leporati A, Cioffi U.

Thoracic Surgery Unit, Ospedale San Paolo, University of Milan, Milano, Italy.

JSLS. 2009 Apr-Jun;13(2):224-5.

Laparoscopic hysterectomy and ileocecal resection for treatment of endometriosis.

Pickron TB, Cooper J.

Colorectal Surgical Associates, Houston, Texas 77054, USA. bpickronmd@houstoncolon.com

Surgical therapy remains the mainstay for the treatment of endometriosis. In this case report, we review the surgical management of a patient who presented with a cecal implant of endometriosis. She was successfully treated with combined laparoscopic hysterectomy and ileocecal resection. The laparoscopic ileocecal resection was completed with an intracorporeal anastomosis and retrieval of the specimen through the vaginal cuff. This presentation demonstrates the feasibility of combined colon resection and hysterectomy as well as vaginal colon specimen extraction. The vagina as a colon specimen retrieval site has significant implications for the future of natural orifice colorectal surgery.

JSLS. 2009 Apr-Jun;13(2):129-34.

Laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy: a retrospective analysis of 1000 cases.

Bojahr B, Tchartchian G, Ohlinger R.

Klinik für MIC, Minimally Invasive Center, Berlin, Germany. b.bojahr@mic-berlin.de

OBJECTIVE: Laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy (LASH) was analyzed with regard to surgical indications and outcomes. METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of the first 1,000 consecutive laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomies performed by one gynecologist from September 1, 2002 to April 30, 2006. The objective of the study was to find out to what extent the indication and the outcome of surgery changed with the increase in experience of the surgeon and whether a learning curve could be established based on the results. The demographic patient data, indication for surgery, patient history with regard to previous surgery, duration of surgery, intraoperative complications, uterus weight, and length of in-patient stay were collected from the medical records. RESULTS: The main indication in 80.4% of cases was uterus myomatosis. The median duration of surgery was 70.9+/-26.3 minutes (95% CI, 69.2 to 72.5) with an average uterus weight of 212.5+/-177.0g (95% CI, 201 to 223.6). This was reduced from 85.4+/-25.9 minutes (95% CI, 78.5 to 92.3) in 2002 to 72.4+/-30.1 minutes (95% CI, 66.7 to 78.2) in 2006, in conjunction with an increase in average uterus weight from 192.3+/-145.4g (95% CI, 153.8 to 230.9) to 228.7+/-160.3g (95% CI, 198.1 to 259.3). Overall, one intraoperative lesion of the bladder (0.1%) occurred, and in 4 cases the surgeon had to convert to laparotomy instead, due to the size and immobility of the uterus. Sixty-eight patients had a uterus weight of more than 500 g. In 67% of the cases, surgery was performed on patients with at least one previous laparotomy, and 51.4% of the patients required further interventions. CONCLUSION: An experienced surgeon can rapidly learn the technique of laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy and can safely perform it. In patients with symptomatic uterine myomatosis, previous laparotomy and/or with a uterine weight of more than 500g, laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy is a useful alternative to total hysterectomy. There are few complications if preservation of the cervix is not contraindicated.

Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2009;88(9):968-75.

Endometriosis-associated nerve fibers and pain.

Medina MG, Lebovic DI.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Michigan, 600 Highland Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 57392, USA.

The assessment and diagnosis of endometriosis remain elusive targets. Patient and medical-related factors add to delays in the detection and treatment. Recently, investigators have revealed specific nerve fibers present in endometriotic tissue, with existing parallels between density and pain severity. The aim of this review is to compile a comprehensive review of existing literature on endometriosis-related nerve fiber detection, and the effects of medical therapy on these neural fibers. We performed a systematic literature-based review using Medline and PubMed of nerve fibers detected in eutopic endometrium, endometriotic lesions, and the peritoneum. Various arrangements of significant medical terms and phrases consisting of endometriosis, pelvic pain, nerve fiber detection/density in endometriosis, and diagnoses methodology, including treatment and detection were applied in the search. Subsequent references used were cross-matched with existing sources to compile all additional similar reports. Similar nerve fibers were detected within lesions, endometrium, and myometrium, though at varying degrees of density. Hormonal therapy is widely used to treat endometriosis and was shown to be related to a reduction in fiber density. A direct result of specific nerve fiber detection within eutopic endometrial layers points to the use of a minimally invasive endometrial biopsy technique in reducing delay in diagnosis and subsequent possible preservation of fertility.

Virchows Arch. 2009 Sep;455(3):261-70. Epub 2009 Aug 5.

An allelotype analysis indicating the presence of two distinct ovarian clear-cell carcinogenic pathways: endometriosis-associated pathway vs. clear-cell adenofibroma-associated pathway.

Yamamoto S, Tsuda H, Suzuki K, Takano M, Tamai S, Matsubara O.

Department of Basic Pathology, National Defense Medical College, 3-2 Namiki, Tokorozawa, Saitama, 359-8513, Japan.

Patterns of allele loss (loss of heterozygosity (LOH)) were studied to identify the genetic backgrounds underlying the two putative carcinogenic pathways of ovarian clear-cell adenocarcinoma: carcinomas thought to arise in endometriosis (endometriosis-associated carcinomas, 20 cases) and carcinomas thought to be derived from clear-cell adenofibroma ((CCAF)-associated carcinomas, 14 cases). Each tumor was assessed for LOH at 24 polymorphic loci located on 12 chromosomal arms: 1p, 3p, 5q, 8p, 9p, 10q, 11q, 13q, 17p, 17q, 19p, and 22q. For all informative loci, the frequency of LOH was not statistically different between the two carcinoma groups: 38% (66/172 loci) in the endometriosis-associated carcinomas and 35% (40/113 loci) in the CCAF-associated carcinomas. In the endometriosis-associated carcinomas, LOH was detected at high frequencies (>50%) at 3p, 5q, and 11q and at low frequencies (<20%) at 8p, 13q, and 17p. In the CCAF-associated carcinomas, LOH was detected at high frequencies at 1p, 10q, and 13q and at low frequencies at 3p, 9p, 11q, and 17q. The frequencies of LOH at chromosomes 3p, 5q, and 11q were significantly higher in the endometriosis-associated carcinomas than in the CCAF-associated carcinomas (P = 0.026, 0.007, and 0.011, respectively). Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated a close association between the allelic status of the 3p25-26 locus and levels of von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) protein expression (P = 0.0026). These data further support the presence of two distinct carcinogenic pathways to ovarian clear-cell adenocarcinoma; the allelic status of the 3p, 5q, and 11q loci may provide a means to identify the precursor lesions of these carcinomas.

J Korean Med Sci. 2009 Aug;24(4):767-71. Epub 2009 Jul 30.

Endometrioid adenocarcinoma arising from endometriosis of the uterine cervix: a case report.

Park HM, Lee SS, Eom DW, Kang GH, Yi SW, Sohn WS.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Gangneung Asan Hospital, University of Ulsan, Gangneung, Korea.

Endometrioid adenocarcinoma arising from endometriosis of the uterine cervix is rare in premenopausal woman. We describe here a patient with this condition and review the clinical and pathological features of these tumors. A 48-yr-old woman complaining of severe dysmenorrhea was referred for investigation of a pelvic mass. Total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy were performed. Histological examination revealed an endometrioid adenocarcinoma directly adjacent to the endometriosis at the uterine cervix, with a transition observed between endometriosis and endometrioid adenocarcinoma. The patient was diagnosed as having endometrioid adenocarcinoma arising from endometriosis of the uterine cervix and underwent postoperative chemotherapy. Gynecologists and pathologists should be aware of the difficulties associated with a delay in diagnosis of endometrioid adenocarcinoma arising from endometriosis when the tumor presents as a benign looking endometrioma.

Environ Health Perspect. 2009 Jul;117(7):1070-5. Epub 2009 Mar 31.

Endometriosis and organochlorinated environmental pollutants: a case-control study on Italian women of reproductive age.

Porpora MG, Medda E, Abballe A, Bolli S, De Angelis I, di Domenico A, Ferro A, Ingelido AM, Maggi A, Panici PB, De Felip E.

Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

BACKGROUND: Endometriosis is a common gynecologic disease characterized by the ectopic growth of endometrial tissue. In industrialized countries, it affects approximately 10% of women of reproductive age. Its etiology is unclear, but a multifactorial origin is considered to be most plausible. Environmental organochlorinated persistent pollutants, in particular dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), have been hypothesized to play a role in the disease etiopathogenesis. However, results of studies carried out on humans are conflicting. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the exposure to organochlorinated persistent pollutants as a risk factor for endometriosis. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study in Rome on 158 women comprising 80 cases and 78 controls. In all women, serum concentrations of selected non-dioxin-like PCBs (NDL-PCBs) and dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs), 1,1-dichloro-2,2,-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-ethene (p,p’-DDE), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were determined by ion-trap mass spectrometry. DR-CALUX bioassay was employed to assess the 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxicity equivalent (TEQ) concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and DL-PCBs. RESULTS: We found an increased risk of endometriosis for DL-PCB-118 [odds ratio (OR) = 3.79; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.61-8.91], NDL-PCB-138 (OR = 3.78; 95% CI, 1.60-8.94), NDL-PCB-153 (OR = 4.88; 95% CI, 2.01-11.0), NDL-PCB-170 (OR = 3.52; 95% CI, 1.41-8.79), and the sum of DL-PCBs and NDL-PCBs (OR = 5.63; 95% CI, 2.25-14.10). No significant associations were observed with respect to HCB or to the sum of PCDDs, PCDFs, and DL-PCBs given as total TEQs. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study show that an association exists between increased PCB and p,p’-DDE serum concentrations and the risk of endometriosis.

N Z Med J. 2009 Jun 5;122(1296):69-72.

Medical image. An unusual case of inguinal pain.

Sakowska MM, Short J, Eglinton T.

Department of Surgery, Christchurch Hospital, Christchurch, New Zealand.

Mol Hum Reprod. 2009 Oct;15(10):587-607. Epub 2009 Aug 3.

Epigenetics of endometriosis.

Guo SW.

Institute of Obstetric and Gynecologic Research, and Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200001, China. hoxa10@gmail.com

Endometriosis is a common gynecologic disorder with an enigmatic etiopathogenesis. Although it has been proposed that endometriosis is a hormonal disease, an autoimmune disease, a genetic disease, and a disease caused by exposure to environmental toxins, our understanding of its etiopathogenesis is still inadequate, as reflected by recent apparent setbacks in clinical trials on endometriosis. In the last 5 years, evidence has emerged that endometriosis may be an epigenetic disease. In this article, the evidence in support of this hypothesis is reviewed, and its diagnostic, therapeutic and prognostic implications discussed. Publications, up to the end of June 2009, pertaining to epigenetic aberration in endometriosis were identified through PubMed. In addition, publications on related studies were also retrieved and reviewed. Epigenetics appears to be a common denominator for hormonal and immunological aberrations in endometriosis. Epigenetics also appears to have a better explanatory power than genetics. There is accumulating evidence that various epigenetic aberrations exist in endometriosis. In vitro studies show that histone deacetylase inhibitors may be promising therapeutics for treating endometriosis. In conclusion, several lines of evidence suggest that epigenetics plays a definite role in the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of endometriosis. As such, endometriosis is possibly treatable by rectifying epigenetic aberrations through pharmacological means. DNA methylation markers may also be useful for diagnostic and prognostic purposes. It is also possible that the delineation of the epigenetic changes accompanied by the genesis and progression of endometriosis could lead to interventions that reduce the risk of developing endometriosis.

Rev Port Pneumol. 2009 Sep-Oct;15(5):937-41.

Spontaneous hemothorax in a neurofibromatosis type I patient – a case report

[Article in Portuguese]

Bento A, Gonçalves AP.

Unidade de Saúde Local EPE, Guarda, Serviço de Pneumologia, 6300 Guarda. alexitbento@gmail.com

Spontaneous hemothorax is a rare and potentially lethal neurofibromatosis’ complication. Several pathological mechanisms may explain the associated vasculopathy: a) direct vascular invasion from adjacent tumors such as Shwannoma, neurofibroma or neurofibrosarcoma; b) vascular dysplasia with stenotic or aneurysm formation. Other mechanisms involved may include pleuropulmonar pathologies (necrotizing infections, pulmonary embolism, endometriosis, neoplasms) and blood dyscrasias. The authors describe a case of a 33 years old female, who went to the ER Service complaining with right persistent hemithoracic pain, extending to the ipsilateral shoulder and shoulder blade, without aggravation or relieving factors, since the last 8 days.

Fertil Steril. 2009 Oct;92(4):1496.e5-8. Epub 2009 Jul 31.

Endometriosis in two sisters with Glanzmann’s thrombasthenia.

Alatas E, Oztekin O, Hacioglu SK.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Pamukkale University, Denizli, Turkey.

OBJECTIVE: To present two cases of endometriosis in patients with Glanzmann’s thrombasthenia (GT) and discuss the underlying pathophysiology of endometriosis. DESIGN: Case report. SETTING: Gynecology practice in a university teaching hospital. PATIENT(S): Two sisters, aged 24 and 28 years, previously diagnosed as having GT. INTERVENTION(S): Surgical exploration. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Pathologic examination of surgical specimens was performed. RESULT(S): A diagnosis of endometriosis was confirmed pathologically for two sisters previously diagnosed as having GT. CONCLUSION(S): Women with GT seem to represent an important human model of endometriosis from which important data on the pathophysiology of endometriosis can be acquired.

Fertil Steril. 2009 Jul 30. [Epub ahead of print]

Lipopolysaccharide promoted proliferation and invasion of endometriotic stromal cells via induction of cyclooxygenase-2 expression.

Takenaka Y, Taniguchi F, Miyakoda H, Takai E, Terakawa N, Harada T.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Tottori University Faculty of Medicine, Yonago, Japan.

Lipopolysaccharide-enhanced cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) expression and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production were compared in endometriotic stromal cells (ESCs) and eutopic endometrial stromal cells. Lipopolysaccharide promotes the proliferation and invasion of ESCs via up-regulation of COX-2 and PGE2 expression, suggesting that pelvic inflammation may promote the progression of endometriosis.

J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2009 Aug;22(4):257-63.

The effect of combined surgical-medical intervention on the progression of endometriosis in an adolescent and young adult population.

Doyle JO, Missmer SA, Laufer MR.

Division of Gynecology, Children’s Hospital Boston, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of combined surgical-medical treatment on endometriosis progression in adolescents as measured by disease stage. DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. SETTING: Two academic medical centers. PARTICIPANTS: Sequential cases of young women identified on chart review with chronic pelvic pain unresponsive to dysmenorrheal treatment who underwent initial laparoscopy for diagnosis and surgical destruction of endometriosis. All patients were then treated with standard continuous medical therapy. Patients with exacerbation of pain on anti-endometriosis medical therapy who elected a subsequent laparoscopic procedure were eligible for this study. INTERVENTION: Retrospective chart review MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Endometriosis stage and adhesions at subsequent laparoscopy as compared to the initial surgical procedure. RESULTS: 90 patients met inclusion criteria. Eligible patients were 12 to 24 years of age at the time of the initial laparoscopy. The median endometriosis stage at first and second laparoscopy was I. No stage change was observed in 70% of patients, 19% improved by one stage, 1% improved by two stages, and 10% worsened by one stage. Regardless of initial stage, a trend toward disease progression was not observed. There was a significant likelihood for stage improvement at second laparoscopy, with those initially diagnosed as stage II or III most likely to exhibit improvement. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the concept that endometriosis can be progressive, these data suggest that combined surgical-medical management retards disease progression in adolescents and young adults.

Fertil Steril. 2009 Aug;92(2):e21-2; author reply e23.

Comment on:

Fertil Steril. 2009 Jul;92(1):75-87.

Endometrioma and IVF outcome-how little we really know.

Nicopoullos JD, Nikolaou D, Richardson R.


J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2009 Jun;31(6):538-41.

Malignant chest wall endometriosis: a case report and literature review.

Agrawal A, Nation J, Ghatage P, Chu P, Ross S, Magliocco A.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Division of Gynaecologic Oncology, University of Calgary, Calgary AB.

BACKGROUND: Endometriosis usually affects women in their reproductive years. Most commonly, the pelvic organs are involved. Involvement of the chest wall after hysterectomy is rare. The incidence of malignant transformation is less than 1% for ovarian endometriosis, but is unknown for extraovarian endometriosis. CASE: A 47-year-old woman who had undergone hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy for endometriosis presented four years after surgery with a well-differentiated endometrioid adenocarcinoma arising in the background of endometriosis in the right chest wall. The tumour was resected, and the patient received six courses of adjuvant chemotherapy. CONCLUSION: Women with endometriosis-associated cancer require individualized management options, depending upon the histopathology and stage of the cancer.

Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2009 Oct;280(4):529-38. Epub 2009 Jul 31.

The pathophysiology of endometriosis and adenomyosis: tissue injury and repair.

Leyendecker G, Wildt L, Mall G.

Kinderwunschzentrum (Fertility Center) Darmstadt, Bratustrasse 9, 64295, Darmstadt, Germany. gerhard.leyendecker@t-online.de

INTRODUCTION: This study presents a unifying concept of the pathophysiology of endometriosis and adenomyosis. In particular, a physiological model is proposed that provides a comprehensive explanation of the local production of estrogen at the level of ectopic endometrial lesions and the endometrium of women affected with the disease. METHODS: In women suffering from endometriosis and adenomyosis and in normal controls, a critical analysis of uterine morphology and function was performed using immunohistochemistry, MRI, hysterosalpingoscintigraphy, videohysterosonography, molecular biology as well as clinical aspects. The relevant molecular biologic aspects were compared to those of tissue injury and repair (TIAR) mechanisms reported in literature. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Circumstantial evidence suggests that endometriosis and adenomyosis are caused by trauma. In the spontaneously developing disease, chronic uterine peristaltic activity or phases of hyperperistalsis induce, at the endometrial-myometrial interface near the fundo-cornual raphe, microtraumatizations with the activation of the mechanism of ’tissue injury and repair’ (TIAR). This results in the local production of estrogen. With ongoing peristaltic activity, such sites might increase and the increasingly produced estrogens interfere in a paracrine fashion with the ovarian control over uterine peristaltic activity, resulting in permanent hyperperistalsis and a self-perpetuation of the disease process. Overt auto-traumatization of the uterus with dislocation of fragments of basal endometrium into the peritoneal cavity and infiltration of basal endometrium into the depth of the myometrial wall ensues. In most cases of endometriosis/adenomyosis, a causal event early in the reproductive period of life must be postulated leading rapidly to uterine hyperperistalsis. In late premenopausal adenomyosis, such an event might not have occurred. However, as indicated by the high prevalence of the disease, it appears to be unavoidable that, with time, chronic normoperistalsis throughout the reproductive period of life leads to the same extent of microtraumatization. With the activation of the TIAR mechanism followed by infiltrative growth and chronic inflammation, endometriosis/adenomyosis of the younger woman and premenopausal adenomyosis share in principle the same pathophysiology. In conclusion, endometriosis and adenomyosis result from the physiological mechanism of ’tissue injury and repair’ (TIAR) involving local estrogen production in an estrogen-sensitive environment normally controlled by the ovary.

J Ultrasound Med. 2009 Aug;28(8):1061-6.

Three-dimensional sonographic characteristics of deep endometriosis.

Guerriero S, Alcázar JL, Ajossa S, Pilloni M, Melis GB.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Cagliari, Ospedale San Giovanni di Dio, Via Ospedale 46, 09124 Cagliari, Italy. gineca.sguerriero@tiscali.it

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this presentation is to investigate the potential role of 3-dimensional (3D) sonography in the assessment of deep endometriosis. METHODS: Cases of deep endometriosis are presented to illustrate the spectrum of appearances obtained with 3D sonography. In addition, we evaluate the possible role of other functions included in 3D equipment, such as the niche mode and tomographic ultrasound imaging (TUI). RESULTS: Three-dimensional image rendering could allow a good analysis of the endometriotic nodule; in fact, in all presented cases, this reconstruction seems to clearly show the irregular shapes and borders of the lesions. This technique allows unrestricted access to an infinite number of viewing planes, which can be very useful for correctly locating lesions within the pelvis and evaluating the relationship with other organs. The stored 3D volumes can be reassessed and compared by the same or different examiners over time. This characteristic may be relevant for monitoring the effect of medical therapies over time. In the niche mode, sonographic imaging is represented as a “cut-open” view of the internal aspect of the nodule and its surrounding tissue. This additional function, which is associated with TUI, could be particularly useful for evaluation of the extension of a nodule in the rectovaginal septum, the depth of infiltration, and the relationship with the rectosigmoid junction or ureter. CONCLUSIONS: In the near future, 3D sonography in deep infiltrating endometriosis could be an interesting mode of research with positive effects in everyday clinical practice.

Fertil Steril. 2009 Jul 29. [Epub ahead of print]

The molecular signature of endometriosis-associated endometrioid ovarian cancer differs significantly from endometriosis-independent endometrioid ovarian cancer.

Banz C, Ungethuem U, Kuban RJ, Diedrich K, Lengyel E, Hornung D.

Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University of Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Luebeck, Luebeck, Germany.

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether endometriosis-associated endometrioid cancer (EAOC) is a specific entity compared with endometrioid cancer not associated with endometriosis (OC). DESIGN: Case-control study. SETTING: University hospital research laboratory. PATIENT(S): Seven patients with endometriosis-associated ovarian cancer EAOC and five patients each with OC, ovarian endometriosis, and benign ovaries. INTERVENTION(S): Ovarian tissue samples were collected from surgical procedures. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): We hybridized cRNA samples to the Affymetrix HG-U133A microarray chip. Representative genes were validated by real time polymerase chain reaction. RESULT(S): We identified two main groups of genes: The first group contained the genes SICA2, CCL14, and TDGF1. These genes were equally regulated in endometriosis and EAOC but not in OC and benign ovaries. The second group contained the genes StAR, SPINT1, Keratin 8, FoxM1B, FOLR1, CRABP1, and Claudin 7. They were equally regulated in EAOC and OC but not in ovarian endometriosis and benign ovaries. CONCLUSION(S): That the first group is composed of the cytokines SICA2 and CCL14 and the growth factor TDGF1 indicates that the regulation of the autoimmune system and of inflammatory cytokines may be very important in the etiology of endometriosis and EAOC. That the second group is composed of genes that play a central role in cell-cell interaction, differentiation, and cell proliferation indicates that they may be important in the development of ovarian cancer in women with endometriosis.

Fertil Steril. 2009 Jul 29. [Epub ahead of print]

Understanding adenomyosis: a case control study.

Taran FA, Weaver AL, Coddington CC, Stewart EA.

Division of Reproductive Endocrinology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the clinical profile of adenomyosis by comparison with uterine leiomyomas. DESIGN: Retrospective case-control study. SETTING: Academic medical center. PATIENT(S): The study comprised 76 women undergoing hysterectomy with adenomyosis and 152 women with uterine leiomyomas but no adenomyosis. INTERVENTION(S): Retrospective medical record review of hospital and ambulatory records. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Comparison of women undergoing hysterectomy with a sole pathologic finding of adenomyosis and women with leiomyomas alone. RESULT(S): Adenomyosis was independently associated with younger age (41.1 years vs. 44.3 years), history of depression (57.1% vs. 24.7%), dysmenorrhea (65.7% vs. 42.3%), and pelvic pain (52.9% vs. 21.1%) in a multivariable unconditional logistic regression analysis compared with women with leiomyomas, where women from both groups had gynecologic symptoms. Furthermore, in a second multivariate model where all subjects had uteri weighing >150 g, women with adenomyosis were more likely to have a history of depression (52.6% vs. 22.2%) and endometriosis (26.3% vs. 2.8%) compared with women with leiomyomas. CONCLUSION(S): Women undergoing hysterectomy with a histologic diagnosis of adenomyosis have a distinct symptomatology and medical history compared with women with leiomyomas. Better understanding of this disease is required to improve diagnosis and management.


Fertil Steril. 2009 Jul 29. [Epub ahead of print]

Simvastatin inhibits the proliferation and the contractility of human endometriotic stromal cells: a promising agent for the treatment of endometriosis.

Nasu K, Yuge A, Tsuno A, Narahara H.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Oita University, Oita, Japan.

Simvastatin significantly inhibited the proliferation of endometriotic stromal cells, attenuated the collagen gel contraction mediated by these cells, and suppressed endometriotic stromal cell attachment to collagen fibers. Simvastatin is considered to be a promising agent for the treatment of endometriosis-associated fibrosis, which is among the major pathologies caused by endometriosis.


Ginekol Pol. 2009 Jun;80(6):453-5.

Tumour in the ureter stump 13 years after nephrectomy–a rare case of endometriosis

[Article in Polish]

Bortnowski L, Zabkowski T, Syryło T, Piotrowicz G, Zieliński H.

Klinika Urologii Wojskowego Instytutu Medycznego w Warszawie. l.bortnowski@wp.pl

Endometriosis is found in the urinary tract in 1-2% of women suffering from this disease. The most common site is urinary bladder (81%). In the ureter it is found in only 15% of cases and it mainly involves the pelvic part. The authors present a case of 49-year old woman who was diagnosed with an endometriotic tumour in the stump of the ureter, 13 years after left nephrectomy performed for hydronephrosis and lack of the kidney’s function confirmed in renal scintigraphy. After laser ablation and hormonal therapy the tumour burden was diminished and symptoms resolved.

Ginekol Pol. 2009 Jun;80(6):419-23.

Concetration of anticardiolipin antybodies in peritonel fluid and in fluid from lymphocytes culture in women with endometriosis

[Article in Polish]

Sikora J, Mielczarek-Palacz A, Kondera-Anasz Z, Switała J, Jaśniok E.

Katedra i Zakład Immunologii i Serologii, Slaski Uniwersytet Medyczny w Katowicach. jsikora@sum.edu.pll

AIM: The aim of our work was to study both the concentration of anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL) in peritoneal fluid in women with endometriosis and to examine peritoneal lymphocyte ability to produce anticardiolipin antibodies. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Study group included 30 women with endometriosis. The clinical stages of the disease were assessed by the revised American Fertility Society (rAFS) classification. Reference group included fifteen healthy women, with excluded endometriosis and other pathological disorders within the pelvis. The concentration of aCL in the peritoneal fluid and in fluid from lymphocyte culture was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent ELISA assay. RESULTS: Statistical analysis showed significantly increased mean concentration of aCL in peritoneal fluid in women with endometriosis compared to women from the reference group (p<0.0001). The concentration of aCL in fluid from lymphocyte culture was also significantly higher in samples from women with endometriosis than from the reference group (p<0.0001). The highest mean levels of aCL in peritoneal fluid and in fluid from lymphocyte culture were observed in samples from women with stage I of the disease. CONCLUSIONS: An increased level of anticardiolipin antibodies in peritoneal fluid in women with endometriosis and increased antibodies production by lymphocytes may suggest an impairment of humoral immunity and its intensification in the early stages of the disease.

Ginekol Pol. 2009 Jun;80(6):414-8.

Lack of varied endometrial expression of proprotein convertase 6 in infertile women with minimal grade endometriosis and idiopathic infertility.

Mikołajczyk M, Wirstlein P, Skrzypczak J.

Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Gynecological Oncology, Division of Reproduction, K. Marcinkowski Medical University, Poznan, Poland. matmikol@mail.gpsk.am.poznan.pl

OBJECTIVE: Proprotein convertase 6 (PC6) is known to be the key enzyme involved in the transformation of many hormones, cytokines and their receptors into their active forms. Experimental in vitro studies have also proven that lack of PC6 in the endometrium prevents decidualisation. Therefore in our study we have aimed at determining whether infertility in some patients might be attributable to decreased expression of PC6. MATERIAL AND METHODS: With the use of RealTime PCR we have studied the expression level of PC6 in receptive phase endometria from 36 idiopathic infertile patients, 26 infertile patients with minimal grade endometriosis and compared those results with fertile, age-matched controls. The endometria were collected 7-9 days after ovulation. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences regarding the expression of PC6 in endometria from patients with idiopathic infertility, infertile patients with endometriosis and controls. CONCLUSIONS: Since there is no detectable difference in PC6 expression, the decreased expression of PC6 is unlikely to cause infertility.


Ceska Gynekol. 2009 Jun;74(3):236-9.

Rectal duplication cyst–case report

[Article in Czech]

Turyna R, Horák L, Kucera E, Hejda V, Krofta L, Feyereisl J.

Ustav pro péci o matku a díte, Praha. turyna@atlas.cz

OBJECTIVE: The authors demonstrate a rare case of duplication anomaly of the rectum. DESIGN: Case report. SETTING: Institute for the Care of Mother and Child, Prague. SUBJECT AND METHOD: We present a rare case of cystic rectal duplication in adult, completely removed and histologically confirmed. A literature review was summarized. CONCLUSION: The case was complicated by delay in diagnosis, multiple operations, and by the association with endometriosis, as well. Mentioned anomaly is published in the Czech literature for the very first time.

Ceska Gynekol. 2009 Jun;74(3):188-92.

IgG antibodies against laminin-1 in serum and in peritoneal fluid in patients with decreased fertility

[Article in Czech]

Cervená R, Bibková K, Micanová Z, Sedivá B, Ulcová-Gallová Z.

Gynekologicko-porodnická klinika LF UK a FN Plze.

OBJECTIVE: To study of IgG antibodies against laminin-1 (IgG-a-Ln-1) in patients with decreased fertility, especially with endometriosis and with diagnosis of polycystic ovaries. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: Special Consultation for Immunology of Reproduction and Research Laboratories for Reproductive Immunology, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Medical School of Charles University and Faculty Hospital, Pilsen. METHODS: Commercial ELISA kits for detection of IgG antibodies against laminin-1 in serum (S) and peritoneal fluid (PF) in 120 patients after diagnostic laparoscopy, and in serum in 277 patients after 2-3 in vitro fertilizations and with diagnosed endometriosis. RESULTS: Only 16 positive results in IgG-a-Ln-1 antibodies (more than 15 IU/ml) were detected in sera and peritoneal fluids in the group of 120 women after laparoscopy. We have not detected any serum IgG-a-Ln-1 positivity in the group of 277 patients after 2-3 unsuccesfull IVF and with anamnestical date about endometriosis together. CONCLUSION: Increased levels of IgG-a-Ln are in particular found in endometriosis II-III and in diagnosis of polycystic ovaries, in female diseases also related to autoimmune process.

Gynecol Obstet Invest. 2009;68(3):167-70. Epub 2009 Jul 30.

Thiazolidinediones as therapy for endometriosis: a case series.

Moravek MB, Ward EA, Lebovic DI.

Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich. USA.

BACKGROUND: Current medical therapies for endometriosis result in delayed conception and have not been shown to provide any fertile benefit subsequent to treatment. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) do not impede conception and have been shown to reduce endometriotic lesions in animal models; however, no studies have been performed in humans. The aim of this study was to provide preliminary data about the effectiveness of a TZD in treating endometriosis-related pain. METHODS: Case series of women with endometriosis recruited from the University of Michigan as part of an open-label prospective phase 2a clinical trial. Participants were given rosiglitazone, 4 mg daily, for 6 months. Subjective endometriosis symptoms were assessed using a modified Biberoglu and Behrman symptom severity scale and the McGill pain questionnaire. RESULTS: Two of the 3 patients exhibited improvement in severity of symptoms and pain levels with a concurrent decrease in pain medication, while 1 experienced no change. Rosiglitazone was well tolerated by all patients. CONCLUSIONS: Combined with data gathered from studies in rats and nonhuman primates, the results from this study offer positive justification for using TZDs as a well-tolerated treatment for endometriosis that can address pain without impeding ovulation and without the need for add-back therapy.

J Reprod Med. 2009 Jun;54(6):407-10.

Laparoscopic ureteroneocystostomy and vesicopsoas hitch with double ureter for infiltrative endometriosis: a case report.

Nezhat C, Rottenberg H.

Atlanta Center for Minimally Invasive Surgery and Reproductive Medicine, 5555 Peachtree Dunwoody Road, Suite 276, Atlanta, GA 30342, USA. ceana@nezhat.com

BACKGROUND: The incidence of congenital anomalies of the ureter is very low, as is the incidence of endometriosis of the ureter. The presence of the 2 conditions together is extremely rare. To our knowledge, this is the first description in the medical literature of a laparoscopic ureteroneocystostomy and vesicopsoas hitch in the setting of a double ureter for the treatment of infiltrative endometriosis. CASE: A 31-year-old multigravid woman with a history of severe endometriosis involving the urogenital tract and complete duplication of the right renal collecting system, as well as a right ureterovaginal fistula, presented for evaluation and surgical consult. The patient underwent laparoscopic ureteroneocystostomy and vesicopsoas hitch for the treatment of infiltrative endometriosis with a double ureter. CONCLUSION: In skilled operative hands, a minimally invasive approach, applying the principles of laparotomy, in the setting of a duplicated renal collecting system is feasible.

J Reprod Med. 2009 Jun;54(6):366-72.

Uterine adenomyosis in persistence of dysmenorrhea after surgical excision of pelvic endometriosis and colorectal resection.

Ferrero S, Camerini G, Menada MV, Biscaldi E, Ragni N, Remorgida V.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, San Martino Hospital and University of Genoa, Largo R. Benzi 1, 16132 Genoa, Italy. dr@simoneferrero.com

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the presence of uterine adenomyosis may impair the amelioration of pain symptoms after laparoscopic excision of pelvic endometriosis combined with colorectal resection. STUDY DESIGN: This prospective study included 50 women with bowel endometriosis with or without uterine adenomyosis. Presence of uterine adenomyosis was investigated by magnetic resonance imaging. Patients underwent excision of pelvic endometriosis and colorectal resection; some patients with focal adenomyosis underwent uterine surgery. Pain symptoms and gastrointestinal complaints were evaluated before surgery and at 6, 12 and 18 months’ follow-up. RESULTS: At 6-month follow-up, dysmenorrhea significantly improved in women without uterine adenomyosis and in those with adenomyosis that was excised at surgery; this improvement persisted at 18 months’ followup. No significant improvement in dysmenorrhea was observed in women with adenomyosis not excised at surgery. Deep dyspareunia and chronic pelvic pain significantly improved at follow-up in all study groups. Most of gastrointestinal symptoms improved or disappeared at 6 months’ follow-up; the improvement in gastrointestinal function persisted at 18 months’ follow-up. CONCLUSION: Excision of pelvic endometriosis combined with bowel resection significantly improves chronic pelvic pain, dyspareunia and gastrointestinal symptoms; however, the presence of uterine adenomyosis may determine persistence of dysmenorrhea.

J Reprod Med. 2009 Jun;54(6):353-60.

Serum and peritoneal fluid antiendometrial antibodies in assisted reproduction.

Randall GW, Bush S 2nd, Gantt PA.

West Virginia University Physicians of Charleston, Charleston, West Virginia 25302, USA. Realgamete@charter.net

OBJECTIVE: To study the impact of surgically verified endometriosis and serum and peritoneal fluid antiendometrial antibodies (AEA) on pregnancy outcomes in gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT), zygote intrafallopian transfer (ZIFT) and in vitro fertilization (IVF) patients using assisted reproductive technologies (ART). STUDY DESIGN: Surgical evaluation of endometriosis and collection of serum and peritoneal fluid was performed at the time of laparoscopy. For patients who did not undergo laparoscopy, only serum samples were obtained. Sera and peritoneal fluid were tested by indirect immunofluorescence for AEA. RESULTS: There was no correlation between surgically verified endometriosis, serum or peritoneal fluid AEA and clinical pregnancy in patients undergoing ART. There was no significant difference in surgically verified endometriosis in patients who delivered and those who miscarried (p < 0.0594), whereas serum (p < 0.0223) and peritoneal fluid (p < 0.0032) AEA showed differences. In the total group of 352 ART patients, positive serum AEA was statistically significant in those who miscarried vs. those who delivered (p < 0.0000). CONCLUSION: Endometriosis does not significantly impair the pregnancy potential of ART patients, but it may be associated with miscarriage. The presence of serum and peritoneal fluid AEA correlate better with miscarriage than surgically verified endometriosis.

Gynecol Endocrinol. 2009 Jul 28:1-4. [Epub ahead of print]

Anti muellerian hormone serum levels in women with endometriosis: A case-control study.

Shebl O, Ebner T, Sommergruber M, Sir A, Tews G.


Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, IVF-Unit, Landesfrauen- und Kinderklinik, Linz, Austria.

Objective. To compare the anti muellerian hormone (AMH) serum levels in women with and without endometriosis. Design. A case-control study Setting. Women’s General Hospital, Linz, Austria. Patient(s). Our study included a total of 909 patients undergoing in vitro fertilisation/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI) treatment or consulting our specific endometriosis unit. After proofing the exclusion criteria, 153 of these patients with endometriosis (study group) were matched with 306 patients undergoing IVF/ICSI treatment because of a male factor (control group). Interventions. None. Main outcome measures. AMH serum level. Results. Mean AMH serum level was significantly lower in the study than in the control group (2.75 +/- 2.0 ng/ml vs. 3.46 +/- 2.30 ng/ml, p < 0.001). In women with mild endometriosis (rAFS I-II), the mean AMH level was almost equal to the control group (3.28 +/- 1.93 ng/ml vs. 3.44 +/- 2.06 ng/ml; p = 0.61). A significant difference in mean AMH serum level was found between women with severe endometriosis (rAFS III-IV) and the control group (2.38 +/- 1.83 ng/ml vs. 3.58 +/- 2.46 ng/ml; p < 0.0001). Conclusion. Lower AMH serum levels and an association with the severity were found in women with endometriosis. Physicians have to be aware of this fact. Because of the expected lower response on a controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH), AMH serum level should be measured to optimise the dose of gonadotropin treatment previous to a COH, especially in women with severe endometriosis.

Gynecol Endocrinol. 2009 Jul 28:1-5. [Epub ahead of print]

Endometriosis and in vitro fertilisation: A review.

Dechaud H, Dechanet C, Brunet C, Reyftmann L, Hamamah S, Hedon B.

Department of OB/GYN and Reproductive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University Hospital Arnaud de Villeneuve, France.

This review aims to evaluate whether severe endometriosis has an impact on the outcome of in vitro fertilisation (IVF), whether IVF is associated with specific complications in this context, whether a specific ovarian stimulation protocol is most appropriate, whether the endometrial condition progresses following ovarian stimulation, and whether endometrial cysts pose a specific problem for IVF. In patients with severe endometriosis, IVF represents an effective treatment option for infertility, as a complement to surgery. The prognostic parameters of IVF are identical to those of other patients. However, the risks related to the severity of endometriosis, particularly the risk of ovarian deficiency, need to be considered. Because of this issue, to which endometriosis-related pain often adds, IVF treatment should be initiated as early as possible, using appropriate protocols and after having fully informed the patient about the specific oocytes retrieval-related risks.

Gynecol Endocrinol. 2009 Jul 28:1-7. [Epub ahead of print]

Endometriosis in Italy: From cost estimates to new medical treatment.

Luisi S, Lazzeri L, Ciani V, Petraglia F.

Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Department of Pediatrics, Siena, Italy.

Endometriosis is defined as the presence of endometrial-like tissue outside the uterus, which induced a chronic inflammatory reaction. The data collected from Italy showed that around 3 million women are affected by endoemtriosis and the condition was predominantly found in women of reproductive age (50% of women were in the 29-39 age range), only 25% of women were asymptomatic. The associated symptoms can create an impact in general physical, mental, and social well-being. Endometriosis is associated with severe dysmenorrhea, deep dyspareunia, chronic pelvic pain, ovulation pain, cyclical, or perimenstrual symptoms, with or without abnormal bleeding, infertility, and chronic fatigue. The annual cost for hospital admission can be estimated to be in a total around 54 million euros. The average time for right diagnosis is around 9 years still today and it follows a long and expensive diagnostic search. Therapies can be useful to relieve and sometimes solve the symptoms, encourage fertility, eliminate endometrial lesions, and restore the anatomy of the pelvis. For medical therapy, several different preparations (oral contraceptives, progestogenics, gestrinone, danazol, and GnRHa) and new options (GnRH antagonists, aromatase inhibitors, estrogen receptor beta agoinist, progesterone receptor modulators, angiogenesis inhibitors, and COX-2 selective inhibitors) are available.

Gynecol Endocrinol. 2009 Jul 23:1-6. [Epub ahead of print]

Effect of peritoneal fluid from endometriosis patients on neuroblastoma cells in culture.

Bersinger NA, Brodbeck MH, Jahns B, Mueller MD.

Departments of Obstetrics/Gynaecology and Clinical Research, University of Berne, Berne, Switzerland.

Aim. Endometriosis is often associated with lower abdominal pain, dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, and chronic pelvic pain. There is no correlation between the extent of endometriosis and the intensity of pain. The mechanism of pain in endometriosis is unknown. The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of peritoneal fluid (PF) from endometriosis patients on cultured neural cells that are the morphological basis of nociception, and to determine whether there was a relationship between the rAFS staging and an elevation of TGF-beta1 production by these cells. Methods. Different human neuroblastoma cell lines were grown to 3/4 confluence and then cultured in presence of PF pooled according to the presence of no, mild, or severe endometriosis. After 6 and 24 h of incubation, the morphological changes were assessed and the metabolic activity was determined. Results. The different cell lines showed strongly varying proliferation and aggregation patterns. The metabolic activity was also varying between cell lines, but no consistently increased cell turnover in the PF when compared with the control medium nor associated to a particular, endometriosis-derived PF pool could be shown. In this experimental setting, we have observed that the cell proliferation in the presence of PF was inhibited, and not enhanced as it might have been expected. Measurement of TGF-beta1 showed higher production rates for this cytokine under exposure to PF than in controls for some but not all tested cell lines, but there was no association with the stage (rAFS) of the disease. Conclusion. The neuronal cell culture model may become a useful tool to investigate the endometriosis-derived pain, but different endpoints and cell lines may have to be introduced.

Gynecol Endocrinol. 2009 Jul 23:1-6. [Epub ahead of print]

Correlation between symptoms of pain and peritoneal fluid inflammatory cytokine concentrations in endometriosis.

Scholl B, Bersinger NA, Kuhn A, Mueller MD.

Department of Obstetrics/Gynaecology.

Endometriosis affects 10-20% of women during reproductive age and is a common cause of infertility and pain leading to work absenteeism and reduced quality of life.The objective of this study was to investigate the association between the presence and concentration of interleukin-8 (IL-8), RANTES, osteoprotegerin (OPG), pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), midkine and glycodelin in the peritoneal fluid (PF) and the intensity of pain reported by patients undergoing laparoscopy in our clinic. They rated their pain during menstruation, intercourse and lower abdominal using a visual analogue scale. During laparoscopy, PF was aspirated. Pain scores were correlated to the concentration of the above substances in the PF and to the stage of endometriosis. Endometriosis was histologically confirmed in 41 of 68 participating women; 27 without such evidence were considered as controls. TNF-alpha and glycodelin correlated positively with the level of menstrual pain. For IL-8, RANTES, OPG and PAPP-A no correlation between their PF concentration and the menstrual pain scores was observed. Patients with severe dysmenorrhoea had increased PF cytokine and marker levels; the difference was significant for TNF-alpha and glycodelin when compared with the other patients (no or moderate pain). TNF-alpha and glycodelin may thus play a role in endometriosis and the severity of menstrual pain.

Gynecol Endocrinol. 2009 Jul 23:1-4. [Epub ahead of print]

Impact of endometriosis on quality of life: A pilot study.

Oehmke F, Weyand J, Hackethal A, Konrad L, Omwandho C, Tinneberg HR.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Justus Liebig University of Giessen, Giessen, Germany.

Endometriosis affects 6-10% of women in reproductive age, 35-50% of whom experience pain, infertility or both. Mild cases are managed medically but surgery provides relief to women in pain. However, symptoms recur in 75% of cases within 2 years. We investigated the impact of endometriosis on quality of life among 65 women aged 18-60 years working at a city supermarket in Giessen, Germany. Of the 65 women, 12 had undergone surgeries, 22 had dysmenorrhoea, 24 dyspareunia and 3 were infertile. Of the 22 women with dysmenorrhoea, 10 had difficulties performing gardening, housework, sports and leisure activities. Five of these 10 women experienced social isolation, 6 professional setbacks; 6 declined efficiency at work and 3 had taken time off work. Of the 24 women with dyspareunia, 7 experienced minimal, 12 light and 5 moderate to strong pain. Only 16 of these 24 women discussed the problem with their partners. This study demonstrates that pain is a major cause of physical, psycho-social, emotional and professional or work related impairment among women with endometriosis. Because endometriosis is likely to impose emotional and financial burdens, we suggest that future studies should be extended to include interviews with family members.

Histopathology. 2009 Jun;54(7):907-12.

Immunohistochemical localization of tyrosine receptor kinases A and B in endometriosis-associated ovarian cancer.

Foster WG, Elias R, Faghih M, Dominguez MA, Elit L, Boutross-Tadross O.

Anal Quant Cytol Histol. 2009 Jun;31(3):170-6.

Endometriosis and other benign and malignant müllerian lesions in pelvic and extrapelvic organs.

Lambrinoudaki I, Augoulea A, Creatsa M, Vlachos N, Christodoulakos G, Papadias C.

Second Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Athens, Aretaieion Hospital, Athens, Greece.

OBJECTIVE: To conduct a retrospective study on case reports found in literature across the world on benign müllerian lesions of the urogenital tract and on cases of malignant transformation from müllerian duct remnants in order to better understand these rare anatomopathologic entities and to avoid overdiagnosis and overtreatment. STUDY DESIGN: We reviewed a number of case reports on benign and malignant müllerian lesions and compared the developments associated with endometriosis, endosalpingiosis and endocervicosis. RESULTS: Our sampling of case reports confirm the suggestion that both malignant neoplasms and benign müllerian lesions can arise in foci of endometriosis in both pelvic and extrapelvic sites. CONCLUSION: The development of malignant tumors is a well-known complication of endometriosis and endosalpingiosis, but data about endocervicosis are unclear.

Vet Rec. 2009 Jul 25;165(4):102-6.

Effects of the administration of ketoprofen at parturition on the milk yield and fertility of Holstein-Friesian cattle.

Richards BD, Black DH, Christley RM, Royal MD, Smith RF, Dobson H.

Paragon Veterinary Group, Townhead Road, Dalston, Cumbria.

A total of 220 cows and heifers were treated with 3 mg/kg ketoprofen immediately after calving and 24 hours later, and 227 were left untreated as controls. The treated animals tended to have a lower incidence of retained fetal membranes and were 1.7 times less likely to develop the condition than the untreated animals. The treatment did not affect the incidence of milk fever, the endometritis score or the presence of a corpus luteum by 20 to 25 days after calving, and did not affect the cows’ early lactation milk yield. There was no particular level of dystocia or periparturient conditions other than retained fetal membranes for which there might be a reproductive or productive advantage following the use of ketoprofen. The intervals from calving to first insemination or to pregnancy, the numbers of inseminations per pregnancy and the pregnancy rate to first insemination were also unaffected by ketoprofen treatment.


Mol Hum Reprod. 2009 Oct;15(10):577-86. Epub 2009 Jul 24.

The non-human primate model of endometriosis: research and implications for fecundity.

Braundmeier AG, Fazleabas AT.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology (MC808), College of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612, USA.

The development of an animal model of endometriosis is crucial for the investigation of disease pathogenesis and therapeutic intervention. These models will enhance our ability to evaluate the causes for the subfertility associated with disease and provide a first-line validation of treatment modulators. Currently rodents and non-human primate models have been developed, but each model has their limitations. The aim of this manuscript is to summarize the current findings and theories on the development of endometriosis and disease progression and the effectiveness of therapeutic targets using the experimental induced model of endometriosis in the baboon (Papio anubis). 

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